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The integration of women and the effects of the “glass ceiling” in the police profession
Tomi? Marta
Temida , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/tem1204197t
Abstract: This paper considers the position of women in the police profession in terms of domination of masculinity and the effects of the “glass ceiling”. Generally, these mechanisms create unequal opportunities and unequal treatment of women in the police and other predominantly male professions, and overall create adverse conditions for their integration and slower career advancement. The aim of this paper is to show that women who are employed in the police, who have an affinity for the profession and wish to advance professionally are socially conditioned in a predominantly male environment, particularly in professions that have a historically bounded rule of masculinity, and that, as such, the mechanisms of the “glass ceiling” prevent them to reach the highest step in their career. Women in the police profession still are still a minority and have to deal with well integrated social and professional structural barriers as well as cultural barriers.
Women, professorship and unequal opportunities
Tomi? Marta
Temida , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/tem1002017t
Abstract: This text deals with the problem of unequal opportunities for women who are employed at higher education institutions, which have affinities in the scientific and teaching careers in institutions where they work. The aim of this paper is to show that women are part of masculine culture, and as such, they are gender- determined and subordinated in the dominant male academic teaching profession. The problem of the slow progress of women in the academic profession is deeply social rooted and it is difficult to see clear mechanisms by which it is persistently maintained and operated. Certainly these mechanisms, which stop a woman on a particular step in the promotion of her career have a stronghold on many levels because they act with great power. In the sphere of education and science, women are still a minority. Women in teaching and scientific profession are further handicapped by an integrated structural and cultural barriers and also a system that clearly works against them.
女性学术职业国际化研究    ——基于“管道渗漏”理论视域
Research on Academic Profession Internationalization of Females——Based on the Theory Vision of Pipe Leakage
 [PDF]

曾晓青,李碧虹
- , 2015,
Abstract: 本文以管道渗漏理论为基础,通过问卷调查、数据分 析,从本土国际化、跨境交流国际化和参与意识国际化三个维 度对女性学术职业国际化状况进行考察。研究发现:女性的本 土科研国际化、跨境科研国际化程度比男性低,但女性本土教 学国际化的参与多于男性,并且国际化参与意识较男性更强。 女性更容易从学术职业国际化管道中渗漏出去的原因,主要是 由于职业生涯初期缺乏接受必要的指导、母亲社会责任以及 难于权衡好家庭和职业的矛盾关系、学术职业国际化和女性自 身的特性、学术体制内的因素导致的。提高女性学术职业国际 化程度,是争取女性在学术世界话语权的重要内容,也是高等 教育国际化的题中应有之义。
Based on the theory of Pipe leakage, the author utilizes data obtained from surveyed questionnaire to investigate academic profession internationalization of females in terms of three dimensions, namely native internationalization, internationalization of cross-border communication, and internationalization of participation awareness. As the research revealed, the level of women are much lower than their male counterparts in terms of the degree of internationalization of native research, internationalization of cross-border research. However, females participate more in internationalization of native teaching with a stronger sense of internationalization participation, compared to males. Lacking necessary guidance in early stages of their career, owning the social responsibility as a mother, finding difficulties in handling the contradictory relation between family and work, the nature of females and academic profession internationalization,factors within the academic system are all considered as reasons why females are more likely to be leaked from the pipe of academic profession internationalization. Increasing the degree of academic profession internationalization of female is not only an important content to strive for their discourse right in academia, but something inherent in internationalization of higher education.
Underrepresentation of Women at Academic Excellence and Position of Power: Role of Harassment and Glass Ceiling  [PDF]
Rizwana Yousaf, Rudi Schmiede
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2016.42023
Abstract: The study intends to comprehend the underrepresentation of women on positions of power and academic excellence in academia. The study explained the role of exploitation and harassment, which might hinder, when women were trying to climb to top hierarchical position. The majority of women supervised by male heads, sexual harassment could be used as a glass ceiling to hamper women to reach top hierarchal level. The majority participants were working on lower academic and administrative hierarchy; they were experiencing harassment throughout the hierarchical level. Similarly, they considered that harassment could contribute to the underrepresentation of women at academic excellence and a position of power.
Work, the Brazilian Women, and the Teaching Profession: Some Notes  [PDF]
Tania Antonelli Marcelino Brabo, Rosane Michelli de Castro, José Carlos Miguel
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.617194
Abstract: In this article, we present some notes on three distinct themes, but whose understanding requires an interdisciplinary analysis considering presenting aspects that intertwine and feature dependent ways from each other. Thus, the introduction presents the world of work aspects in our society, seeking to situate the important participation of all its processes, including women, through training processes of the production of knowledge on education. Then, we present a reflection on the work of women, double work shift and the division of labor between the sexes. Finally, we discuss some historical aspects about the woman in the teacher profession in Brazil.
