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Parametrization of organic nitrogen mineralization models in soil treated with swine raising wastewater  [cached]
Flávia Mariani Barros,Mauro Aparecido Martinez,Antonio Teixeira de Matos,Júlio César Lima Neves
Ambiente e água : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science , 2010,
Abstract: Little is known about the mineralization dynamic of organic nitrogen contained in swine manure, so models need to be adjusted for its prediction. The objective of the present study was to parameterize and assess models of organic nitrogen mineralization in soil treated with swine raising wastewater (SRW) at different temperatures and water contents. Samples of 57.3 cm3 of dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol were mixed with SRW at the application dose of 400 kg ha-1 nitrogen, placed in plastic cups and incubated at four different temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 35°C) and water contents corresponding to tensions of 10, 30, 200 and 1500 kPa. Samples were removed from the incubated soil after 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 days to quantify the ammonium and nitrate concentrations. The parameters of the soil organic nitrogen mineralization models were determined from the organic nitrogen mineralization values obtained over the different incubation periods. The value of the potentially mineralizable nitrogen (N0) in soil with application of SRW was superior that of the soil without application of SRW. The mineralization constant (k) in soil with application of SRW was always superior that of the soil without application of SRW. There was a tendency for the simple exponential model to underestimate the values of the mineralized nitrogen concentration. In most of the situations the potential model was more efficient than the simple exponential model to predict the mineralization of the organic nitrogen.
Development and application of an antigen capture ELISA assay for diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis virus in swine, human and mosquito
Li Mei, Peng Wu, Jing Ye, Guangping Gao, Lin Shao, Shaomei Huang, Yaoming Li, Xiaohong Yang, Huanchun Chen, Shengbo Cao
Virology Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-9-4
Abstract: To develop a method for detecting JEV antigen in swine, human, mosquito and other clinical specimens specifically, conveniently and effectively, an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established in this study. Sensitivity, specificity, repeatability and stability of the developed method were evaluated, and 60 clinical samples were tested in this study. The results demonstrated that the antigen capture ELISA was capable in detecting JEV antigen with high sensitivity and specificity compared with conventional methods. 14 samples showed the positive result with coincidence rate of 70%, and 46 displayed negative result with coincidence rate of 100% as compared to that of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).The developed ELISA assay provides a convenient and specific method for the large-scale determination of JEV antigen in infected swine, human and mosquito samples with high sensitivity and specificity.Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious mosquito-borne zoonosis caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) which threatens public health in southern and eastern Asia. In general, JEV is maintained in a transmission cycle between amplifier swine and vector mosquitoes [1]. As a dead-end, humans are infected by bites of infectious mosquitoes and subsequently develop neurological diseases with an estimated 10,000 JE-related deaths annually [2-5]. As an important pathogen in swine, it also induces terrible consequences in sows reproduction and death in piglets [6,7].JEV, a member of the Flaviviridae family, contains a single positive 11-kb RNA genome with three structural proteins and seven nonstructural proteins [8,9], in which, E protein is the major immunogenic protein of JEV. It has the ability to induce neutralizing antibodies and is recognized as a protein candidate for the development of vaccines and diagnosis methods [10].Several laboratory methods have been developed for the detection of JEV infection, such as viru
Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Rapid Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Swine and Mosquitoes
Hao Liu,Hui-Jun Lu,Zhen-Jiang Liu,Jie Jing,Jing-Qiang Ren,Yan-Yu Liu,Huan-Huan Guo,Min Fan,Ning-Yi Jin
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.3861.3869
Abstract: Japanese Encephalitis (JE) can infect many agriculturally important animals and humans and has a high incidence in Asia. One of the natural hosts of the mosquito-borne JE Virus (JEV) is domestic pigs which act as amplifier hosts. Porcine infection results in fatal encephalitis, abortion and stillbirth in pregnant sows and hypospermia in boars. In this study, a rapid JEV Detection Method for swine and mosquitoes was developed based upon Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) targeting the nucleocapsid (E) genes of JEV genotype I (lineage K94PO5) and genotype III (lineage SA14-14-2). About 56 swine blood samples and 20000 mosquitoes were used to evaluate the method, compared to conventional RT-Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and real-time RT-PCR. RT-LAMP had detection limits of 2.57 and 2.34 copies/μL for JEV I and III, respectively. Assay sensitivity was similar to real-time RT-PCR but was 10 fold higher than conventional RT-PCR. Assay specificity was high, showing no cross-reactivity to other flaviviruses. Finally, the JEV RT-LAMP assay was simpler and less time consuming than conventional RT-PCR or real-time RT-PCR, since the amplification step could be completed in a single tube within 50 min at 63 C. In conclusion, the newly-developed RT-LAMP assay is an accurate and convenient method for rapid and sensitive diagnosis of JEV in swine and mosquitoes and may prove to be a practical molecular tool for surveillance and epidemiologic investigations.
