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Contribution à l’analyse de l’érosion intra-urbaine à Kinshasa (R.D.C.) A Contribution to the analysis of urban erosion in Kinshasa (D.R.C.)  [cached]
Thomas Wouters,Eléonore Wolff
Belgeo : Revue Belge de Géographie , 2012,
Abstract: Cette étude contribue à améliorer la compréhension de l’érosion en milieu urbain. Elle propose une clef d’interprétation visuelle des ravins actifs ou non sur une image satellitaire à très haute résolution spatiale. Les ravins étant délimités, le contexte urbain est analysé afin d’identifier sur l’image l’origine du ravinement. Ces résultats sont confrontés à un levé de terrain exhaustif effectué par DGPS sur le terrain. This study contributes to improve the understanding of the erosion process in an urban context. It proposes a visual interpretation key of the gullies, be they active or not, on a very high resolution satellite image. While the gullies are delineated, the urban context is analyzed on the image to identify the origin of each gully. These results are confronted with an exhaustive ground survey achieved by DGPS.
Inventaire des espèces végétales mises en culture dans les parcelles en milieu urbain. Cas de la commune de Limete-Kinshasa- R.D. Congo
Makumbelo, E.,Lukoki, L.,Sj. Paulus, J.,Luyindula, N.
Tropicultura , 2002,
Abstract: Inventory of Vegetal Species Cultivated in Plots Gardens in Urban Environment. Instance of Limete Commune-Kinshasa- Democratic Republic of Congo. A survey carried out in 201 plots of the "commune" of Limete permitted to inventoriate nineteen species of cultivated vegetables and 764 plants of 18 fruit-tree species planted or kept in this area. Mangifera indica is the most planted tree species and Ipomoae batatas is the most frequently cultivated vegetable species. Promoted and supported, this urban agriculture can modify the town ecosystem characteristics with a vegetation able to purify the air, to regulate the climate, to restore soil fertility and to provide vegetables and fruits to the population.
Essais de culture de quelques champignons lignicoles comestibles de la région de Kinshasa (R.D. Congo) sur divers substrats lignocellulosiques  [PDF]
Dibaluka, MS.,Lukoki, LF.,De Kesel, A.,Degreef, J.
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 2010,
Abstract: Cultivation tests for some edible lignicolous mushrooms in the Kinshasa region (D.R. Congo) on different lignocellulosic substrates. Nine strains of edible lignicolous mushrooms isolated on agar medium and tested on spawn substrates of corn grains and sawdust, and on fruiting substrates of sawdust and stems of Cyperus papyrus, gave satisfactory results. The highest average yield in sporophores, of 22% fresh weight, was obtained with a local strain of Pleurotus flabellatus on C. papyrus stems. An average yield of 19% was recorded with Lentinus squarrosulus on sawdust substrates. This constitutes the first publication of methodological data on the cultivation of local strains of edible mushrooms for central Africa.
Epidemiological changes in oesophageal cancer at National Hospital, Bloemfontein: 1995, 2000 and 2005  [cached]
Tian van der Merwe,Ruan van der Walt,Jován Esterhuizen,Stephani Botha
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v2i1.100
Abstract: Background: Oesophageal cancer is a common malignancy with a high mortality rate. The two main histological types are squamous cell and adenocarcinoma. An increase in oesophageal adenocarcinoma has been noted, especially in developed countries. Objectives: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the profile of oesophageal cancer by reviewing medical records of patients diagnosed with oesophageal cancer in 1995, 2000 and 2005. Method: The study sample consisted of 474 files of patients diagnosed, for the first time, with oesophageal cancer in 1995, 2000 and 2005, at the National Hospital in Bloemfontein and the outreach clinics in surrounding areas. Information reviewed from patient files included: age, race and gender of the patient, as well as topography, size, histological grade and type of the tumour. Results: The number of newly diagnosed cases of oesophageal carcinoma decreased over the 10-year period. The mean age of patients was > 57 years. The majority of cases were Black patients: 90.5% in 1995, 93.2% in 2000 and 87.7% in 2005. More male patients were seen (71.5% in 1995, 70.1% in 2000 and 64.2% in 2005), although the number of female patients diagnosed with this malignancy increased by 7.3% from 1995 to 2005. The mid- and lower third of the oesophagus were affected most commonly, most lesions were 6 cm – 10 cm in length and classified as Grade II, moderately differentiated tumours. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in 76.9% of patients in 1995, 90.5% in 2000 and 94.3% in 2005. Conclusion: The number of newly diagnosed cases of oesophageal carcinoma decreased over the 10-year period, but demographic and disease characteristics remained constant. How to cite this article: Van der Merwe T, Van der Walt R, Esterhuizen J, Botha S, Goedhals L, Joubert G. Epidemiological changes in oesophageal cancer at National Hospital, Bloemfontein: 1995, 2000 and 2005. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2010;2(1), Art. #100, 5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v2i1.100
Factors associated with wife beating in Egypt: Analysis of two surveys (1995 and 2005)
Manas K Akmatov, Rafael T Mikolajczyk, Shokria Labeeb, Enas Dhaher, Md Mobarak Khan
BMC Women's Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6874-8-15
