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Energy consumption for different greenhouses' structures  [PDF]
?evi? Milan,Dimitrijevi? Aleksandra
Journal of Agricultural Sciences , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/jas0801071d
Abstract: In this paper influence of greenhouses' structure was estimated for four different double plastic covered greenhouses in winter lettuce production. Plastic coverings are introduced as mean of making this kind of plant production more efficient. Also, as a mean of lowering energy consumption, the tunnel structures are proposed. Four different double plastic covered greenhouses were used for energy analysis. Two tunnel types, 9 x 58m and 8 x 25m covered with double PE folia, and two gutter connected plastic covered greenhouses. One greenhouse is 2 x 7 m wide and 39 m long and the other 20 x 6.4 m wide and 42 m long. Results have shown the lowest energy consumption for gutter connected greenhouses. Energy out/in ratio was also higher in gutter connected greenhouse. Highest energy consumption was obtained in tunnel greenhouse 8 x 25m.
Electricity Consumption and GHG Emissions in GCC Countries  [PDF]
Mohammed Redha Qader
Energies , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/en20401201
Abstract: CO 2, N 2O, and CH 4 are the three most widespread Greenhouse Gases (GHGs). Electricity consumption and the related CO 2-equivalent gas emissions resulting from oil and gas combustion for the six countries that comprise the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf [Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), Kuwait, Bahrain, Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Qatar; also referred to as the Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC)] have been compared. The analysis of the relevant data shows that GCC countries contribute significantly to the global CO 2 emissions, and that the majority of their emissions are concentrated in the energy extraction and conversion sectors, mainly from oil drilling and electricity production. Some analysis is offered as to the reasons behind the excessive increase in the electrical demand that is obviously linked to a non-rational pattern of electricity consumption.
Managing Energy Consumption of Wireless Sensors Networks in Multiple Greenhouses  [PDF]
Haythem Alhumud, Mohammed Zohdy
Wireless Engineering and Technology (WET) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wet.2018.92002
Abstract: An extensive area implementation of fully observed greenhouses motivates on research, especially in remote greenhouses. However, implementation of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is still needed for investigation. Cognitive radio sensor networks (CRSNs) took advantage of using the cognitive radio (CR) concept to which allowed wireless sensor networks to dynamically access into white space channels which is unused channels. In this paper, we adopted the Generalized Implicit-OR as CRSN sensing protocol to reduce the energy consumption and increase the network lifetime in multiple numbers of greenhouses. Our results showed that enhanced energy consumption and improved network lifetime compared to ordinary WSN.
Application of Parametric and Non-parametric Method to Analyzing of Energy Consumption for Cucumber Production in Iran
Morteza Taki,Yahya Ajabshirchi,Asghar Mahmoudi
Modern Applied Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v6n1p75
Abstract: This study applied a parametric (Cobb-Douglas production function) and non-parametric (Data Envelopment Analysis) method to examine the energy equivalents of inputs and output, analyze the efficiency of farmers, discriminate efficient farmers from inefficient ones and to identify wasteful uses of energy in order to optimize the energy inputs for cucumber greenhouse production in Esfahan province of Iran. Data were collected from 25 cucumber greenhouses in Esfahan province (Iran) by using a face-to-face questionnaire. Results showed that the cucumber production consumed a total 124447.5MJ ha-1 and diesel fuel is the major energy inputs in this cultivation. The CCR and BCC models indicated 6 and 9 greenhouses were efficient, respectively. The average values of TE, PTE and SE of greenhouses were found to be 0.90, 0.95 and 0.94, respectively. The results also revealed that about 8.12% of the total input resources could be saved if the farmers follow the input package recommended by the DEA. Econometric model evaluation showed that the impact of human power for cucumber production was significant at 1% levels and had the highest effect among the other inputs in this research, also the regression coefficient of fertilizer energy was found negative, indicating that power consumption for fertilizer is high in the surveyed greenhouses.
Investigation of Energy Consumption in Agriculture Sector of Iran and their Effect on Air Pollution and Social Cost
Abbas Asakereh,M.J. Shiekhdavoodi; A. Akram
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: The aims of this study are investigation of consumption, intensity and efficiency of fossil fuels and electricity energy in Iran's agriculture sector and emission of GHG and air pollutants and their social (damage) costs. D ata used in this study were obtained from ministry of energy and central bank of Iron in 1997- 2007. Input energy of fossil fuel and electricity in agriculture increased from 265.1 to 411.2 PJ in this period. Results show that the efficiency of using of fuels and electricity has not increased and increasing of social costs of GHG and air pollutants emission has been more than added value of agriculture sector. So, it is necessary that by increasing of technology level and replacement of age-old and depreciated machineries and equipments, appropriate management and increasing efficiency of fuel and electricity energy in macro level will cause decreasing negative effects of energy consumption.
IIGHGINT: A generalization to the modified GHG intensity universal indicator toward a production/consumption insensitive border carbon tax  [PDF]
Reza Farrahi Moghaddam,Fereydoun Farrahi Moghaddam,Mohamed Cheriet
Quantitative Finance , 2014,
Abstract: A global agreement on how to reduce and cap human footprint, especially their GHG emissions, is very unlikely in near future. At the same time, bilateral agreements would be inefficient because of their neural and balanced nature. Therefore, unilateral actions would have attracted attention as a practical option. However, any unilateral action would most likely fail if it is not fair and also if it is not consistent with the world trade organization's (WTO's) rules, considering highly heterogeneity of the global economy. The modified GHG intensity (MGHGINT) indicator, hereafter called Inequality-adjusted Production-based GHGINT (IPGHGINT), was put forward to address this need in the form of a universal indicator applicable to every region regardless of its economic and social status. Nonetheless, the original MGHGINT indicator ignores hidden consumption-related emissions, and therefore it could be unfair to some production-oriented regions in the current bipolar production/consumption world. Here, we propose two generalizations, called Inequality-adjusted Consumption-based GHGINT (ICGHGINT) and Inequality-adjusted Production/Consumption-Insensitive GHGINT (IIGHGINT), to the IPGHGINT in order to combine both production and consumption emissions in a unified and balanced manner. The impact of this generalizations on the associated border carbon tax rates is evaluated in order to validate their practicality.