Gender in medicine – an issue for women only? A survey of physician teachers' gender attitudes  [cached]
Risberg Gunilla,Johansson Eva E,Westman G?ran,Hamberg Katarina
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2003,
Abstract: Background During the last decades research has disclosed gender differences and gender bias in different fields of academic and clinical medicine. Consequently, a gender perspective has been asked for in medical curricula and medical education. However, in reports about implementation attempts, difficulties and reluctance have been described. Since teachers are key persons when introducing new issues we surveyed physician teachers' attitudes towards the importance of gender in professional relations. We also analyzed if gender of the physician is related to these attitudes. Method Questionnaires were sent to all 468 senior physicians (29 % women), at the clinical departments and in family medicine, engaged in educating medical students at a Swedish university. They were asked to rate, on five visual analogue scales, the importance of physician and patient gender in consultation, of physician and student gender in clinical tutoring, and of physician gender in other professional encounters. Differences between women and men were estimated by chi-2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The response rate was 65 %. The physicians rated gender more important in consultation than in clinical tutoring. There were significant differences between women and men in all investigated areas also when adjusting for speciality, age, academic degree and years in the profession. A higher proportion of women than men assessed gender as important in professional relationships. Those who assessed very low were all men while both men and women were represented among those with high ratings. Conclusions To implement a gender perspective in medical education it is necessary that both male and female teachers participate and embrace gender aspects as important. To facilitate implementation and to convince those who are indifferent, this study indicates that special efforts are needed to motivate men. We suggest that men with an interest in gender issues should be involved in this work. Further research is needed to find out how such male-oriented endeavours should be outlined.
WOMEN IN MEDICAL PROFESSION: A STUDY ON ROLE CONFLICT
MONESH AND N.H. PATIL
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Role conflict is defined as “job roles that interfere with on another” and “incompatible expectations associated with a social position, such as student, employee, or mother”. Role conflict occurs when compliance with one role obligations makes it more difficult for an individual to comply with another. The research studies on role conflict suggest that role conflict being stressful causes mal-integration in the work place, poor performance, lower institutional commitment and higher rate of resignations. Working women are performing dual role that is to look after the family including husband and children and also performing office work outside the family. Hence, there is role conflict for the working women in performing the dual role. In case of working women in medical professions such as doctors or nurses, there are irregular timings to look after their patients in hospitals. As a result, there is role conflict for the medical and health professionals towards their role in their families and hospitals. The role conflict of the women health professionals cause tension, anxiety, stress and even family disorganization due to lack of cooperation from family members. Hence, there is need to manage role conflict by women health professionals. It is suggested to the family members of women health professionals to cooperate with their spouses in family matters and it is also suggested to the women health professionals to manage their stress by performing yoga and meditation and such other techniques, so as to control mental stress, strain and anxiety
Gender in medicine – an issue for women only? A survey of physician teachers' gender attitudes
Gunilla Risberg, Eva E Johansson, G?ran Westman, Katarina Hamberg
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-2-10
Abstract: Questionnaires were sent to all 468 senior physicians (29 % women), at the clinical departments and in family medicine, engaged in educating medical students at a Swedish university. They were asked to rate, on five visual analogue scales, the importance of physician and patient gender in consultation, of physician and student gender in clinical tutoring, and of physician gender in other professional encounters. Differences between women and men were estimated by chi-2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses.The response rate was 65 %. The physicians rated gender more important in consultation than in clinical tutoring. There were significant differences between women and men in all investigated areas also when adjusting for speciality, age, academic degree and years in the profession. A higher proportion of women than men assessed gender as important in professional relationships. Those who assessed very low were all men while both men and women were represented among those with high ratings.To implement a gender perspective in medical education it is necessary that both male and female teachers participate and embrace gender aspects as important. To facilitate implementation and to convince those who are indifferent, this study indicates that special efforts are needed to motivate men. We suggest that men with an interest in gender issues should be involved in this work. Further research is needed to find out how such male-oriented endeavours should be outlined.During the last decades the knowledge of gender-related differences and gender bias in many fields of medicine has increased.There is evidence that women patients do not get the same investigations and treatments as men when diseased [1-3]. More drugs are prescribed to women [4] and more psychosomatic explanations are suggested for their symptoms [2]. Female patients often feel disappointed in their encounters with health care[5].Research on doctor-patient relationship indicates that female and
A Case Study of Attitude of Male Towards Career Women
Iram Bukhari,Shamayla Akhtar,Sidra Anwar,Madeeha Munir
Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The present study is an attempt to probe into the socio-economic factors which influence the attitude of urban male towards career women. This study was conducted in three colonies of Sheikhupura District. A sample of 150 males was randomly selected from three colonies. According to this study, majority of the respondents i.e. 62.7%, were strongly agreed that educated female could better look after their families, sixty two of the respondents were agreed with this statement that "educated girls are very successful in their married life. Majority of the respondents i.e. 68% agreed that women has equal status of male in our society. I suggest that women involvement in economic activities has adverse implications on family development. It is suggested that educational, health and financial institutions should have their own child care centers. Teaching profession is compatible with the working women`s family`s social development. It is suggested that educated women should be accommodated in education department.
Possible barriers to the advancement of women to leadership positions in the education profession
E.M. Tsoka, E.R. Mathipa
South African Journal of Education , 2001,
Abstract: In a previous article we discussed, in detail, the problem of this study, its aim, methods used, its limitations, and the first five of twelve barriers that were perceived to be obstacles to the advancement of women to leadership positions in the education profession, in particular, and the workplace, in general. To avoid repetition, the issues already discussed can be read as background information in the previous article. This article is devoted to the discussion of the last seven barriers that were also identified as constituting some of the hurdles women have to overcome before they are promoted to senior positions in the field of education. (South African Journal of Education: 2001 21(4): 324-330)
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