Abstract: We used data from two Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted in Egypt in 1995 and 2005 using multistage household sampling. Data related to wife beating included information from 7122 women in 1995 and 5612 women in 2005. Logistic regression was used to analyze factors independently associated with wife beating. Special weights were used to obtain nationally representative estimates.In 1995 17.5% of married women in Egypt experienced wife beating in the last 12 months, in 2005 – 18.9% or 16.0%, using different measures. The association between socio-demographic differentials and wife beating was weaker in the newer survey. The 12-month prevalence of wife beating was lower only when both partners were educated, but the differences across education levels were less pronounced in 2005. Based on the information available in the 2005 survey, more educated women experienced less severe forms of wife beating than less educated women.Different measures used in both surveys make a direct comparison difficult. The observed patterns indicate that the changes in prevalence may be masked by two opposite processes occurring in the society: a decrease in (severe forms of) wife beating and an increase in reporting of wife beating. Improving the access to education for women and raising education levels in the whole society may help reducing wife beating.Intimate partner violence is a worldwide problem, present in all cultures and societies [1]. The rates of wife beating are higher among young couples, in poor and less educated, but beating occurs in all socio-economic groups and also across more mature couples [2,3]. The prevalence of wife abuse and battering has been studied extensively in many societies including Arabic countries [4-7]. Consistent with the high acceptance of wife beating, surveys in Egypt, Palestine, and Tunisia indicated a very high prevalence of wife beating in these countries [8]. Egypt is a country with both a high prevalence of wife beating compared
Comparison of Indicators of Risk of Deafness in Newborns Studied in the Years 1995 and 2005  [cached]
Lopes, Monique Kelly Duarte,Santos, Teresa Maria Momensohn
International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: The data submitted by the Center of Epidemiological Surveillance of the State of S o Paulo indicates the number of children affected by infecto-contagious diseases increases yearly. Some of these diseases are considered to be of risk for hearing. Objective: Check and compare the occurrence of risk indicators of the Hearing Loss during the interval of 10 years in a maternity of S o Paulo. Method: Quantitative and retrospective study carried out from the research and review of data of registers supplied by a maternity of the city of S o Paulo. We surveyed the registers of babies who were born from January through December of the years of 1995 (n=2.077) and 2005 (n=5.129), including those who had risk indicators for deafness and prematurity, low weight and asphyxia, besides having a diagnosis confirmed or suspicion of infecto-contagious diseases of group TORSCH-A. Results: We reviewed reports of 565 children born in 1995, and 1047 born in 2005. Among the risk indicators of deafness, we noticed a significant difference for the indicator of prematurity and asphyxia and there was no significant difference for the low weight indicator. The risk indicators of prematurity, low weight and asphyxia were more frequent than Toxoplasmosis, Syphilis and HIV+. The children born in 1995 tended to have a higher number of risk indicators and/or diseases than those born in 2005 (p<0.001). Conclusion: The major incidence of indicators in 1995 appoints an improvement to health that diminishes the index of newborns with risk of deafness along 10 years.
A Decade of Change: An Institutional Experience with Breast Surgery in 1995 and 2005
Amber A. Guth,Beth Ann Shanker,Daniel F. Roses,Deborah Axelrod
Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research , 2008,
Abstract: Introduction: With the adoption of routine screening mammography, breast cancers are being diagnosed at earlier stages, with DCIS now accouting for 22.5% of all newly diagnosed breast cancers. This has been attributed to both increased breast cancer awareness and improvements in breast imaging techniques. How have these changes, including the increased use of image-guided sampling techniques, influenced the clinical practice of breast surgery?Methods: The institutional pathology database was queried for all breast surgeries, including breast reconstruction, performed in 1995 and 2005. Cosmetic procedures were excluded. The results were analysed utilizing the Chi-square test.Results: Surgical indications changed during 10-year study period, with an increase in preoperatively diagnosed cancers undergoing definitive surgical management. ADH, and to a lesser extent, ALH, became indications for surgical excision. Fewer surgical biopsies were performed for indeterminate abnormalities on breast imaging, due to the introduction of stereotactic large core biopsy. While the rate of benign breast biopsies remained constant, there was a higher percentage of precancerous and DCIS cases in 2005. The overall rate of mastectomy decreased from 36.8% in 1995 to 14.5% in 2005. With the increase in sentinel node procedures, the rate of ALND dropped from 18.3% to 13.7%. Accompanying the increased recognition of early-stage cancers, the rate of positive ALND also decreased, from 43.3% to 25.0%.Conclusions: While the rate of benign breast biopsies has remained constant over a recent 10-year period, fewer diagnostic surgical image-guided biopsies were performed in 2005. A greater percentage of patients with breast cancer or preinvasive disease have these diagnoses determined before surgery. More preinvasive and Stage 0 cancers are undergoing surgical management. Earlier stage invasive cancers are being detected, reflected by the lower incidence of axillary nodal metastases.
