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Effect of BA NAA and 2,4-D on Micropropagation of Jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino)
Anchalee Jala,Wassamon Patchpoonporn
International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies , 2012,
Abstract: Shoots tips and axillary buds of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino were used as explants and cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.05, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/l BA. After 12 weeks, new shoots came out and the MS medium contained with 1.0 mg/l BA gave the highest shoots (7.28 shoots) and their average height was 2.22 cm. Young leaves were used as explants for callus induction. Explants were cultured on MS supplemented with vary concentration of 2,4-D ( 0.1,0.5 and 1.0 mg/l ). After 12 weeks, explants on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-D gave the biggest callus which their average diameter were 0.9375 cm. When cultured explants of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino on MS medium supplemented with combination of (0.05, 0.1, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/l) BA and (0.05, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/l) NAA for 12 weeks. The highest average new shoots were induced from MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l NAA which was 6.8 shoots, and MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BA and 0.05 mg/l NAA gave the lowest average new shoots (2.7 shoots), and the average root length (1.8 cm). Plantlets were complete and ready for transplanting to in vivo.
Effects of Soil Fertility on Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino Population Behavior
土壤肥力对绞股蓝种群行为的影响

HE Wei-Ming,ZHONG Zhang-Cheng,
何维明
,钟章成

植物学报 , 1999,
Abstract: The authors examined the response of G. pentaphyllum population behavior to soil fertility, using the semi-controlled experimental method. The results show that the increase of soil fertility can significantly increase the biomass allocation ratio of reproductive organs, and decrease that of non-reproductive organs, that the ratios of foliage and supporting parts decrease little with increasing soil fertility; that the increase of soil fertility does not significantly affect the morphological characters and mean relative growth rate of the populations; that most of the reproductive characters respond to the increase of soil fertility significantly. The conclusion is: different behaviors of the G. pentophyllum populations have different sensitivities to the change of soil fertility.
Gynostemma pentaphyllum Tea Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients  [PDF]
V. T. T. Huyen,D. V. Phan,P. Thang,N. K. Hoa,C. G. ?stenson
Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/765383
Abstract: Aims. To evaluate the effect of the traditional Vietnamese herb Gynostemma pentaphyllum tea on insulin sensitivity in drug-na?ve type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. Patients received GP or placebo tea 6?g daily for four weeks and vice versa with a 2-week wash-out period. At the end of each period, a somatostatin-insulin-glucose infusion test (SIGIT) was performed to evaluate the insulin sensitivity. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), , and oral glucose tolerance tests and insulin levels were measured before, during, and after the treatment. Results. FPG and steady-state plasma glucose (SIGIT mean) were lower after GP treatment compared to placebo treatment ( ). The levels of FPG in the control group were slightly reduced to versus ?mmol/L in GP group ( ), and the effect on FPG was reversed after exchanging treatments. The glycometabolic improvements were achieved without any major change of circulating insulin levels. There were no changes in lipids, body measurements, blood pressure, and no reported hypoglycemias or acute adverse effects regarding kidney and liver parameters. Conclusion. The results of this study suggested that the GP tea exerted antidiabetic effect by improving insulin sensitivity. 1. Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a global health problem and is predicted to become more prevalent in the coming decades [1, 2]. Many currently available antidiabetic drugs improve the impaired insulin secretion or decreased insulin sensitivity seen in T2D. However, they exhibit a number of limitations such as side effects and high rates of secondary failure and, in the case of novel drugs, rather high treatment costs [3–5]. Thus, diabetic patients and healthcare professionals are considering complementary and alternative approaches, including the use of herbal medicine with antidiabetic properties. Traditional herbal medicines have played a major role in the management of diabetes in Vietnam and many Asian countries for centuries [6]. Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino (family Cucurbitaceae) is a perennial creeping herb growing wild in the mountain regions of Vietnam, China, and some other Asian countries. It has been used widely in Southeast Asian countries as a herbal medicine and being beneficial for the prevention and treatment of diabetes [7–9]. We have previously presented evidence that GP tea possesses antidiabetic effect, both as a single treatment and as an add-on therapy to sulfonylureas with good safety data in newly diagnosed T2D patients [10, 11]. In addition, the extract of GP has been shown to reduce both hyperglycemia and
The Effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extract on Mouse Dermal Fibroblasts  [PDF]
Sara Nadia Lobo,Yu Qing Qi,Quan Zhong Liu
ISRN Dermatology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/202876
