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Identification and Classification of Earthworm Species in Guyana
Abdullah Adil Ansari,Preeta Saywack
International Journal of Zoological Research , 2011,
Abstract: Earthworms are very important organisms, they are both environmentally and economically beneficial and hence their correct identification and classification is very vital. Taxonomy aims to classify organisms based on their similarities and differences. The present study was carried out during the year 2006-2007 at University of Guyana, Georgetown focusing on identification and classification of local earthworm species of Guyana and comparison with a known non-native species (California red). The earthworms were collected (using hand sorting method), cultured and then carefully examined (worms were washed with water, preserved in 10% formalin solution). The two species studied were identified based on their external morphology and internal anatomy as well as their ecological features. The California red earthworm was grouped under the family Lumbricidae and identified as Eisenia foetida, while the local species was grouped under the family Eudrilidae and identified as Eudrilus eugenia.
Autofluorescence in eleocytes of some earthworm species.  [cached]
Justyna Cholewa,Graham P Feeney,Michael O' Reilly,Stephen R St??rzenbaum
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica , 2006, DOI: 10.5603/4591
Abstract: Immunocompetent cells of earthworms, coelomocytes, comprise adherent amoebocytes and granular eleocytes (chloragocytes). Both cell populations can be expelled via dorsal pores of adult earthworms by exposure to an electric current (4.5 V) for 1 min. Analysis by phase contrast/fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated that eleocyte population of several species exhibits a strong autofluorescence. A high percentage (11-35%) of autofluorescent eleocytes was recorded in Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion sp. (O. cyaneum, O. tyrtaeum tyrtaeum and O. tyrtaeum lacteum). In contrast, autofluorescent coelomocytes were exceptionally scarce (less than 1%) in representative Aporrectodea sp. (A. caliginosa and A. longa) and Lumbricus sp. (L. castaneus, L. festivus, L. rubellus, L. terrestris). Thus, this paper for the first time describes profound intrinsic fluorescence of eleocytes in some--but not all--earthworm species. The function (if any) and inter-species differences of the autofluorescent coelomocytes still remain elusive.
A Searchable Database of 13 C NMR Spectra

XIE Di-lin,CHEN Zhong,SHI Wei-qiao,XU Yong-bo,

波谱学杂志 , 2008,
Abstract: We built a searchable database of ^13C NMR spectra. More than 42 thousand ^13C NMR spectra of the compounds were included. With the total number of the peaks and chemical shifts of some peaks in the ^13C NMR spectrum as the input, the searching program can find out all relevant spectra as well as other related data of the compound of interest. The program also allows input and storage of spectra and other related information of user-defined compounds, which will be available for future inquisition. The system program was written by VB, and runs under Windows system. The compound information and spectra databases are administrated by Microsoft Access.
Virtual Natural Product Library - full text searchable database  [PDF]
Subhash Chandra Bose. Kotte,Pavan Kumar K.V.T.S,Ravi Kumar Tumuluri,Shriram Raghavan
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2012,
Abstract: Small molecules occurring in nature have special significance to mankind. They have varied applications from healthcare, food, nutrition, agriculture, personal care and well-being. These natural small molecules are from very diverse sources from the rarest plants to deep sea creatures. Recently they have assumed a lot of significance as pharmaceutical companies is constantly pushing the horizons to make them druggable due to their inherent bioactivities. Though they are not easy to synthesize or isolate, yet their diverse molecular scaffold confers them significance especially given the fact of prevailing resistance to drug scaffolds presently being used in the clinics. Hence its of paramount importance to have a database of diverse natural small molecules through the present effort of creating a Virtual Natural Products Library (VNPL-version 0.15).
BioN?T: A searchable database of biomedical negated sentences
Shashank Agarwal, Hong Yu, Issac Kohane
BMC Bioinformatics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-12-420
Abstract: Currently BioN?T incorporates ≈32 million negated sentences, extracted from over 336 million biomedical sentences from three resources: ≈2 million full-text biomedical articles in Elsevier and the PubMed Central, as well as ≈20 million abstracts in PubMed. We evaluated BioN?T on three important genetic disorders: autism, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, and found that BioN?T is able to capture negated events that may be ignored by experts.The BioN?T database can be a useful resource for biomedical researchers. BioN?T is freely available at http://bionot.askhermes.org/. webcite In future work, we will develop semantic web related technologies to enrich BioN?T.In the biomedical domain, a large amount of published literature is available in electronic format, spurring the development of several text-mining applications that can process the available literature to automatically extract information such as protein-protein interaction and gene-disease association. Unfortunately, the text mining community tends to focus on positive events only. Many text-mining applications either ignore sentences containing negation or do not process negation at all, a situation that could lead to negated events being identified as positive events. We argue that negated events provide valuable information and may help researchers formulate research hypotheses.A use case for extracting negated events can be seen in the case of genomic incidentalomes [1]. As genomic medicine develops to offer genome-level screening tests, it is important to identify genes that were earlier believed to be associated with a disease, but eventually were found not to be associated with the disease. Such genes should be removed from the array of genomic tests a patient undergoes since failure to do so will result in the patient being subjected to unnecessary tests, causing additional morbidity, and hence, increasing the cost of genomic medicine substantially. Finding reported instances of a gene not
Vulnerable Earthworm Species Identified from Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
Mahesh Mohan,M.S. Shylesh Chandran,E.V. Ramasamy
International Journal of Zoological Research , 2011,
Abstract: Diversity of earthworms at Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is less known even though it is one among the biodiversity hot spots. Unless an authentic record of available earthworm species is made, the consequences of human alternation or climate change on the earthworm species diversity cannot be assessed. In this regard, the present study is relevant. Earthworms were collected from twenty three sites of NBR. The findings of this study showed that out of the total earthworm species identified from selected areas of NBR, 83.4% are native species and 16.6% are exotic. This indicates the predominance of native species in the study area possibly due to low level of disturbance in the area. Among the species identified from Mukurthi, Priodichaeta pellucida (Bourne) which is listed as vulnerable and has not been encountered since its discovery about 100 years ago.
