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New Directions in the History of Written Culture  [cached]
Lyons, Martyn
Culture & History Digital Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.3989/chdj.2012.007
Abstract: This article reviews some new directions in the history of writing practices, concentrating on Western Europe and the Americas in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. I identify some major intellectual influences on the field, deriving from historiography, anthropology and literary studies. I indicate some important archives specialising in popular writings which sustain the study of the writings of ordinary and semi-literate people. A few selected topics in which the history of writing practices makes a contribution are then briefly reviewed. These are, firstly, the history of correspondence and letter-writing instruction manuals, which introduces two important concepts: the ‘epistolary pact’ and ‘epistolary literacy’. Secondly, I introduce three new works on the development of postal services, stressing their role in forging national cohesion. Thirdly, I indicate how the study of emigrants’ writings has contributed to a shift of focus in the study of emigration in general. I conclude that the history of scribal culture can make a significant contribution to socio-cultural history, provided that writing is analysed in its material form, and as a text, not simply as a source of information. Writing practices deserve serious study as a social and cultural phenomenon in their own right. Este artículo revisa algunas tendencias nuevas en la historiografía a propósito de las prácticas de escritura, concentrándose en Europa occidental y las Américas durante en el siglo XIX y principios del XX. Se alo en él algunas de las mayores influencias intelectuales que han incidido en este campo, provenientes de la historiografía, la antropología y los estudios literarios. Indico algunos importantes archivos especializados en escritura popular en los que se basa el estudio de los escritos de la gente corriente y semi-alfabetizada. Después reviso brevemente unos cuantos temas escogidos a los que ha hecho su aportación la historia de las prácticas de escritura: primero, la historia de la correspondencia y de las cartillas de instrucción para escribir cartas, que introducen dos importantes conceptos: el “pacto epistolar” y la “alfabetización epistolar”; en segundo lugar, presento tres nuevos trabajos sobre el desarrollo de los servicios postales, destacando su papel en la forja de la cohesión nacional; y en tercer lugar, indico cómo el estudio de los escritos de emigrantes ha contribuido a cambiar el enfoque en el estudio de la emigración en general. Concluyo que la historia de la cultura escrita puede proporcionar una contribución significativa a la historia soci
Food safety and risk communication: cases history and best practice (in avian flu)  [cached]
Piermarco Aroldi,Simone Carlo,Fausto Colombo
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.2427/5896
Abstract: The paper discusses the role of institutional communication in the case of health risks and emergencies. The article is divided in three sections. The first section examines the most recent theories on risk and on its communicational aspect; the second analyses a recent state of emergency crisis, specifically the panic which stemmed from the perceived danger of an avian flu pandemic in Italy; and finally an example of best practice in the form of a food safety handbook designed and edited by the Italian Ministry of Rural Affairs, which was based on the skills and knowledge acquired during the avian flu emergency.
Allowing repeat winners
Marco D. Huesch,Richard Brady
Judgment and Decision Making , 2010,
Abstract: Unbiased lotteries seem the least unfair and simplest procedures to allocate scarce indivisible resources to those with equal claims. But, when lotteries are repeated, it is not immediately obvious whether prior winners should be included or excluded. As in design questions surrounding single-shot lotteries, considerations of self-interest and distributive social preferences may interact. We investigate preferences for allowing participation of earlier winners in sequential lotteries. We found a strong preference for exclusion, both in settings where subjects were involved, and those where they were not. Subjects who answered questions about both settings did not differ in their tendency to prefer exclusion. Stated rationales significantly predicted choice but did not predict switching of choices between the two settings.
Distribution of winners in truel games  [PDF]
R. Toral,P. Amengual
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1063/1.2008603
Abstract: In this work we present a detailed analysis using the Markov chain theory of some versions of the truel game in which three players try to eliminate each other in a series of one-to-one competitions, using the rules of the game. Besides reproducing some known expressions for the winning probability of each player, including the equilibrium points, we give expressions for the actual distribution of winners in a truel competition.
Review for the Volume “Razboiul sovietoafgan (1979-1989). Studiu de istorie verbala. Perceptii. Documente” / Soviet-Afghan War (1979-1989). Study of Verbal History. Perceptions. Documents – Author Ion Xenofontov
Antonio SANDU
Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala , 2011,
Abstract: The volume “Soviet-Afghan War (1979-1989). Study of verbal history. Perceptions. Documents” of the author Ion Xenofontov, published at Lumen Publishing House in 2011, has the merit of turning recent history research into a suigeneris audition of second voices. The soldiers, the officer, the combatant in general are seldom seen by the eye of official history, always careful to winners. War is a social fact that rebuilds the life of those who live it. In the volume “The Soviet Afghan War (1979-1989). Verbal history studies. Perceptions. Documents. ” written by the historian Ion Xenofontov, from Institute of Encyclopedc Research Institute of Academy of Sciences from Moldova, is used a phenomenological approach in the narrative perspective of historiographical research.
Possible Winners in Noisy Elections  [PDF]
Krzysztof Wojtas,Krzysztof Magiera,Tomasz Mi\kasko,Piotr Faliszewski
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: We consider the problem of predicting winners in elections, for the case where we are given complete knowledge about all possible candidates, all possible voters (together with their preferences), but where it is uncertain either which candidates exactly register for the election or which voters cast their votes. Under reasonable assumptions, our problems reduce to counting variants of election control problems. We either give polynomial-time algorithms or prove #P-completeness results for counting variants of control by adding/deleting candidates/voters for Plurality, k-Approval, Approval, Condorcet, and Maximin voting rules. We consider both the general case, where voters' preferences are unrestricted, and the case where voters' preferences are single-peaked.
