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Attitudes of Serbian "returnees" about identity Serbs and Croats  [PDF]
Baro? Sla?ana
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/gei0553105s
Abstract: Attitudes of Serbian "returnees" of Livanjsko polje about ethnic identity of Us, Serbs, and Them, Croats, are demonstrated in this article. Croats that have political control and social-economic power, appear as "Significant Others", but also Strangers, representatives of different peaceful and humanitarian organizations. Religious belief and language appear as basic symbol of difference, Marker, between Serbs and Croats, although existing attitudes in a bigger measure rely on religious belief. Basic attitudes about identity Us and Them are led out from interrelations of these Markers and people. There are two groups of attitudes about Us-identity. The 119 first group is mostly the answer at negative external determination, by which the Serbs are determinate as nationalists and aggressors. They are steered on negation of such definition, so the Serbs are generally seen as peaceful, tolerant, nationalists - internationalists; shortly, as bearers of positive collective, but also individual relation to Others. The second group of attitudes mainly relates negative aspects of Serbian identity. There are Serbian dissension, individual interests, generally - attitudes which speak about collective, but also individual negative relation of Serbs to members of their own group. Both groups of attitudes could be explaining by interrelation of orthodox religion and people. This determination of Us, as it is limited by external definition, in that way qualifies determination of Them. So, the Croats, considering the interrelation of Catholicism and people, are seen as nationalists, with clear religion - national aim and steered to its realization - as aggressors. Though, here are both negative and positive attitudes about Croat identity. If positive or negative aspects of that identity would obtain, before all depends of the fact in which measure the Croats are steered by their church, in fact, which politics, in the certain time, the catholic church prosecutes relate to orthodox church. Therefore the Croat appears as bearers of individual-positive relation to Others (Serbs), when the church do not steer them in other way. So, until the catholic, religious politics is neutral, harmonious ethnic relations are possible, owing this positive aspect of Croat identity at individual plan and aspects of Serbian identity at both, collective and individual, plan (regardless of effect of church). On concrete terrain of Livanjsko polje, Serbs see there selves as the most representative bearers of positive aspects of Serbian identity, and neighbor’s Croats (from Livno) as people w
Stereotypes about the Serbs and the break-up of Yugoslavia  [PDF]
Vukovi? Slobodan
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Drustvene Nauke , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/zmsdn0620075v
Abstract: The article deals with the influence of Western press, mainly German Austrian and American on the break-up of the second Yugoslavia. Regarding German and Austrian press, it only renewed old and created new stereotypes about the Serbs and Serbia in the eve and during the break-up of Yugoslavia. Comparative analysis shows that these are the long lasting structures and that this writing is in accordance with a long tradition. At the end, German and Austrian elites reached consensus regarding these specific issues, that is, break-up of Yugoslavia. On the other hand, the attitude of the USA press was changing in accordance with the changes in the position of the administration. American media have a unique standpoint towards the foreign public and they represent the proclaimed interests of the administration. This means that the USA government, through the controlled media, prepared its public for its future steps in order to justify the recognition of separated republics.
Changes in the share of ethnic Croats and Serbs in Croatia by town and municipality based on the results of censuses from 1991 and 2001  [PDF]
Berber Maja,Grbi? Bo?o,Pavkov Slavica
Stanovni?tvo , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/stnv0802023b
Abstract: This article shows the changes in the populations of Croatian and Serbian ethnic affiliation in Croatia based on population censuses of 1991 and 2001. In the last intercensal period (1991-2001), methodological definitions of resident population changed significantly, Croatia's administrative-territorial borders changed and a war occurred (1991-1995), all of which influenced the demographical situation of Croatia. It is of special importance that the term 'ethnic affiliation' is significantly unstable and unpredictable and highly influenced by both subjective and external influences, which make its analysis even more difficult. By establishing a connection between the old (1991) and the new (2001) names of settlements, the authors demonstrated the changes in the share of ethnic Croats and Serbs in the total population of towns and municipalities in Croatia in the observed intercensal period. Both the demographic and the ethnic profile of Croatia changed in the period of 1991-2001. The total population of Croatia, as well as the population of ethnic Serbs, decreased in this period, while the population of ethnic Croats increased. Since Croatia had a negative natural increase in the observed period, this increase is attributed to migrations and changes in declarations of ethnic affiliation. While the share of ethnic Serbs decreased significantly (from 12,2% in 1991 to 4,5% in 2001), their territorial distribution remained practically the same. .
Stereotypes concerning Greeks in Serbian language  [PDF]
Risti? Stana
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/gei0654047r
Abstract: Stereotypes concerning Greeks in Serbian language are researched through the historical source (Dictionary of JAZU). The source describes a complex representation, with a truthful foundation that incorporates layers of mythological and historical memories on stereotypes in the traditional culture. This ethnic stereotype of the people associated with Serbs in one very positive experience, both in mythological and historical legacies, is freed from prejudice, thus preventing a possibility of political misuse of its ethnic symbolism.