Abstract: Background. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract on mouse dermal fibroblasts. Recent studies have shown that this plant may possess great antioxidant properties, which can be very beneficial in combating oxidative stress. Methods. Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract was prepared and mouse dermal fibroblasts were obtained and cultured as per our laboratory protocols. Twelve samples of cells were cultured under the same conditions and both negative and positive controls were established. Induction of oxidative stress was carried out using ultraviolet C (UVC) light. Viable cell count was carried out, using microscopy. The analysis of the overall results was processed using SPSS version 16.0. Results. Statistical analysis showed strong positive correlation between the concentration of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and the mean duration of cell viability (rs?=?1), with a high level of statistical significance ( ). Likewise, strong positive correlation existed between trials of cell viability (rs?=?0.988–1), with statistical significance ( ). Conclusion. Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract prolongs viability of mouse dermal fibroblasts damaged by UVC light-induced oxidative stress. The results show the potential benefits of this extract on dermal cell aging. 1. Introduction The retardation and control of skin aging constitute one of the biggest challenges faced by researchers and scientists in the area of cosmetology. This area of study is continuously researched, due to the unending pursuit of maintenance of youthfulness and appearance. Many scientific investigations are currently underway, as the field of cosmeceutical development widens. New studies are revealing the truth about many agents that modify the process of skin aging. The future incorporation of these studies into clinical practice would change the way that this process is currently managed. Many plant extracts play a vital role in the modification of skin aging. Some of these have been thoroughly investigated, whereas others have only been used empirically for centuries. Gynostemma pentaphyllum, commonly referred to as “Jiaogulan” in China, is one of the many examples of these plants [1, 2]. This plant is normally grown in the mountainous regions of China and is considered a vine because of its growth pattern. It has been used for centuries as a traditional remedy for respiratory and toxic conditions and has also been associated with longevity, among other benefits [1, 2]. Many studies have been done to verify some of the many beliefs associated with the
Restoration of Electric Footshock-Induced Immunosuppression in Mice by Gynostemma pentaphyllum Components  [PDF]
Sun-A Im,Hyun Sook Choi,Soon Ok Choi,Ki-Hyang Kim,Seungjeong Lee,Bang Yeon Hwang,Myung Koo Lee,Chong Kil Lee
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17077695
Abstract: The immunomodulatory effects of the ethanol extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP-EX) were examined in electric footshock (EFS)-stressed mice. The mice were orally administered various doses of GP-EX for 7 days before exposure to EFS (duration: 3 min, interval: 10 s, intensity: 2 mA) once a day from day 8 for 14 days with continuous daily feeding of GP-EX. Oral administration of GP-EX to mice prevented EFS stress-induced immunosuppression as determined by the lymphoid organ (thymus and spleen) weight and cellularity. In addition, oral administration of GP-EX restored EFS-suppressed functional properties of mature lymphocytes in terms of concanavalin A-induced proliferation of splenocytes and lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β). Furthermore, we found that mice that were orally administered with GP-EX generated much more potent ovalbumin-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses upon intravenous ovalbumin injection compared to the untreated controls. These results demonstrate that oral administration of the ethanol extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum could increase host defense in immunocompromised situations such as stress-induced immunosuppression.
Metabonomics Study of the Therapeutic Mechanism of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and Atorvastatin for Hyperlipidemia in Rats  [PDF]
Miao Wang, Fei Wang, Yinan Wang, Xiaonan Ma, Min Zhao, Chunjie Zhao
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078731
Abstract: Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) is widely used for the treatment of diseases such as hyperlipidemia, fatty liver and obesity in China, and atorvastatin is broadly used as an anti-hyperlipidemia drug. This research focuses on the plasma and liver metabolites in the following four groups of rats: control, a hyperlipidemia model, a hyperlipidemia model treated with GP and a hyperlipidemia model treated with atorvastatin. Using 1H-NMR-based metabonomics, we elucidated the therapeutic mechanisms of GP and atorvastatin. Orthogonal Partial Least Squares-Discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) plotting of the metabolic state and analysis of potential biomarkers in the plasma and liver correlated well with the results of biochemical assays. GP can effectively affect lipid metabolism, and it exerts its anti-hyperlipidemia effect by elevating the level of phosphatidylcholine and decreasing the level of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). In contrast, atorvastatin affects hyperlipidemia mainly during lipid metabolism and protein metabolism in vivo.
RAPD Analysis with Random Primer Combinations and SCAR Identification of Gynostemma pentaphyllum
采用随机引物组合对绞股蓝作RAPD分析及SCAR鉴定

