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Airway Management in Hair Dye Poisoning: Our Experiences.  [PDF]
Shaik Nawaz Ahmed,Eluri Jayasundaram,Siddareddigari Velayudha Reddy,Chandra Babu Singanamala
Indian Anaesthetists' Forum , 2012,
Abstract: Super Vasmol 33 is a hair dye commonly used as suicidal poisoning in India. Paraphenylene Diamine (PPD) is a major component of the hair dye which when ingested in a dose-dependent manner results in severe cervicofacial oedema causing airway obstruction. Endotracheal intubation in early stages of oedema can avoid the need for tracheotomy.
Hair dye poisoning and the developing world  [cached]
Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy,Yesudas Sooraj
Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock , 2009,
Abstract: Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional self harm in the developing world. Hair dyes contain paraphenylene-diamine and a host of other chemicals that can cause rhabdomyolysis, laryngeal edema, severe metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure. Intervention at the right time has been shown to improve the outcome. In this article, we review the various manifestations, clinical features and treatment modalities for hair dye poisoning.
Review: Paraphenylene Diamine (Hair Dye) Poisoning in Children
M Abdelraheem, M Hamdouk, EE Zijlstra
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: Paraphenylene Diamine (PPD) is an aromatic amine not found in nature. It is used in a variety of industrial products and in different hair dye formulations. It is well known that PPD is an allergen that may cause contact dermatitis, erythematous urticarial papules and eczema in susceptible individuals. However, the major systemic problem occurs when it is ingested accidentally, for purposes of suicidal intent or during attempted murder. Information on the systemic effects and outcome of hair dye poisoning in children is limited. In this article we review the literature for PPD intoxication in children. Review: PPD intoxication is a major health problem in eastern Africa, particularly Sudan, and in Morocco. It is also common in the Indian subcontinent. In two large series from Morocco and Sudan, Children constituted 11.5% and 18% of affected individuals respectively. Acute poisoning by PPD causes characteristic severe angio-edema of the upper airway, often requiring tracheostomy, accompanied by a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue. PPD intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury (AKI), flaccid paralysis, severe gastro-intestinal manifestations, cardiotoxicity and arrhythmias. This form of severe intoxication is fatal if not treated aggressively. There is no specific antidote and treatment is mainly supportive with renal replacement therapy commonly used in cases with AKI. Reported mortality rates range between 12-42%. Conclusion: PPD intoxication is a life threatening condition. Clinical outcomes rely on early recognition, prompt referral, and aggressive supportive treatment in collaboration with different specialties.
Rhabdomyolysis due to hair dye poisoning: An emerging threat  [cached]
Sampathkumar Krishnaswamy,Sooraj Yesudas,Ajeshkumar Rajappannair,Mahaldar Amol
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: Rhabdomyolysis can be caused by a variety of physical,chemical, metabolic, infective and toxic causes. We present two patients who developed rhabdomyolysis after consumption of hairdye containing paraphenylene diamine. Both of them developed renal, liver and respiratory failure requiring renal replacement. We were able to save one patient whereas the other died. Intentional hair dye poisoning is an emerging threat. Early recognition of the complications and prompt treatment is necessary for a successful outcome.
Hair Dye Poisoning in a Paediatric Patient
Jolly Chandran,Rimi Manners,Indira Agarwal,Kala Ebenezer
Case Reports in Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/931463
Abstract: Hair dye ingestion with suicidal intention has increased among rural Indian population and is associated with significant mortality. We report a teenager who presented with cervicofacial edema, respiratory distress, rhabdomyolysis, and myocarditis after ingesting the hair dye Super Vasmol 33. Early and supportive treatment can prevent morbidity and mortality.
Thrombocytopenia, an Overlooked Hematological Derangement in Hair Dye Poisoning  [PDF]
Rizwan Naseer, AliRaza Ghani
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2015.48055
Abstract: Thrombocytopenia is a common hematological disorder characterized by abnormally low number of platelets in circulating blood from multiple causes. The fundamental mechanisms involved are: ineffective production of platelets by the bone marrow, accerlated destruction of platelets or platelet splenic sequestration. Hair dye, containing Paraphenyllinediamaine has been linked to allergic reaction, nephrotoxicity, mutagenicity and hematological derangements as anemia. A female showed a clinical spectrum of decreasing platelet count along with anemia due to oral ingestion of hair dye. It is important to consider thrombocytopenia in management plan as it may impact the clinical outcome.
