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Exchange Rate Arrangements Prior to Euro Adoption  [PDF]
Juraj Antal,Tomá? Holub
AUCO Czech Economic Review , 2007,
Abstract: This paper discusses the exchange rate policies in the three stages of the euro adoption process. In the first stage, i.e., after EU accession but before ERM II entry, the exchange rate becomes a matter of “common concern” according to the Treaty. The paper argues that in the modern conditions, this has no real meaning besides mutual consultations on macroeconomic policy issues. In the second stage, common concern becomes institutionalized under the ERM II mechanism. Its main advantages and risks are discussed, and the arguments for minimizing the length of this stage are presented. In the third step, the exchange rate stability criterion is assessed before the country is allowed to adopt the euro. The paper discusses the open issues in the interpretation of this criterion. Finally, the current state of the Czech euro adoption strategy is described.
Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems
Miguel Kiguel,Jose Saul Lizondo
Revista de Análisis Económico (RAE) , 1990,
Abstract: Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems When facing persistent balance of payments problems, some countries have resorted to a dual exchange rate system as an alternative to a uniform exchange rate adjustment. Typically, under the dual system, certain selected transactions take place at a fixed official exchange rate, while there remaining transactions are effected at a more depreciated rate, which is usually determined by market forces. This paper examines the circumstances that lead to the adoption of a dual system, and the conditions under which the foreign exchange market can be unified successfully or a later stage. In this paper, the adoption of the dual system is linked to the unsustainability of a crawling peg (or a fixed exchange rate) system in the presence of large budgret deficits. We show that the initiai spiral between the financial at the commercial exchange rates and the extent of capital flight largely depends on whether the switch in regime is anticipated or unanticipated. Although the dual system improves the external position of the economy, to the extent that there is no change in domestic noticies the country will continue to experience a deficit in the balance of payments. A correction of these policies is the only enduring solution to the external imbalance, and a precondition for a successful unification of the foreirg exchange market. If the economv unifies the foreign exchange market into a crawling peg, the financial exchahnge rate could be an adequate indicator of the initlal level of which the new exchange rate should be set if a capital outflow is to be avoided. If the economy instead moves to a flexible exchange rate system, the initial value of the exchange rate could be higher or lower than the prevailing financial exchange rate.
Bride Price and Sexual Risk Taking in Uganda
D Bishai, KL Falb, G Pariyo, MJ Hindin
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2009,
Abstract: This study assessed the relationship of bride price to sexual risk taking based on a large, populationbased survey. Data were collected on bride prices for 592 married women in 12 districts in Uganda in 2001. Controlling for covariates, we found that having had a bride price significantly lowered the wife’s odds of sexual intercourse with a partner other than the spouse (OR= 0.222; 95% CI= 0.067, 0.737). Controlling for covariates, bride price increased the husband’s odds of non-spousal sexual intercourse (OR=1.489; 95% CI= 0.746, 2.972), although this finding is not statistically significant. Bride price payment is statistically significantly associated with lower rates of non-spousal sexual contact in women, but is not statistically significantly associated with higher rates in men (Afr J Reprod Health 2009; 13[1]:147-158).
On the Yao-Yao partition theorem  [PDF]
Joseph Lehec
Mathematics , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s00013-009-3013-9
Abstract: The Yao-Yao partition theorem states that given a probability measure on an affine space of dimension n having a density which is continuous and bounded away from 0, it is possible to partition the space into 2^n regions of equal measure in such a way that every affine hyperplane avoids at least one of the regions. We give a constructive proof of this result and extend it to slightly more general measures.