Virus and Antibody Diagnostics for Swine Samples of the Dominican Republic Collected in Regions Near the Border to Haiti  [PDF]
A. Ventura,W. Gonzalez,R. Barrette,S. Swenson,A. Bracht,J. Rowland,A. Fabian,K. Moran,F. Mohamed,E. O'Hearn,M. Jenkins-Moore,D. Toms,J. Shaw,P. Morales,D. Pyburn,C. Carrillo,G. Mayr,M. McIntosh,M. Deng
ISRN Virology , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/425831
Abstract: The Dominican Republic (DR) and Haiti share the island of Hispaniola, and reportable transboundary animal diseases have been introduced between the two countries historically. Outbreaks of severe teschovirus encephalomyelitis in pigs began occurring in Haiti in February 2009, and a field and laboratort study in April 2010 indicated that the teschovirus disease is prevalent in many regions in Haiti including areas near the border with DR and that other viral disease agents, including CSF virus (CSFV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and swine influenza virus (SIV), are present in the swine population in these regions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the introduction of teschovirus encephalomyelitis from Haiti to DR and to identify the other viral disease agents present in the swine population in regions of DR near the border with Haiti. Six of 7 brains and 6 of 7 spinal cords collected from pigs with central nervous system (CNS) signs were positive in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for PTV. Genome sequencing on the Dominican PTV and phylogenetic analysis on the polyprotein of PTV strains indicate that the sequence of the Dominican PTV is 99.1% identical to the Haitian isolate and closely related to other PTV-1 strains in the world. Among 109 serum samples tested, 65 (59.6%) were positive for antibodies to PCV-2, and 51 (46.8%) were positive for antibodies to CSFV. Fifty-four of the 109 serum samples were tested for antibodies to other agents. Among the 54 samples, 20 (37.0%) were seropositive to PTV-1, 17 (31.5%) tested seropositive to SIV H3N2, 12 (22.2%) were seropositive to SIV H1N1, and 1 (1.9%) was seropositive to PRRSV. 1. Introduction The Dominican Republic (DR) and Haiti share the island of Hispaniola, the second largest island in the Caribbean. Historically, reportable transboundary animal diseases have been introduced between the two countries. In 1978, an outbreak of African swine fever (ASF) was detected in DR, and the source of the outbreak was potentially linked to food waste from an airport that was fed to swine [1]. In order to prevent the introduction of the disease, the Haitian government ordered a preventive slaughter of all swine in a 15-km area along the border with DR [1]. Despite this effort, ASF was detected in Haiti and spread rapidly throughout the country in late 1978 [1]. ASF along with classical swine fever (CSF), which had been endemic there since about 1920, were both eradicated by the slaughter of the entire swine population in the
Acanthamoeba encephalitis  [cached]
Kaushal V,Chhina D,Kumar R,Pannu H
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2008,
Abstract: Central nervous system infection with free-living amoebae is rare. We present a fatal case of Acanthamoeba encephalitis in a 63-year-old female from India where acanthamoebae were demonstrated and cultured from CSF. In spite of treatment with amphotericin B, fluconazole and rifampicin the patient did not survive. Amoebic infection should be suspected in a patient of encephalitis of unexplained aetiology as timely diagnosis can lead to a favourable outcome.
Development of a vaccine to prevent Japanese encephalitis: a brief review
Viroj Wiwanitkit
International Journal of General Medicine , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S6281
Abstract: pment of a vaccine to prevent Japanese encephalitis: a brief review Review (5771) Total Article Views Authors: Viroj Wiwanitkit Published Date October 2009 Volume 2009:2 Pages 195 - 200 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S6281 Viroj Wiwanitkit Wiwanitkit House, Bangkhae, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Japanese encephalitis (ICD 10: A83.0) is an important specific viral encephalitis caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus, a virus of the Flavivirus group. Millions of people, especially those in endemic areas of developing countries in Asia, are at high risk from this infection. Therefore proper management to deal with this virus is essential. There is no specific treatment for Japanese encephalitis virus. Supportive and symptomatic treatments are usually used, which emphasize the importance of prevention in this specific neurological disorder. Vector control or vaccination can be used to prevent the disease. Because the existing Japanese encephalitis vaccine poses some undesirable problems, a new vaccine is needed. The process of developing a new vaccine is briefly discussed.