LUO Yu,WU Yao-Sheng,ZHOU Juan,LI Ke-Zhi,XU Peng,
罗育
,吴耀生,周娟,李科志,徐鹏

植物科学学报 , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to develope species-specific molecular marker for identification of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and that with their adulterant Cayratia japonica,in order to avoid adulteration that affects the quality and quantity of G.pentaphyllum The first,twenty 10-bp random primers were picked out from more than 2000 random primers and then divided randomly into four terms that were consist of five random primers.The second,Genomic DNAs of seven G.pentaphyllum from different places in Guangxi,China...
Protective Effects of Crude Polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllum on Swimming Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat
Changjun Li,Xiaolan Wu,Xiaojuan Lou,Yajun Wu,Ang Li,Haiyan Wang
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/javaa.2012.1627.1632
Abstract: The present study examined the effects of crude Polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (PGP) against oxidative stress induced by swimming exercise. Male rats were administered PGP (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg-1) by gavage every day. After 30 days, swimming exercise of rat was performed in acrylic plastic pool. The results showed that PGP treatment prolonged exhaustive swimming time and improved liver glycogen reserve which suggested that PGP treatment influenced the performance of exhaustive exercise and improved exercise tolerance. Moreover, PGP treatment can promote increases in the activities of Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPH-Px) and reduce lipid per-oxidation which suggest that PGP treatment was beneficial in enhancing the antioxidant status and inhibiting oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise.
Antidiabetic Effects of Add-On Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extract Therapy with Sulfonylureas in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
V. T. T. Huyen,D. V. Phan,P. Thang,P. T. Ky,N. K. Hoa,C. G. Ostenson
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/452313
Abstract: Aims. To investigate the antidiabetic effect of the traditional Vietnamese herb Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) together with sulfonylurea (SU) in 25 drug-naïve type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. After 4-week treatment with gliclazide (SU), 30 mg daily, all patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups to add on GP extract or placebo extract, 6 g daily, during eight weeks. Results. After 4-week SU treatment, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and Hb decreased significantly (). FPG was further reduced after add-on therapy with 2.9 ± 1.7 and 0.9 ± 0.6 mmol/L in the GP and placebo groups, respectively (). Therapy with GP extract also reduced 30- and 120-minute oral glucose tolerance test postload values. Hb levels decreased approximately 2% units in the GP group compared to 0.7% unit in the placebo group (). Conclusion. GP extract in addition to SU offers an alternative to addition of other oral medication to treat type 2 diabetic patients.
Photosynthetic characteristics of Gynostemma pentaphyllum under shade
遮荫条件下绞股蓝光合作用特点的研究

HUANG Chenglin,WU Zemin,YAO Yongkang,XU Xiaoniu,
黄成林
,吴泽民,姚永康,徐小牛

应用生态学报 , 2004,
Abstract: The study showed that under summer shade condition, the diurnal variation of net photosynthetic rate of Gynostemma pentaphyllum presented nontypical double apex, the first apex being 13.8 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1) at 11:00, and the diurnal net photosynthetic rate was about 176.97 micromol CO2 x m(-2), 3.1 times of that under full sunlight. There was a positive correlation between net photosynthetic rate and photon flux density (PFD), and relative humidity had a small effect on net photosynthetic rate. Under full sunlight, the typical "midday depression" of photosynthesis was observed, and the diurnal variation of net photosynthetic rate presented double apex, with the first apex being 3.0 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1) at 10:00 and the second being 1.25 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1) at 14:00. There was a positive correlation between net photosynthetic rate and relative humidity, and the latter had a strong effect on net photosynthetic rate. When PFD was higher than 700 micromol CO2 x m(-2) x s(-1), it had a negative correlation with net photosynthetic rate. Stoma conductance was the main factor affecting the transpiration rate of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Therefore, Gynostemma pentaphyllum was a typical sciophytic plant, and light factor should be considered firstly in its cultivation.
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