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Transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo  [cached]
Gonzalez Christina Hajaj
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 1999,
Abstract: O transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (TOC) é um quadro psiquiátrico caracterizado pela presen a de obsess es e compuls es. Sua prevalência é de aproximadamente 2% a 3% na popula o geral. Os fatores genéticos est o provavelmente implicados na etiologia do transtorno. Os estudos realizados sugerem que há diferentes subtipos de TOC: TOC com história familiar positiva para TOC, TOC "esporádico" e TOC associado com a tiques. Os estudos de gêmeos mostram uma alta concordancia de TOC entre gêmeos monozigóticos. Em alguns estudos de famílias observou-se um maior risco para TOC entre os familiares de pacientes com TOC. Os estudos de análise de segrega o sugerem o envolvimento de um gene de efeito maior na etiologia do transtorno. Através de estudos moleculares, diferentes grupos de pesquisadores vêm tentando a localizar um possível gene envolvido na etiologia do TOC.
O ciúme enquanto sintoma do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo  [cached]
Torres Albina Rodrigues,Ramos-Cerqueira Ana Teresa de Abreu,Dias Rodrigo da Silva
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 1999,
Abstract: O ciúme patológico (CP) é um problema importante para a psiquiatria, que envolve riscos e muito sofrimento, podendo ocorrer em diversos transtornos mentais. Psicopatologicamente pode se apresentar de formas distintas, tais como idéias obsessivas, prevalentes ou delirantes sobre infidelidade. Entretanto, sua apresenta o no transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (TOC), como uma obsess o em geral associada a rituais de verifica o, é relativamente pouco documentada. Para discutir esse aspecto específico do CP, este trabalho é ilustrado com quatro casos clínicos selecionados, em que o CP tem tais características, abordando aspectos de diagnóstico e tratamento. A compreens o de alguns casos de CP como uma manifesta o do TOC, mesmo quando n o claramente egodist nica, amplia as possibilidades terapêuticas e pode melhorar o prognóstico.
Eletrencefalografia quantitativa no transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo: resultados preliminares
FONTENELLE LEONARDO,PIEDADE ROBERTO AIRTHON M.,MARQUES CARLA,MENEZES GABRIELA B. DE
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2000,
Abstract: Investigamos o valor preditivo de variáveis da eletrencefalografia quantitativa (EEGq) sobre a resposta ao tratamento farmacológico do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (TOC). Foram estudados 10 pacientes com TOC, segundo critérios da DSM-IV, inicialmente n o medicados. As seguintes variáveis eletrencefalográficas foram selecionadas: potência relativa bipolar na faixa alfa para os eletrodos Cz-C3, Cz-C4, T3-T5, T4-T6, T3-F7 e T4-F8, potência relativa bipolar na faixa teta para os eletrodos Cz-C3, Cz-C4, T3-T5, T4-T6, T3-F7 e T4-F8 e potência relativa monopolar na faixa teta para os eletrodos Fp1, Fp2, F7, F3, Fz, F4 e F8. Dos 10 pacientes examinados, 5 apresentaram desvios estatisticamente significativos da potência relativa bipolar na faixa alfa em regi es centrais, quando comparados com o banco normativo de dados (grupo controle). Os demais n o apresentaram desvios com significado estatístico. O grupo de pacientes com altera es eletrencefalográficas se caracterizou por idade de início do TOC significativamente mais precoce e pior resposta ao tratamento com inibidores da recapta o da serotonina.
Aspectos neuropsicológicos do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo
Fontenelle, Leonardo;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462001000600009
Abstract: neuropsychology is contributing to elucidate the nature of brain dysfunction associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (ocd). neuropsychological studies of individuals with subclinical and clinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms are reviewed here. it was observed that ocd patients may display impaired "reality monitoring", memory for actions, non-verbal memory, visuo-spatial abilities, and executive functions. some specific neuropsychological findings are associated with different clinical characteristics such as gender, duration of disease, severity of symptoms, and response to drug treatment. comparative studies suggest that the neuropsychological dysfunction associated with ocd is significantly different from that seen in major depressive disorder or schizophrenia. however, many similarities were observed between patients with ocd and patients with social phobia, body dysmorphic disorder, and trichotillomania. furthermore, studies suggest that certain neurochemical abnormalities may underlie particular neuropsychological dysfunctions found in ocd. despite many heterogeneous results, the reviewed data seems to support the pathophysiological theory centered in the dysfunction of the fronto-striatal circuits in ocd.
Aspectos genéticos do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo
Gonzalez, Christina H;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462001000600012
Abstract: since the first descriptions of obsessive-compulsive disorder (ocd), genetic factors have been implicated in the etiology of the illness. twin studies show a high concordance rate for monozygotic twins. family studies found a higher risk for ocd among relatives of ocd patients. segregation analysis studies suggest the possible role of a major effect gene in the etiology of ocd. association studies using molecular techniques have been conducted to try to find a specific gene or polymorphism involved in ocd. this review outlines the evidence gathered to date, including the recent findings in the molecular genetics analysis.