A Simple Yao-Yao-Based Spanner of Bounded Degree  [PDF]
Mirela Damian
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: It is a standing open question to decide whether the Yao-Yao structure for unit disk graphs (UDGs) is a length spanner of not. This question is highly relevant to the topology control problem for wireless ad hoc networks. In this paper we make progress towards resolving this question by showing that the Yao-Yao structure is a length spanner for UDGs of bounded aspect ratio. We also propose a new local algorithm, called Yao-Sparse-Sink, based on the Yao-Sink method introduced by Li, Wan, Wang and Frieder, that computes a (1+e)-spanner of bounded degree for a given UDG and for given e > 0. The Yao-Sparse-Sink method enables an efficient local computation of sparse sink trees. Finally, we show that all these structures for UDGs -- Yao, Yao-Yao, Yao-Sink and Yao-Sparse-Sink -- have arbitrarily large weight.
Implications and Complications of Bride price Payment among the Shona and Ndebele of Zimbabwe  [cached]
Tendai Mangena,Sambulo Ndlovu
International Journal of Asian Social Science , 2013,
Abstract: Marriage is an institution that exists in all human societies. For most African cultures, it involves the bridegroom paying bride price to the bride’s family, what is known in Ndebele and Shona as amalobolo and roora respectively. The payment is made in ‘order to legalize the marriage’ and any marriage that does not involve the payment of the bride price ‘looks like casual sex or prostitution’. Bride price payment also exists in other non-African societies, but not all societies demand the payment. Hence, payment of bride price is not a universal human practice. This paper seeks to show the controversy that surrounds the payment of bride price in contemporary thinking. We seek to demonstrate how in most cases the noble idea of starting a new family is defeated by the various implications of the payment. We shall also explore the various uncompromising positions that women find themselves in the payment or non – payment of the bride price. Also in the renewed interest of women empowerment and emancipation, we argue that the payment of roora or amaloblolo is one of the hindrances of the women’s quest for freedom and emancipation. Payment of bride price is one of the traditional beliefs that in many ways encourage the violation of women’s human rights.
An extension of a theorem by Yao & Yao  [PDF]
Edgardo Roldán-Pensado,Pablo Soberón
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: In this paper we study $N_d(k)$ the smallest positive integer such that any nice measure $\mu$ in $\R^d$ can be partitioned in $N_d(k)$ parts of equal measure so that every hyperplane avoids at least $k$ of them. A theorem of Yao and Yao \cite{YY1985} states that $N_d(1) \le 2^d$. Among other results, we obtain the bounds $N_d(2) \le 3 \cdot 2^{d-1}$ and $N_d(1) \ge C \cdot 2^{d/2}$ for some constant $C$. We then apply these results to a problem on the separation of points and hyperplanes.
Through the Sakarya example, variation occurred in the bride dress  [cached]
Serdar U?urlu,Sel?uk Kür?ad Koca
International Journal of Human Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Culture is born and shaped by necessity. Cultural elements which are transmitted orally from generation to generation have a changing structure within their own internal dynamism. In this change, living conditions, as well as the effect of technology and mass media are also available. One of the inevitable areas of variation is clothing, finery and dressing. This is a natural process and in this process, the effect of fashion is intense. Differentiation of needs has brought variation in clothing, finery and dressing. Bride costumes and all the cultural elements in these dresses, place and regional differences in the line, has undergone change over time. Determination of cultural foundations of bride dresses in use today is very important in this regard.
An Infinite Class of Sparse-Yao Spanners  [PDF]
Matthew Bauer,Mirela Damian
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: We show that, for any integer k > 5, the Sparse-Yao graph YY_{6k} (also known as Yao-Yao) is a spanner with stretch factor 11.67. The stretch factor drops down to 4.75 for k > 7.
The Yao Graph $Y_5$ is a Spanner  [PDF]
Wah Loon Keng,Ge Xia
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper we prove that $Y_5$, the Yao graph with five cones, is a spanner with stretch factor $\rho = 2+\sqrt{3} \approx 3.74$. Since $Y_5$ is the only Yao graph whose status of being a spanner or not was open, this completes the picture of the Yao graphs that are spanners: a Yao graph $Y_k$ is a spanner if and only if $k \geq 4$. We complement the above result with a lower bound of 2.87 on the stretch factor of $Y_5$. We also show that $YY_5$, the Yao-Yao graph with five cones, is not a spanner.
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