Web-enabled Decision Support System on Most Probable Producing Ability and a Searchable Database on Herd Strength for Livestock Farm Management
A.K.Sharma,V.K.Sharma,A. K. Chakravarty,D. K. Jain
International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering , 2011,
Abstract: An estimate of the producing ability of cattle, known as Most Probable Producing Ability (MPPA) is an important measure, which provides an estimate of future productivity of a dairy animal as the basis of the past productivity (in term of repeatability of the trait and the number of records). At present, no tool seems to be available for computing MPPA online. In this paper, a Web enabled decision support system is proposed for online computation of MPPA using Microsoft Visual Studio 2005, and ASP.NET 2.0 technology with C#.NETsoftware engineering tools. The same technology is used for developing a searchable database on herd strength management. This software is useful for farm managers in screening of dairy livestock animals for culling and selection of superior animals, which can be used for breeding programs with genetically superior proven sires toproduce next crop of young bulls for progeny testing.
Riboflavin content in autofluorescent earthworm coelomocytes is species-specific.  [cached]
Barbara P?ytycz,Joanna Homa,Beata Kozio?,Ma?gorzata Rózanowska
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica , 2007, DOI: 10.5603/4560
Abstract: We have recently shown that a large proproportion of earthworm coelomocytes exhibit strong autofluorescence in some species (Dendrobaena veneta, Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion spp.), while autofluorescent coelomocytes are very scarce in representatives of Lumbricus spp. and Aporrectodea spp. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) was identified as a major fluorophore in Eisenia jetida coelomocytes. The main aim of the present experiments was to quantify riboflavin content in autofluorescent coelomocytes (eleocytes) from several earthworm species through a combination of flow cytometric and spectrofluorometric measurements. Spectrofluorometry of coelomocyte lysates showed that riboflavin was non-detectable in the coelomocytes of Aporrectodea spp. and Lumbricus spp., but was a prominent constituent of lysates from species with autofluorescent eleocytes. In the latter case, riboflavin content was the highest in E. fetida, followed by Octolasion spp. > A. chlorotica > D. rubidus. The riboflavin content of coelomocytes correlates positively with eleocyte autofluorescence intensity measured by flow cytometry and visible with fluorescence microscopy.
Modification of root density in pot experiments with two tropical earthworm species
BROWN, George G.;KRETZSCHMAR, André;PATRóN, José C.;
Acta zoológica mexicana , 2010,
Abstract: three greenhouse experiments were performed to assess the role of two common tropical geophagous endogeic earthworm species, pontoscolex corethrurus and polypheretima elongata, on root density of several plant species in two soil types, a clayey andosol and a sandy alfisol, from veracruz, mexico. the equivalent of about 12 kg dry soil were placed into 20 l plastic pots and 3-14 individuals were inoculated to pots planted with common beans (phaseolus vulgaris), brachiaria decumbens pasture grass under four p fertilization regimes (0, 1.6, 8.4 and 10 kg p ha-1) and maize (zea mays) with or without surface residues. pots received only one species of earthworms (either p. corethrurus or p. elon-gata). at harvest, the pots were cut in half and a transparent plastic sheet (overheads) used to draw root and earthworm structures (burrows, casts) in vertical and horizontal (every 5 cm) planes. the drawings were scanned, binarized and submitted to image analysis techniques to determine the density of roots, casts and burrows. root density was generally higher and there was a trend for more even distribution of roots in the soil, both horizontally and vertically, in the presence of earthworms. nevertheless, few relationships were observed between root density and shoot biomass or the density of earthworm casts and burrows. a more diffuse (less aggregated) root distribution due to earthworms may aid plants in resistance to stress, although the induced changes in the root system may not necessarily lead to greater yields
A searchable cross-platform gene expression database reveals connections between drug treatments and disease
Gareth Williams
BMC Genomics , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-12
Abstract: Drug perturbation, cancer and neurodegenerative disease derived transcriptional profiles are shown to be effective descriptors of the underlying biology as they return related drugs and pathologies from SPIED. In the case of Alzheimer's disease there is high transcriptional overlap with other neurodegenerative conditions and rodent models of neurodegeneration and nerve injury. Combining the query signature with correlating profiles allows for the definition of a tight neurodegeneration signature that successfully highlights many neuroprotective drugs in the Broad connectivity map.Quantitative querying of expression data from across the totality of deposited experiments is an effective way of discovering connections between different biological systems and in particular that between drug action and biological disease state. Examples in cancer and neurodegenerative conditions validate the utility of SPIED.There is a wealth of deposited gene expression data available for downloading and/or online interrogation. For example, the NCBI gene expression omnibus (GEO) [1] hosts over half a million single array chip expression profiles and the EBI hosts the ArrayExpress [2] database with a similar largely overlapping number of arrays. These data cannot be compared directly as they come from different array platforms covering many different species and a variety of normalisation schemes are used. In the overwhelming number of analyses expression profiles are compared within the given series and probed for the up or down regulation of single genes using volcano plot representations or other statistical filters [3]. Alternatively, a larger set of responders can be scored against gene sets corresponding to pathways [4], interacting networks [5-7] or gene ontology classes [8,9]. For large series it is possible to compile correlations of expression changes of individual gene pairs and groups of genes leading to a hierarchical clustering based network discovery and gene interaction
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