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CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS, ACTIVITY LEVEL, HEALTH-RELATED ANTHROPOMETRIC VARIABLES, SEDENTARY BEHAVIOUR AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN A SAMPLE OF IRANIAN 7-11 YEAR OLD BOYS
Samad Esmaeilzadeh,Hassan-Ali Kalantari,Babak Nakhostin-Roohi
Biology of Sport , 2013,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), activity level, some health-related anthropometric variables, sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic status (SES) of 7-11 year old boys in the city of Ardabil, Iran. Of 21 253 school boys aged 7-11 years, 766 participated in this study using the cluster sampling method. Subjects underwent standard anthropometry. One-mile test was used to evaluate ·VO2max. BMI cut-off points were used to identify weight status. Child’s TV watching and video playing daily time (TVVPT) was taken for sedentary behaviour evaluation. SES and activity level were measured by standard questionnaires. Of all participants, 8.9 0(N=68) of students had CRF lower than normal and 58.6 0(N=449) of them had inadequate physical activity. There was a significant adverse relationship between ·VO2max and body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), and fat mass (FM) (p<0.05). A significant direct association between SES and both FM and TVVPT was observed (p<0.05). Significantly lower physical activity and ·VO2max, and higher TVVPT were observed in the obese boys than their counterparts (p<0.05). The results of this study indicated a significant relationship between CRF and physical activity, and health-related anthropometric variables in a selected sample of 7-11 year boys. Moreover, the obese subjects had not only lower physical activity but also longer sedentary behaviour time than their counterparts.
Anthropometric Profile and Special Judo Fitness levels of Indian Judo Players  [cached]
Jayasudha Katralli,Shivaprasad s. Goudar
Asian journal of Sports Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Purpose: Judo is a complex sport where different anthropological parameters determine performance. Judo, as a sport is not well known in India. There is evident lack of data concerning the anthropological determinants of judo players. This study was conducted to determine the anthropometric profile and Special Judo Fitness levels of judokas.Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on 31 judo players. Anthropometric profile was assessed by measuring height, weight, body mass index, body circumferences at seven sites, seven site skin fold thickness and body fat percentage as per standard accepted protocol. Special Judo Fitness Test – a specific test to evaluate the judo athlete's physical condition was applied. Statistical analysis done using Students unpaired ‘t’ test and correlation by Karl Pearson correlation coefficient.Results: Out of 31 judo players 20 had ≤5 yrs of judo practice (A group) and 11 >5 yrs of judo (B group). Anthropometric findings of both the judo groups were same. Body fat has negative correlation (r =-0.690, P<0.05) with performance in SJFT. Observations during and after specific test were also similar.Conclusions: Long term training has a minimal effect on anthropometry. Judo athletes of similar age when submitted to the same training type tend to show equal performance in the game and the fitness levels after certain years of training. We also confirm existence of negative correlation between body fat and performance.
A Comparative Study of Physical Fitness among Rural Farmers and Urban Sedentary Group of Gulbarga District
R.B. Patil,B.R. Doddamani,Milind Bhutkar,S.M. Awanti
Al Ameen Journal of Medical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: Body mass index (BMI) is one of the factor that determines health of an individual being over fat or having a higher than desirable content of fat that has a negative effect on person’s health. The impact of either excess or less body fat is detrimental to health. Modern life styles have reduced physical activity in urban population in comparison with rural population. Exercise stress test is a valuable tool for evaluating physical fitness of an individual. Hence, the current study was designed to evaluate the comparative physical fitness between rural farmers and their urban sedentary counterpart in Gulbarga district. Materials & Methods: The study included 30 apparently healthy male rural farmers and 30 urban sedentary subjects in the age group of 20 to 30 years belonging to Gulbarga district. Anthropometric measurements were recorded, body mass index (BMI) was calculated, pre and post exercise systolic blood pressure (SBP),diastolic blood pressure (DBP), pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure(MAP), heart rate (HR), peak exercise HR, post exercise HR were recorded and percent recovery heart rate( % RHR) in beats per minute (BPM) of both groups was calculated. Results: The BMI was significantly lower (p<0.05) in rural farmer group compared to urban sedentary group. We found a significant increase of pre SBP (p<0.05), pre MAP (p<0.05), post SBP (p<0.001), post DBP (p<0.05), post PP (p<0.05), and post MAP (p<0.001) in urban sedentary group compared to rural farmer group. Peak HR (p<0.001), 1 min Post HR (p<0.001) was significantly decreased in rural farmer group. But % RHR (p<0.001) and PFI Score (p<0.001) were found to be significantly increased in rural farmer group compared to urban sedentary group. We found a negative correlation between BMI and % recovery heart rate, BMI and PFI Score in rural farmer group compared to urban sedentary group. Conclusion: The rural farmer group had lower BMI and less increase in peak heart rate, faster heart rate recovery after exercise, increase in PFI Score and increase in % RHR as compared to urban sedentary group. Results show a greater cardiovascular efficiency of rural farmer group of Gulbarga District of Karnataka as compared to their urban sedentary counterpart.
