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RESPONSE OF TWO SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.) GENOTYPES TO VA-MYCORRHIZAL INOCULATION AND PHOSPHORUS LEVELS  [cached]
C.P. CHANDRASHEKARA, V.C. PATIL,M.N. SREENIVASA
BIOTROPIA : the Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology , 1995,
Abstract: The performance of two sunflower genotypes (Morden and MSFH-8) with and without VA-mycorrhizal fungi at three P levels (38, 56 and 75 kg P2O5 ha-1) in vertisol of Dharwad was studied to determine the effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on plant growth, yield and P uptake. The results showed that the VAM inoculation increased sunflower yield (14%), total biomass (16%), oil content (3.1%) and P uptake (30.5%) over uninoculated control. The percent root colonization and chlamydo-spore count decreased with increasing P levels. The total biomass production, seed yield and P uptake of mycorrhizal plants at 38 kg P2O5 ha-1 more than the non-mycorrhizal plants at 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. The biomass and seed yield of mycorrhizal plants at same P level were more than the non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal plants of Morden at 38 kg P2O5 ha-1 and MSFH-8 at 56 kg P2O5 ha-1 produced higher seed yield, oil content and total biomass than non-mycorrhizal plants supplied with 75 kg P2O5 ha-1. The results indicated that, VA-mycorrhizal inoculation helps in saving 25 and 50 percent of recommended dose of phosphatic fertilizer (75 kg P2O5 ha-1) in MSFH-8 (single cross hybrid) and Morden (open pollinated variety), respectively.
Investigation on The Effect of Some Plant Growth Regulators on Sunflower ( Helianthus Annuus L.)  [PDF]
N. Tahsin,T. Kolev
Journal of Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty , 2006,
Abstract: With a view to establish the effect of some plant growth regulators on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)production and oil content was made an experiment. The agricultural test was carried out in the experimentalbase of Agricultural University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria in 2001- 2003.The investigation was pulled out byblock design with four replications with crop plot size 20 m2, previously sowed with wheat. The testedchemicals are as follows plant growth regulators: “H- 40’’ (alfanaftilvinegar acid), “M-2’’ (amid ofdicarbonovy acids of benzolovid number), “31’’(derivate of naphthalene with auxin efficacy), “XP’’(ftalaminova acid) content micro and macro elements, synthesised in Research Institute of Cryobiology andFood Technology, Sofia in dose 1 cm3 / l water and Agat 25 EK- 2.5 g/da (Too bio biz Ltd.).The investigation was made on Bulgarian sunflower hybrid Super Start, treated during pinhead andflowering. The effect of the tested plant growth regulators on the quantity of yield and some structuralelements (sunflower heads number, seeds number, seeds mass, mass/ 1000 seeds, oil content and oil yield)was reported in the process of investigation. The effect grade of growth regulators is fixed due to non-treatedcontrol.By the dispersal analysis method, it is made a mathematics processing of the values of received data. Theresults of investigation showed that there is no significantly difference between the seed yield kg/da and oilcontent l/da in pinhead period by the use of plant growth regulators - ‘‘31’’ (1cm3/l water) and ‘’Agat 25EK’’ (2.5 g/ da). In the flowering period when treated with the same plant growth regulators, the seed yield isincreased as of 15.3 % and the oil content increased as of 16.4% (with Agat 25 EK) but it is decreased as of18.6% by the application of “31”.
Characterization of F1 interspecific hybrids between wild Helianthus annuus L. populations and cultivated sunflower  [PDF]
Terzi? Sreten,Atlagi? Jovanka,Pankovi? Dejana
Genetika , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/gensr0602159t
Abstract: Phenotype, chromosomes pairing and pollen vitality were compared between parental populations and F1 hybrids of interspecific cross between Helianthus annuus L. and cultivated sunflower. The investigation of the simple sequence repeats (SSR) polymorphism was also used to test the hybrid nature of F1 populations. The phenotypic traits of F1 hybrid plants were either closer to the wild species or intermediate. Irregular chromosome pairing was found in only 0 to 10% of meiocytes in the meiosis of F1 hybrid plants. Interspecific crosses were confirmed with SSR markers in all hybrid combinations. Alleles that were not present in parental DNA were frequently observed in F1 hybrids. That is additional evidence that those hybrid combinations were not produced by self-fertilization. The results suggest that SSR markers can be efficiently used for the F1 hybrid characterization in crosses between closely related species, in which, the changes of phenotype, meiosis and pollen vitality are not always significant.
Potential allelopathic effects of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on microorganisms
J Kamal, A Bano
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Potential allelopathic effects of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivar Hysun 38 on Rhizobium, Azospirillum, and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) were studied by applying oxidase, QTS tests and Gram staining. Microorganisms for the control group were isolated from soil sampled before sowing sunflower. A commonly observed effect of allelochemicals was a decrease, compared to control, in the number of colonies of the three groups of microorganisms, isolated from the roots of sunflower in the case of Azospirillum and PSB and from the rhizosphere of sunflower in the case of Rhizobium. Isolates of Azospirillum and PSB from the rhizosphere of sunflower differed in their response: the number of colonies of Azospirillum remained the same as that in control but that of PSB was greater than that in control. QTS tests showed a range of responses, which varied with the group of microorganisms as well as with the habitat from which they were collected, namely roots of sunflower, rhizosphere of sunflower, and control. Allelopathy also influenced the results of Gram staining test but not those of the oxidase test.