Estimating the Burden of Japanese Encephalitis Virus and Other Encephalitides in Countries of the Mekong Region  [PDF]
Arnaud Tarantola ,Flavie Goutard,Paul Newton,Xavier de Lamballerie,Olivier Lortholary,Julien Cappelle,Philippe Buchy
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002533
Abstract: Diverse aetiologies of viral and bacterial encephalitis are widely recognized as significant yet neglected public health issues in the Mekong region. A robust analysis of the corresponding health burden is lacking. We retrieved 75 articles on encephalitis in the region published in English or in French from 1965 through 2011. Review of available data demonstrated that they are sparse and often derived from hospital-based studies with significant recruitment bias. Almost half (35 of 75) of articles were on Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) alone or associated with dengue. In the Western Pacific region the WHO reported 30,000–50,000 annual JEV cases (15,000 deaths) between 1966 and 1996 and 4,633 cases (200 deaths) in 2008, a decline likely related to the introduction of JEV vaccination in China, Vietnam, or Thailand since the 1980s. Data on dengue, scrub typhus and rabies encephalitis, among other aetiologies, are also reviewed and discussed. Countries of the Mekong region are undergoing profound demographic, economic and ecological change. As the epidemiological aspects of Japanese encephalitis (JE) are transformed by vaccination in some countries, highly integrated expert collaborative research and objective data are needed to identify and prioritize the human health, animal health and economic burden due to JE and other pathogens associated with encephalitides.
MRI Findings In Dengue Encephalitis
Ashraf V.V,Rahman Abdual,Suresh Kumar EK
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology , 2004,
Abstract: Neurological manifestations are rare in dengue fever. Two cases with encephalopathy and systemic features of dengue fever with abnormal CSF and MR imaging are reported. Striking MRI finding was bilateral symmetrical thalamic lesions similar to those reported in Japanese encephalitis. This report highlights that MRI findings can be similar in dengue and Japanese encephalitis.
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis  [cached]
Goel U. C,Singh K. G,Rajpur Vandana
Indian Journal of Dermatology , 1999,
Abstract: A twenty five year old female patient presented with bilateral grouped vesicular lesions with altered sensorium. It was diagnosed as herpes simplex encephalitis (type II)
Antibodies against prM protein distinguish between previous infection with dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses.
Mary Cardosa, Seok Wang, Magdline Sum, Phaik Tio
BMC Microbiology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-2-9
Abstract: Convalescent sera from 69 individuals who were known to have had dengue or Japanese encephalitis virus infection were tested by western blotting against dengue, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus antigens. We determined that individuals who had been infected with dengue viruses had IgG responses against the premembrane protein of dengue viruses but not Japanese encephalitis, whereas individuals who had been infected with Japanese encephalitis had IgG specific for the premembrane protein of Japanese encephalitis virus but not the dengue viruses. None reacted with the premembrane protein of West Nile virus. Using the Pearson Chi Square test, it was determined that the difference between the two groups was highly significant with a p value of <0.001.The use of flavivirus premembrane protein in seroepidemiological studies will be useful in determining what flaviviruses have circulated in a community.Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) was first described in Southeast Asia half a century ago, and has became increasingly important as a cause of paediatric morbidity and mortality in Southeast Asia over these past decades. Although the dengue viruses have circulated in this and other parts of the world previously, the viruses caused dengue fever (DF) rather than the more severe DHF, which has been for the most part, a Southeast Asian phenomenon since the 1950s. In recent years however, epidemics of dengue outside Southeast Asia have been associated with DHF and it has become a disease of global importance. Dengue viruses are not the only flaviviruses which have spread beyond their traditional ecologies. This is evident from the establishment and maintenance of West Nile virus (WNV) in the eastern United States over the last 3 summers. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is another example of a flavivirus extending its boundaries. First isolated in Japan in 1935, JEV had been causing extensive outbreaks of encephalitis in parts of East Asia until the introduction of a vacci
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