Abatement Cost of GHG Emissions for Wood-Based Electricity and Ethanol at Production and Consumption Levels  [PDF]
Puneet Dwivedi, Madhu Khanna
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100030
Abstract: Woody feedstocks will play a critical role in meeting the demand for biomass-based energy products in the US. We developed an integrated model using comparable system boundaries and common set of assumptions to ascertain unit cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of electricity and ethanol derived from slash pine (Pinus elliottii) at the production and consumption levels by considering existing automobile technologies. We also calculated abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with respect to comparable energy products derived from fossil fuels. The production cost of electricity derived using wood chips was at least cheaper by 1 ¢ MJ?1 over electricity derived from wood pellets. The production cost of ethanol without any income from cogenerated electricity was costlier by about 0.7 ¢ MJ?1 than ethanol with income from cogenerated electricity. The production cost of electricity derived from wood chips was cheaper by at least 0.7 ¢ MJ?1 than the energy equivalent cost of ethanol produced in presence of cogenerated electricity. The cost of using ethanol as a fuel in a flex-fuel vehicle was at least higher by 6 ¢ km?1 than a comparable electric vehicle. The GHG intensity of per km distance traveled in a flex-fuel vehicle was greater or lower than an electric vehicle running on electricity derived from wood chips depending on presence and absence of GHG credits related with co-generated electricity. A carbon tax of at least $7 Mg CO2e?1 and $30 Mg CO2e?1 is needed to promote wood-based electricity and ethanol production in the US, respectively. The range of abatement cost of GHG emissions is significantly dependent on the harvest age and selected baseline especially for electricity generation.
The Effect of a Consumption-Based Accounting Method in National GHG Inventories: A Trilateral Trade System Application  [PDF]
Simone Bastianoni,Dario Caro,Simone Borghesi,Federico Maria Pulselli
Frontiers in Energy Research , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fenrg.2014.00004
Abstract: The allocation of emissions embodied in international trade is crucial to evaluate the real impact that each country has on climate change and its responsibility in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this paper, we develop a new theoretical framework recently proposed by Caro et al. (2014) that computes the carbon emissions embodied in international trade according to a consumption-based accounting. The method uses the value of the goods traded internationally and the respective carbon intensity as a coefficient of national efficiency. To provide an example of application of the proposed methodology and assess its difference with respect to the current producer-based GHG accounting, we analyze a trilateral trade system composed by three countries (Sweden, Italy, and Poland) with large differences in terms of carbon intensity (low, medium, and high carbon intensity, respectively). From the analysis of the data during the period 2000–2008, it emerges that the proposed consumption-based accounting would imply an increase of Italian and Swedish emission responsibility by 1.4 and 11.8%, respectively, with respect to the conventional GHG accounting, and a decrease of the Polish responsibility by 2.81%. To assess the possible consequences deriving from the application of this new methodology, we also consider the effects of a shift of the Italian imports from Poland to Sweden of Machinery and Transport Equipments, a crucial sector in the trade relations among the three countries, which accounts for about 45% of total exports from Poland and Sweden to Italy. Finally, we discuss some policy implications deriving from the application of the consumption-based accounting, devoting particular attention to the results emerging from its hypothetical adoption in the EU-27. The analysis performed in the paper suggests that the adoption of a consumption-based accounting could be an important tool in the climate change challenge to reduce global emissions.
Energy use pattern and optimization of energy consumption for greenhouse cucumber production in Iran using data envelopment analysis (DEA)  [cached]
nasim monjezi,Mohammad Javad Sheikhdavoodi,morteza taki
Modern Applied Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v5n6p139
Abstract: In this study a non-parametric method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is used to estimate the energy efficiencies of cucumber producers based on eight energy inputs including human power, diesel fuel, machinery, fertilizers, chemicals, water for irrigation, electricity and seed energy and single output of production yield. Data were collected using face-to-face surveys from 25 greenhouses in Khuzestan province of Iran. Energy indices, technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies were calculated by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach for 25 cucumber greenhouses. Total energy input and output were calculated as 163994 MJha-1 and 62496 MJha-1, respectively, whereas diesel fuel consumption with 45.15% was the highest level between energy inputs. Energy output-input ratio, energy productivity and net energy gain were 0.38, 0.47 kg MJ?1, -101498 MJ ha?1, respectively. The average values of TE, PTE and SE were 88%, 91% and 96%, respectively.
Application of Project Scheduling in Agriculture (Case Study: Mechanized Greenhouses Construction Project)
Nasim Monjezi,Mohammad Javad Sheikhdavoodi
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: PERT is an acronym for Project Evaluation and Review Technique. It provides a method of modeling, simulating and solving a wide range of simplex large-scale system problems. In this paper, project scheduling in agriculture, for mechanized greenhouses construction in the Khuzestan province of Iran, is carried out by PERT method. The operation of allocating resources to activities was carried out by means of breaking the basic activities of the project into smaller ones. Network models are increasingly powerful tool for modeling, scheduling, planning, controlling, and analyzing of agricultural projects. The generated PERT network model is a powerful tool to help manager who could able to make optimum decision.

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