Effect of chromium on growth attributes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

FOZIA Andaleeb,MUHAMMAD Anjum Zia,MUHAMMAD Ashraf,ZAFAR Mahmood Khalid,

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2008,
Abstract: Heavy metal soil pollution takes place when the metal concentration of soil exceeds natural background level and causes ecological destruction and deterioration of the environment.In the present study,a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of chromium-contaminated soil in sunflower(Helianthus annuus L.)growth attributes.Three different levels of chromium(Cr)i.e.,20, 40,and 60 mg/kg were applied to three varieties of sunflower(G-3,G-9,and G-59).The results of morphological,chemical,and yield p...
Structure of the stigma and style in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
Gotelli,M.M.; Galati,B.G.; Medan,D.;
Biocell , 2010,
Abstract: this is the first report of the ultrastructure of the stigma and style during and after anthesis in helianthus annuus l. using light and transmission electron microscopy. the stigma is bifid with unicellular papillae. there is no secretion of lipids, carbohydrates or proteins at anthesis. the style is semisolid in the upper portion, closer to the stigma, and becomes solid below. ultrastructural changes on cells of the stigma and the style are described. the transmitting tissue of the ovule is first evident 40 minutes after pollination and persists during the first stages of embryogenesis. only one pollen tube per micropyle was observed growing through this tissue.
Structure of the stigma and style in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)  [cached]
M.M. Gotelli,B.G. Galati,D. Medan
Biocell , 2010,
Abstract: This is the first report of the ultrastructure of the stigma and style during and after anthesis in Helianthus annuus L. using light and transmission electron microscopy. The stigma is bifid with unicellular papillae. There is no secretion of lipids, carbohydrates or proteins at anthesis. The style is semisolid in the upper portion, closer to the stigma, and becomes solid below. Ultrastructural changes on cells of the stigma and the style are described. The transmitting tissue of the ovule is first evident 40 minutes after pollination and persists during the first stages of embryogenesis. Only one pollen tube per micropyle was observed growing through this tissue.
Effect of Potassium Levels on the Yield of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
Muhammad Ayyaz Khan,Khalil Ahmad,Jamil Ahmad
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 1999,
Abstract: Effect of various levels of potassium on the yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied at the Agronomic Research Area, Gomal University, D.I. Khan, during autumn 1997. The highest 1000-seed weight (53.71g) was obtained from the plot, fertilized with 150kg potassium ha-1, while the minimum 1000-seed weight (46.41 g) was obtained in control plots. the highest seed yield (4153 kg ha-1) was also obtained in plots where 150 kg potassium per hectare was applied. The lowest seed yield was recorded in control plots (3402 kg ha-1). It can be suggested from these results that potassium can be applied up to 150 kg ha-1 to obtain high seed yield of sunflower and to maintain the fertility regarding potassium level in the soil of D.I.Khan.
Genotype dependent callus induction and shoot regeneration in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
II Ozyigit, N Gozukirmizi, BD Semiz
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: This study aims to observe the effect of genotype, hormone and culture conditions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) callus induction and indirect plant regeneration. Calli were obtained from hypocotyl and cotyledon explants of five different sunflower genotypes; Trakya 80, Trakya 129, Trakya 259, Trakya 2098 and Viniimk 8931, which are commercially important for Turkey. Seeds germinated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media contained no hormones. Hypocotyl and cotyledon explants were cultured on MS media supplemented with 1 mg/l 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) and different percentage of callus inductions were obtained. Calli were cultured on MS + 1 mg/l BA (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.5 mg/l NAA (-naphthalene acetic acid). Some genotypes showed high regeneration response while others showed lower on the same media with hypocotyl and cotyledon derived calli. This study showed that genotypic differences affect callus induction and plant regeneration in sunflower tissue culture studies.
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm evaluation for drought tolerance
Saeed Rauf,Hafeez A. Sadaqat
Communications in Biometry and Crop Science , 2007,
Abstract: Future climate changes are expected to increase risks of drought, which already represent the most common stress factor for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) production throughout the world. It is important, therefore, to evaluate genotypes for this stress. Our objective was to study yield and yield-related traits under irrigated and drought conditions in 56 sunflower genotypes of different origin and growth habit. A wide range of intraspecific genetic variability was present in sunflower, which could be used to develop new genotypes, more adapted to drought conditions. The highest level of tolerance was present in local genotypes. Among restorers, the highest level of tolerance was present in RL-57 (Pakistan), whereas an exotic restorer F-Yu-82 (Spain) showed the highest yield, along with high drought susceptibility index. Inbred line ORI-9/B (Pakistan) was identified as the most tolerant line combined with low yield potential, whereas AMES-10107 and AMES-10103 (China) were found to be moderately drought-tolerant lines with highest yield. Selection among segregating progeny from hybridization among lines with good drought tolerance with lines of good yield potential may lead to the development of superior inbred lines.
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