Screens to See the World. Television Stereotypes of the Mexican Indigenous Population and the Generation of Prejudice  [cached]
C Mu?iz,AR Saldierna,FJ Mara?ón,AB Rodríguez
Revista Latina de Comunicación Social , 2013, DOI: 10.4185/rlcs-2013-978en
Abstract: Introduction. Stereotypes are socially-structured beliefs about a particular social group, which can be derived from direct or indirect contact with members of that group. In this regard, it has been pointed out that media representations can generate and reinforce stereotypes that lead to the development of more or less prejudiced attitudes. Objectives. This study seeks to examine whether this process occurs with respect to the Mexican indigenous population, in the context of the metropolitan area of Monterrey. Methods. The study combined two methods: the first one consisted of the content analysis of fiction TV programmes in order to identify possible stereotypes about Mexico’s indigenous population; the second instrument was a survey applied to high school students of the metropolitan area of Monterrey in order to investigate the relationship between their beliefs and prejudiced attitudes towards indigenous people. Conclusions. Results confirmed the impact of the consumption of media stereotypes on the level of prejudice towards indigenous people, but not on the stereotyping of this sector of the population.
Nationalism among the Croats  [PDF]
Prica Bogdan
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Drustvene Nauke , 2004, DOI: 10.2298/zmsdn0417103p
Abstract: These are the three lectures about Croatian nationalism presented in the Serbian Culture Club in 1940. They review the history of the Croato-Serbian relations in a specific way, from the time when the Serbs settled in the regions of the former Croatian medieval state, after the Turkish conquest of the Balkans, after the fall of Bosnia in 1463 and after the Mohács Battle in 1526, till the period preceding World War II. Comparing Serbian and Croatian nationalism, the author points out that nationalism among the Croats appeared relatively late, that it did not have deeper folk roots and that at first it was the nationalism of the upper class. It was a feudal-estate nationalism but later there also appeared Austro-Catholic nationalism of the lower class in the regions under the Habsburgs. Enmity, hatred towards the Serbs and Serbophobia were the common features of these two nationalisms. The author points out that the feudal-estate nationalism of the upper class was caused by the state-legal and agrarian-legal regulation in the regions of the former Croatian kingdom settled by the Serbs. These regions, under the name of Military Border, were granted a special legal system. As for their state-legal status, the Serbs were completely excluded from the rule of the Croatian Ban the Croatian Assembly, and were under the jurisdiction of the Austrian military commanders – therefore, directly under Vienna. As for the agrarian-legal status, Vienna completely freed the inhabitants of the Border from all taxes for the Croatian gentry, who had owned these regions before the Turkish offensive; the reason was to motivate the Serbs for permanent military service at the Border and to use these regulations to lure new Serbs-solders from the neighbouring Turkish Empire. And the dynastic-catholic nationalism of the lower class clashed with the Serbs, inhabitants of the Border, primarily because of the religious intolerance, of the irresistable desire to convert the Serbs into Catholicism. In addition, envy towards the Serbs in the Border area – warriors and free men – began to develop more and more among the Croatian peasants in the Ban’s Croatia, in the so-called provincial, who still remained the serfs of their gentry. The author underlines that the Croatian Serbophobias have deep historical and social roots, and points to the typical historical facts which confirm that. Croatian nationalism withdrew only sporadically before the Illyrian Yugoslavism, which saw several rises and falls in Croatia. Yugoslavism was strengthened only when the pressure from Vienna, Pest or the Ita
Perception of Hungarians by the Serbs between the two world wars  [PDF]
Malovi? Gojko
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Drustvene Nauke , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/zmsdn1032007m
Abstract: Serbs and Hungarians are neighboring nations for more than a millennium. Over the course of last couple of centuries, due to historical circumstances, a substantial part of the Serbian population has been intermixed with Hungarians. Their mutual relationship has resulted in more than enough historically memorable events. Out of the conflicts of World War I, Serbs came out as the victors while Hungarians were on the side of the defeated. Consequences of the war in which Serbs and Hungarians fought each other left deep wounds on their mutual relationship. The devastating war blows and hardships which Hungarians brought onto Serbs during World War I have contributed to a certain level of distrust which Serbs felt towards Hungarians between the two world wars. This condition has largely influenced mutual sentiments of both peoples. During the period between the two world wars, Serbs acquired some new attitudes, but even more so strengthened the old ones they have had towards Hungarians. Serbs realized that Hungarians kept their national pride even in the period between the two wars, and that the Hungarian attitude towards Serbs has undergone certain change. The territorial dispute between Hungary as the national state of Hungarians, and Yugoslavia as a country predominantly populated by Serbs, represented the major obstacle and a source of misunderstanding between the two nations. The attitudes of the wider Serbian population towards Hungarians between the two wars are harder to apprehend because there was hardly any such research or analysis done in this period. What is available, however, are various personal i.e. subjective opinions recorded by individual Serbian intellectuals of various profiles of the time. They have acquainted themselves and, to a certain extent, studied both Hungarians who lived in Hungary and the Hungarian national minority who lived in Yugoslavia, mainly throughout the multinational region of Vojvodina. Between the two wars, Serbs held Hungarians in high esteem as serious people who, aside from some warlike and crude traits, possess good work habits, sensibility and integrity. This is evident in the fact that in this period Serbs did not come up with a single pejorative or insulting song, witticism or aphorism in regards to Hungarians. For the purpose of greater understanding and even closeness between the two nations in the future, it would be beneficial to carry out a more extensive research into the mutual relationship of Serbs and Hungarians, as well as of their respective cultural accomplishments, not only in the period betwee