Determinants of Change in Children’s Sedentary Time  [PDF]
Andrew J. Atkin, Kirsten Corder, Ulf Ekelund, Katrien Wijndaele, Simon J. Griffin, Esther M. F. van Sluijs
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067627
Abstract: Background Understanding the determinants of sedentary time during childhood contributes to the development of effective intervention programmes. Purpose To examine family and home-environmental determinants of 1-year change in objectively measured sedentary time after-school and at the weekend. Methods Participants wore accelerometers at baseline and 1 year later. Longitudinal data for after-school and weekend analyses were available for 854 (41.5%male, mean±SD age 10.2±0.3years) and 718 (41.8%male, age 10.2±0.3years) participants. Information on 26 candidate determinants, including socioeconomic status (SES), availability of electronic media and parental rules for sedentary behaviours was self-reported by children or their parents at baseline. Change in the proportion of registered time spent sedentary was used as the outcome variable in multi-level linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and baseline sedentary time. Simple and multiple models were run and interactions with sex explored. Results Children from higher socioeconomic status families exhibited greater increases in after-school (beta; 95% CI for change in % time spent sedentary 1.02; 0.37, 1.66) and weekend (1.42; 0.65, 2.18) sedentary time. Smaller increases in after-school sedentary time were observed in children with more siblings (?1.00; ?1.69, ?0.30), greater availability of electronic media (?0.81; ?1.29, ?0.33) and, for boys, more frequent family visits to the park (?1.89; ?3.28, ?0.51) and family participation in sport (?1.28; ?2.54, ?0.02). Greater maternal weekend screen-time (0.45; 0.08, 0.83) and, in girls, greater parental restriction on playing outside (0.91; 0.08, 1.74) were associated with larger increases in weekend sedentary time. The analytical sample was younger, more likely to be female, had lower BMI and was of higher SES than the original baseline sample. Conclusions Intervention strategies aimed at reducing parents’ weekend screen-time, increasing family participation in sports or recreation (boys) and promoting freedom to play outside (girls) may contribute towards preventing the age-related increase in sedentary time.
Anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of young male soccer players
Canhadas, Ive Luz;Silva, Rodrigo Lopes Pignataro;Chaves, Celso Rodrigures;Portes, Leslie Andrews;
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1980-00372010000400003
Abstract: the objective of this study was to determine anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of brazilian male children and adolescents at the beginning of soccer training. in this study, 282 male soccer players ranging in age from 10 to 13 years were evaluated. the athletes participated in a formal soccer training program 3 times per week, with each training lasting 3 hours. anthropometric and physical fitness parameters were obtained. the boys were divided into age classes and prevalence data were analyzed using pearson's chi-square test. parametric data were compared by one-way anova or the kruskal-wallis test, when necessary. the results are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation and a p value <0.05 was considered to be significant. growth, development, body adiposity and physical fitness characteristics were adequate and proportional to age among the boys studied (p<0.05). it was concluded that anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of young male elite soccer players improve with and are proportional to age. children and adolescents greatly benefit from regular physical activity. the present results show that young male soccer players present adequate anthropometric conditions and physical fitness prior to the initiation of formal training at soccer clubs.
Anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of young male soccer players
Ive Luz Canhadas,Rodrigo Lopes Pignataro Silva,Celso Rodrigures Chaves,Leslie Andrews Portes
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2010,
Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine anthropometric and physical fitnesscharacteristics of Brazilian male children and adolescents at the beginning of soccer training. Inthis study, 282 male soccer players ranging in age from 10 to 13 years were evaluated. The athletesparticipated in a formal soccer training program 3 times per week, with each training lasting 3hours. Anthropometric and physical fitness parameters were obtained. The boys were divided intoage classes and prevalence data were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square test. Parametric datawere compared by one-way ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test, when necessary. The resultsare expressed as the mean ± standard deviation and a p value <0.05 was considered to be significant.Growth, development, body adiposity and physical fitness characteristics were adequateand proportional to age among the boys studied (p<0.05). It was concluded that anthropometricand physical fitness characteristics of young male elite soccer players improve with and areproportional to age. Children and adolescents greatly benefit from regular physical activity. Thepresent results show that young male soccer players present adequate anthropometric conditionsand physical fitness prior to the initiation of formal training at soccer clubs.
Effect of two programs of physical exercise in the motor fitness of sedentary elderly subjects
Fernanda Varkala Lanuez,Wilson Jacob Filho
Einstein (S?o Paulo) , 2008,
Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effects of exercise in motor abilities ofelderly subjects undergoing two different exercise programs: GroupA, aerobic exercise program (n = 18); and Group B, flexibility andbalance exercise program (n = 19). Methods: This is a one-yearrandomized controlled interventional trial of correlate samples.Subjects: Forty individuals aged 60 to 90 years, of both genders,referred from the Outpatient Geriatrics Clinic of Hospital dasClínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de S o Paulo,with a sedentary lifestyle, or at least, not practicing regular physicalactivity in the last six months. Results: All determinants of motorfitness showed statistically significant improvement in Group B.The same occurred in Group A, except for flexibility parameters.Conclusions: The results of this study strengthen the relevanceof the practice of physical exercise for sedentary elderly subjectand demonstrate the need of specific exercise programs aimed atdefined goals, optimizing their results in this Health Promotion toolfor the Elderly.