Between History and Periodicity: Printed and Hand-Written News in 18th-Century Portugal  [cached]
André Belo
E-Journal of Portuguese History , 2004,
Abstract: What news became printed news in 18th-century Portugal? How was information conceived, exchanged and read? Drawing on Ph.D. research, this paper attempts to make sense of the most important Portuguese periodical printed during the first half of the 18th century: the Lisbon gazette, called Gazeta de Lisboa. The analysis is undertaken from a comparative perspective, considering the Portuguese gazette as part of an intertextual European whole. The paper will concentrate on two particular aspects: in the first place, the production of the Gazeta as "literary genre" from the point of view of its editor, stressing the affinities between the writing of the news and the task of the historian’s analysis. This will lead us to the periodical's main paradox: information about events occurring in the present was somehow systematically devalued. Historical discourse was also present in the hand-written newspapers that circulated in Portugal in the same period. Together with the information transmitted by simple letters, manuscript periodicals, possessing a title and a regular date of issue, played a major role in the exchange of information in the 18th century, circulating within the same networks as the printed periodical press. I will show that, rather than speak of possible conflict, we should speak of the complementary roles of these two media. In the end, beyond the surface of the written text, there lies a complex landscape of social relations involved with information.
Is mathematical history written by the victors?  [PDF]
Jacques Bair,Piotr Blaszczyk,Robert Ely,Valerie Henry,Vladimir Kanovei,Karin U. Katz,Mikhail G. Katz,Semen S. Kutateladze,Thomas Mcgaffey,David M. Schaps,David Sherry,Steven Shnider
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We examine prevailing philosophical and historical views about the origin of infinitesimal mathematics in light of modern infinitesimal theories, and show the works of Fermat, Leibniz, Euler, Cauchy and other giants of infinitesimal mathematics in a new light. We also detail several procedures of the historical infinitesimal calculus that were only clarified and formalized with the advent of modern infinitesimals. These procedures include Fermat's adequality; Leibniz's law of continuity and the transcendental law of homogeneity; Euler's principle of cancellation and infinite integers with the associated infinite products; Cauchy's infinitesimal-based definition of continuity and "Dirac" delta function. Such procedures were interpreted and formalized in Robinson's framework in terms of concepts like microcontinuity (S-continuity), the standard part principle, the transfer principle, and hyperfinite products. We evaluate the critiques of historical and modern infinitesimals by their foes from Berkeley and Cantor to Bishop and Connes. We analyze the issue of the consistency, as distinct from the issue of the rigor, of historical infinitesimals, and contrast the methodologies of Leibniz and Nieuwentijt in this connection.
Cloning in Elections: Finding the Possible Winners  [PDF]
Edith Elkind,Piotr Faliszewski,Arkadii Slinko
Computer Science , 2014, DOI: 10.1613/jair.3468
Abstract: We consider the problem of manipulating elections by cloning candidates. In our model, a manipulator can replace each candidate c by several clones, i.e., new candidates that are so similar to c that each voter simply replaces c in his vote with a block of these new candidates, ranked consecutively. The outcome of the resulting election may then depend on the number of clones as well as on how each voter orders the clones within the block. We formalize what it means for a cloning manipulation to be successful (which turns out to be a surprisingly delicate issue), and, for a number of common voting rules, characterize the preference profiles for which a successful cloning manipulation exists. We also consider the model where there is a cost associated with producing each clone, and study the complexity of finding a minimum-cost cloning manipulation. Finally, we compare cloning with two related problems: the problem of control by adding candidates and the problem of possible (co)winners when new alternatives can join.
Assessing and identifying transitional losers and winners in the Serbian society  [PDF]
Trifunovi? Vesna
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/gei1202125t
Abstract: This paper presents ways to assess and evaluate losers and winners in the Serbian transitional society, through several concrete examples. Therefore, the paper is a follow-up of the manuscript published in the previous Bulletin of Institute of ethnography, and fits into the theoretical framework already stated. The main indicator of a variety of assessment regarding losers and winners is found among comments made by visitors of relevant Internet web sites, referring to news about societal problems and issues during the process of post-socialist transformation. These are directly linked with a phenomenon of losing or winning in transition, such as unemployment, poverty, criminal, success, failure, wealth, and power. Hence, news from two internet sites "Blic" i "B92" served as a source, while their visitors ‘commentaries to the particular news served in the analysis. Specific news was used to define a particular problem or issue, and the commentaries were seen as reactions to the news. The commentaries contain readers’ attitudes, assessment of particular issues and discourses overview. These comments were chosen based on whether they refer directly to the problem of losing/winning in transition, and on their diversity regarding assessment of the problem itself. At the same time, posted texts on the mentioned sites were not unbiased, and they can also serve to identify losers and winners of transition. Defining a category of losers or winners in transition is a complex issue of various interpretations and constructions, making thus a discrepancy in attributed meanings among the members of Serbian society. Controversy and contradictions in expressed attitudes about losers and winners, as well as understanding of these categories, could be explained by various aspects and outlooks held. In brief, an existing particular social heteroglossia, assumes many different readings and attitudes regarding the categories, caused by various factors. The analysis shows several dominant, different but mutually connected aspects in assessing and evaluating losers and winners of transition. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026]
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