Epidemiologia e aspectos transculturais do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo
Del-Porto, José Alberto;
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-44462001000600002
Abstract: epidemiological and phenomenological data are convergent and emphasize the similarities of obsessive-compulsive features among different cultures and geographic regions (north and south america, europe, africa, asia). in the studies reviewed, obsessions and compulsions show to be very similar in their variety and content, regardless sociocultural differences and historical backgrounds. the influence of the culture was observed only circumstantially , for example, when shaping religious and sexual contents. the phenomenological homogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder, as a transhistorical and transcultural syndrome, suggests the existence of a setting of nuclear symptoms relatively independent of geographic, ethnic and cultural differences. the importance of biologic evolutionary and ethological studies is emphasized.
Aspectos genéticos do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo  [cached]
Gonzalez Christina H
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2001,
Abstract: Since the first descriptions of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), genetic factors have been implicated in the etiology of the illness. Twin studies show a high concordance rate for monozygotic twins. Family studies found a higher risk for OCD among relatives of OCD patients. Segregation analysis studies suggest the possible role of a major effect gene in the etiology of OCD. Association studies using molecular techniques have been conducted to try to find a specific gene or polymorphism involved in OCD. This review outlines the evidence gathered to date, including the recent findings in the molecular genetics analysis.
Epidemiologia e aspectos transculturais do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo  [cached]
Del-Porto José Alberto
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2001,
Abstract: Epidemiological and phenomenological data are convergent and emphasize the similarities of obsessive-compulsive features among different cultures and geographic regions (North and South America, Europe, Africa, Asia). In the studies reviewed, obsessions and compulsions show to be very similar in their variety and content, regardless sociocultural differences and historical backgrounds. The influence of the culture was observed only circumstantially , for example, when shaping religious and sexual contents. The phenomenological homogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder, as a transhistorical and transcultural syndrome, suggests the existence of a setting of nuclear symptoms relatively independent of geographic, ethnic and cultural differences. The importance of biologic evolutionary and ethological studies is emphasized.
Aspectos neuropsicológicos do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo  [cached]
Fontenelle Leonardo
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria , 2001,
Abstract: Neuropsychology is contributing to elucidate the nature of brain dysfunction associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Neuropsychological studies of individuals with subclinical and clinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms are reviewed here. It was observed that OCD patients may display impaired "reality monitoring", memory for actions, non-verbal memory, visuo-spatial abilities, and executive functions. Some specific neuropsychological findings are associated with different clinical characteristics such as gender, duration of disease, severity of symptoms, and response to drug treatment. Comparative studies suggest that the neuropsychological dysfunction associated with OCD is significantly different from that seen in major depressive disorder or schizophrenia. However, many similarities were observed between patients with OCD and patients with social phobia, body dysmorphic disorder, and trichotillomania. Furthermore, studies suggest that certain neurochemical abnormalities may underlie particular neuropsychological dysfunctions found in OCD. Despite many heterogeneous results, the reviewed data seems to support the pathophysiological theory centered in the dysfunction of the fronto-striatal circuits in OCD.
Treating refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: what to do when conventional treatment fails? Tratando o transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo refratário: o que fazer quando tratamentos convencionais falham?
Adelar Pedro Franz,Mariana Paim,Rafael Moreno de Araújo,Virgínia de Oliveira Rosa
Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , 2013,
Abstract: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and impairing condition. A very small percentage of patients become asymptomatic after treatment. The purpose of this paper was to review the alternative therapies available for OCD when conventional treatment fails. Data were extracted from controlled clinical studies (evidence-based medicine) published on the MEDLINE and Science Citation Index/Web of Science databases between 1975 and 2012. Findings are discussed and suggest that clinicians dealing with refractory OCD patients should: 1) review intrinsic phenomenological aspects of OCD, which could lead to different interpretations and treatment choices; 2) review extrinsic phenomenological aspects of OCD, especially family accommodation, which may be a risk factor for non-response; 3) consider non-conventional pharmacological approaches; 4) consider non-conventional psychotherapeutic approaches; and 5) consider neurobiological approaches. O transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (TOC) é uma doen a cr nica e incapacitante. Uma pequena porcentagem de pacientes se torna assintomática após o tratamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi revisar as alternativas terapêuticas para o tratamento de TOC quando os tratamentos convencionais falham. Os dados foram extraídos de estudos clínicos controlados (medicina baseada em evidências) publicados nas bases de dados MEDLINE e Science Citation Index/Web of Science entre 1975 e de 2012. Os resultados s o discutidos e sugerem as seguintes abordagens para profissionais que lidam com TOC refratário: 1) rever aspectos fenomenológicos intrínsecos ao TOC, o que pode levar a entendimentos diferenciados e à escolhas terapêuticas distintas; 2) rever aspectos fenomenológicos extrínsecos ao TOC, principalmente acomoda o familiar, que pode ser fator de risco para a n o resposta; 3) considerar abordagens farmacológicas n o convencionais; 4) considerar abordagens psicoterapêuticas n o convencionais; e 5) considerar abordagens neurobiológicas.
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