Correlations of anthropometric characteristics with physical fitness tests in Indian professional hockey players
ARCHNA SHARMA,VARISHTHA TRIPATHI,SHYAMAL KOLEY
Journal of Human Sport and Exercise , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations of anthropometric characteristics with isotonic strength (handgrip strength), lower limb power, aerobic strength, and skill tests in purposely selected 60 Indian professional male hockey players of different levels players (35 national and 25 state level) aged 18-23 years collected from Ranjit Singh Hockey Academy, Amritsar, Punjab, India. To serve this purpose, three anthropometric characteristics (height, weight and percent body fat), right and left handgrip strength, vertical jump, multi stage fitness test, slalom sprint and dribble tests were performed on each subject. Results indicated statistically significant (p<0.05) differences only in lower limb power between Indian national and state level male hockey players. In Indian professional male hockey players, height has significantly positive correlations with weight, right and left handgrip strength, lower limb power and negative correlations with % body fat and dribble test, and body weight has significantly positive correlations with % body fat, right and left handgrip strength, lower limb power and negative correlations with slalom sprint. Significantly positive correlations were noted among the fitness component variables too.
Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Hard and Light Intensity Physical Activity but Not Time Spent Sedentary in 10–14 Year Old Schoolchildren: The HAPPY Study  [PDF]
Sarah J. Denton, Michael I. Trenell, Thomas Pl?tz, Louise A. Savory, Daniel P. Bailey, Catherine J. Kerr
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061073
Abstract: Background Sedentary behaviour is a major risk factor for developing chronic diseases and is associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness in adults. It remains unclear how sedentary behaviour and different physical activity subcomponents are related to cardiorespiratory fitness in children. The purpose of this study was to assess how sedentary behaviour and different physical activity subcomponents are associated with 10–14 year-old schoolchildren's cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods 135 schoolchildren (81 girls, 12±1 year) completed 7-day minute-by-minute habitual physical activity monitoring using triaxial accelerometers and undertook a maximal cardiorespiratory fitness test. Results After controlling for sex, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status and total wear time, light physical activity (1.5–2.9 METs) was negatively associated (β = ?.24, p<.01) and hard physical activity (≥9 METs) positively associated (β = .45, p<.001) with cardiorespiratory fitness. Vigorous and hard physical activity were associated with cardiorespiratory fitness for boys (F = 5.64, p<.01) whereas light, moderate and hard physical activity were associated with physical fitness for girls (F = 10.23, p<.001). No association was found between sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness (r = ?.13, p>.05). Sedentary to active transitions revealed little variability between cardiorespiratory fitness tertiles. Conclusions Hard physical activity (≥9 METs) holds greater potential for cardiorespiratory fitness compared to physical activity of lower intensities. There was no relationship between sedentary behaviour and cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest that, for children, advice should focus on higher intensity physical activity and not sedentary behaviour as a means to maintain or improve cardiorespiratory fitness. Future research should explore longitudinal relationships between hard physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and health parameters.
Physical Fitness, Physical Activity and Sedentary Activities of 7 to 11 Year Old Boys with Different Body Mass Index  [cached]
Samad Esmaeilzadeh,Karim Ebadollahzadeh
Asian journal of Sports Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in physical fitness, physical activity, and sedentary activities among 7- to 11- year- old boys with varying body mass index in Ardabil, Iran.Methods: The sample consisted of 766 boys who participated in eight weight bearing (1 mile walk/run, sit ups, standing long jump, vertical jump, shuttle run 4 × 10 m, 30-meter sprint, pull ups, pushups) and four non-weight-bearing physical fitness tests (flamingo balance, handgrip, sit and reach, finger reaction time). Physical activity and sedentary activities were assessed by questionnaires. Body mass index (BMI) was computed to classify participants into normal weight, underweight, overweight, and obese groups.Results: The prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 10.7%, 14.1% and 4.2% respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) decreased progressively as the BMI increased and differences among the all body mass index categories were significant (P<0.01). Obese subjects performed worse in all weight bearing fitness tests than normal weight subjects (P<0.01). Moreover, overweight subjects performed worse in one mile, pushups and pull ups than normal weight subjects (P<0.01). Underweight subjects had significantly lower Pushups than normal weight subjects (P<0.01). Obese subjects had significantly higher sedentary activities and lower physical activity than other counterparts (P<0.01).Conclusions: This study showed that weight bearing physical fitness, cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity progressively decreased as the BMI increased and adversely sedentary activities increased as the BMI increased.
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