Hair Dye Poisoning in a Paediatric Patient  [PDF]
Jolly Chandran,Rimi Manners,Indira Agarwal,Kala Ebenezer
Case Reports in Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/931463
Abstract: Hair dye ingestion with suicidal intention has increased among rural Indian population and is associated with significant mortality. We report a teenager who presented with cervicofacial edema, respiratory distress, rhabdomyolysis, and myocarditis after ingesting the hair dye Super Vasmol 33. Early and supportive treatment can prevent morbidity and mortality. 1. Introduction Hair dye ingestion as a means of deliberate self-harm is well reported [1–7] and a growing trend is observed among rural Indian population [6–8] but rarely encountered in children. The ingredient in most hair dyes is paraphenylenediamine (PPD) in concentration ranging from 2 to 10%. The effects of PPD when ingested are serious and are cervicofacial edema, mucosal injury, respiratory distress, acute renal failure, rhabdomyolysis, and myocardial injury [2–7]. Hair dyes are available in stone, powder, or liquid forms. While the liquid forms are more often ingested with suicidal intentions, mortality is higher with the stone forms [7]. We describe the case of a 13-year-old girl who was brought after consumption of hair dye Super Vasmol 33. 2. Case A 13-year-old girl was noticed by her parents lying unconscious home with blackish staining of her fingers and an empty bottle of Super Vasmol 33 (kesh kala: kesh meaning hair, kala meaning black) hair dye by her side. She was taken to a nearby hospital where she developed respiratory distress and was intubated, given gastric lavage, and transferred to our hospital. On arrival, she was noted to have chemosis and striking facial edema extending to the neck. She was tachycardic with heart rate of 180 beats per minute. Blood pressure was 80/30?mmHg. Third heart sound was audible with a gallop. Continuous bladder drainage was placed which drained cola coloured urine. She was resuscitated with 40?mL/kg of normal saline and was admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Her investigations showed a hematocrit of 41.7%. Total white cell count was elevated (2.26 109/L) with 92% neutrophils. Platelet count was 211 109/L. Serum sodium was 144?mmol/L and potassium was 3.3?mmol/L. Serum creatinine was 1.6?mg/dL. Serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) was markedly raised (52834?U/L) with high levels of its MB fraction (CKMB-500?ng/mL); troponin T (cTnT) was also very high (2389?pg/mL). Liver function test showed elevated transaminases, (AST-2529?IU/L, ALT-424?IU/L, normal 8–40). Total bilirubin was 37.6?μmol/L with a direct fraction of 13.6?μmol/L. Total protein and albumin were 79?g/L and 43?g/L, respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase was
HAIR DYE- AN EMERGING SUICIDAL AGENT: OUR EXPERIENCE  [cached]
Mary Nirmala Suganthakumar,Ganesh R
Otolaryngology Online Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Hair dye poisoning has been emerging as one of the important causes of intentional deliberate self harm. To study the epidemiology of patients who consumed Super Vasmol (a commonly used commercial hair dye), profile of patients referred to the ENT department, to find the effectiveness of supportive therapy and to compare between the tracheostomy and the non tracheostomy group, a retrospective study was conducted in patients who consumed Super Vasmol admitted over a year (April 2009 – March 2010) in a teaching hospital in South India. Out of the 108 patients 38 (35.2%) were males and 70 (64.8%) were females. 42 (38.9%) were in 21-25 age group. Patients who developed cervico-facial oedema, throat pain, burning sensation in the throat, change of voice, no voice and dyspnoea with stridor were referred to the ENT Department. 74 (68.5%) patients needed an ENT opinion. Cervico-facial oedema was the main clinical manifestation in 74 patients. 33 of them underwent tracheostomy. The mortality in 108 patients was 22.2% and after tracheostomy 21.2%. Purpose of the study is to create public awareness about the lethal effects of the hair dye, because it is a major health problem and to educate the public and the medical professional about the need for aggressive and early treatment.
Effect of an Oxidative Hair Dye on the Skin of Domestic Rabbits  [PDF]
Mohammad A.M. Wadaan,Mohammad Mubarak
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of an oxidative hair dye on the skin of domestic rabbits. The hair dye was applied to the hair on the back region, scalp and ears of the exposed rabbits at weekly intervals for 6 months. Skin sensitization was noticed from week 20 post-exposure. The exposed animals were dull and manifested decreased body weight. It was concluded that the oxidative hair dyes could provoke cutaneous sensitization and therefore more attention should be paid for the health hazards which might be induced by hair dyes.
Hair Dye Induced Depigmentation Turned Into Vitiligo
Majumdar Sabyasachi
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 1996,
Abstract: Hair dye containing p-phenyldiamine may cause allergic contact dermatitis with resultant post inflammatory hypo-pigmentation, but its association with vitiligo is not yet known. A case of postinflammatory hypo-pigmentation due to application of a common hair dye developing later into vitiligo is reported.
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