Serbs in Croatia (1918-1929): Between the myth of “Greater-Serbian Hegemony” and social reality  [PDF]
Bo?i? Sofija
Balcanica , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/balc1041185b
Abstract: The situation of the Serbian community in Croatia in the years following the 1918 unification has been analyzed in order to test whether the clichéd view of Croatia and Croats as having been endangered and exploited had any impact on the status of the Serbian community and, if it did, in what way. Although the topic is far from being exhausted in this contribution, the examples given suggest that the two nations in Croatia were deeply divided. The sources studied cast quite a different light on the thesis that Croats were “oppressed” by Serbs, a thesis that has for quite a long time been passing as a valid historical interpretation in historiography. These sources suggest that the perception of Serbs as hegemony-minded resulted from propaganda rather than from the actual state of affairs. Besides, they show that the Serbs - systematically portrayed to the Croatian public as invaders and enslavers, while, by contrast, they saw themselves as being “third-rate citizens” - lived their daily lives under strain, surrounded by intolerance, subjected to various forms of pressure and violence, often fearing for their livelihoods, even for their lives. The inexorable logic of facts leads to the conclusion that members of the Serbian community in Croatia felt discriminated against and not quite safe.
Stereotypes Communication  [cached]
Shuli Zhang,Dongyuan Deng
International Education Studies , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ies.v2n4p25
Abstract: We live in a world, which is becoming a Global Village in which information and communication attract people’s attention more than ever before. Our desire to communicate with strangers and our relationships with them depend on the degree to which we are effective in communicating with them. There are so many factors restricting or improving people’s communication. This essay gives an analysis based on one factor called stereotypes. In intercultural research, the influence of stereotypes on people’s behaviors in communication is a very important issue to take into account. This paper aims to illustrate stereotypes from the aspects of their social and psychological perspectives, great influence on people’s communication, the problems they may cause, and some solutions.
On the external standardization of the language of Serbs  [PDF]
Radi? Prvoslav
Ju?noslovenski Filolog , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/jfi0864365r
Abstract: The weakening of the SFRY (Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia) which was followed by its dissolution, had an impact on a wide range of issues, one of them being the degradation of the so called Serbo-Croatian language. Not only did the external political influences contribute to the dissolution of the SFRY, but they also play a part in the linguistic profiling of new standard varieties today. However, as the dissolution of Yugoslavia couldn't have been imagined without consequences for Serbs primarily, the transformation of the 'Serbo-Croatian' language into a series of new language norms-successors of the old ones, cannot take place without challenging the rights of the great number of Serbs who live outside of Serbia. These are the rights that primarily refer to the linguistic and social identity - therefore the national identity. The best illustration of this are the external influences in the domain of linguistic engineering today, and these influences can basically be divided into extensive (e. g. commercials, radio and TV programmes) and intensive (textbooks, handbooks etc). The aim of this study is the analysis of those different kinds of pressures put on the standard variety of the language of Serbs. From the domain of the extensive influences (commercials) there is an example of the instruction given on a tube of toothpaste (Vademecum laboratories, Perfection 5 - Schwarzkopf & Henkel, Dusseldorf - Germany), and as an example of the intensive influences of this type, there is an American textbook (R. Alexander, E. Elias-Bursa} Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, a Textbook, With Exercises and Basic Grammar, The University of Wisconsin Press, 2006). Both of these language materials proved to be highly compatible when it comes to the characteristics that should become an integral part of the standard language variety of Serbs, and apparently only the Serbs who live in Serbia. Among the language characteristics which are 'typically Serbian' the most prominent are: ekavian dialect ('lepa deca', not: 'lijepa djeca'), the 'da + prezent' construction ('moram da itam', not: 'moram itati'), the prepositional form 'sa' ('sa limunom', not: 's limunom'), as well as many other characteristics like interrogative sentences beginning with da li ('Da li si student?', not 'Jesi li student?') etc. As it follows the newly formed political borders in the area of the former SFRY, the contemporary linguistic engineering has engaged itself in creation of the new standard language varieties, including the one (or should we say, primarily the one) that belongs to the S
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