Influence des actions anthropiques sur la dynamique spatio-temporelle de l\'occupation du sol dans la province du Bas-Congo (R.D. Congo).
I Bamba, A Mama, DF Neuba, KJ Koffi, D Traore, M Visser, B Sinsin, J Lejoly, J Bogaert
Sciences & Nature , 2008,
Abstract: Située à proximité de Kinshasa, la province du Bas-Congo (R.D. Congo) est l\'une des principales pourvoyeuses en produits vivriers de cette ville. Par conséquent, l\'augmentation de la pression sur les ressources naturelles s\'accentue. L\'analyse diachronique du paysage peut servir à montrer l\'effet des actions anthropiques sur l\'occupation du sol de cette province. La présente étude a pour but la quantification de la dynamique paysagère dans une zone test de cette province entre 1960 et 2005. Elle a permis, grace à la matrice de transition appuyée par le calcul d\'indices de structure spatiale, de montrer que l\'occupation du sol a profondément changé. La matrice du paysage, initialement constituée par les forêts secondaires (49,95% du paysage), s\'est dégradée au profit des savanes (qui ont conquis 14,23% des forêts secondaires) et des jachères et champs (qui ont conquis 27,23% des forêts secondaires). L\'étude a ainsi révélé trois processus de transformation du paysage: la savanisation, la fragmentation de l\'écosystème forestier et enfin une la formation de forêt dense (succession). Ces changements – excepté la succession – sont principalement dus à des perturbations anthropiques. La pression démographique et les pratiques agricoles non durables ont orienté la modification de l\'occupation du sol. Les écosystèmes forestiers ont été substitués par des écosystèmes anthropisés mena ant alors la biodiversité de cette zone. Situated nearby Kinshasa, the Bas-Congo province (Democratic Republic of the Congo) is one of the principal providers of food products of this city. Consequently, an increased anthropogenic pressure on natural resources is observed. Analysis of the landscape dynamics can be used to demonstrate the impact of human activities on land cover in this province. The objective of this study is to quantify landscape dynamics between 1960 and 2005 in a test zone situated in the aforementioned province Based on the interpretation of the transition matrix and on the calculation of spatial pattern metrics, a profound change of land cover has been shown. The landscape matrix, initially constituted by secondary forests (49.95% of the landscape), has been degraded and replaced by savannah vegetation (substitution of 14.23% of the secondary forests) and mosaics of fallow land and fields (substitution of 27.23% of the secondary forests). Three spatial processes of land transformation have been identified: creation of savannah, forest degradation or fragmentation, and formation of dense forest (succession). These changes – except succession – are mainly due to anthropogenic disturbance. Demographic pressure and unsustainable agricultural practices have contributed to the change of land cover. Forest ecosystems are substituted by anthropogenic ecosystems which indicates a threat to the biodiversity of this area.
Nursing related to arterial hypertension: analysis of the production of the knowledge from 1995 to 2005.  [cached]
Rita Neuma Dantas Cavalcante de Abreu,Luciana Alves da Rocha,Ana Lúcia Pereira de Albuquerque,Ana Virgínia de Melo Fialho
Online Brazilian Journal of Nursing , 2006,
Abstract: The objective was to analyze the knowledge produced in the nursing about arterial hypertension in the period of 1995 to 2005. The bibliographical study related articles of the Brazilian nursing, of international circulation, with the words "hypertension" or "arterial hypertension" as describers, present in the Specialized Bibliographical Database in the Nursing Area of Brazil (SBDNAB). Were identified 38 articles, being 12 (31,5%) in the Magazine of the School of Nursing of the University of S o Paulo and 9 (23,7%) in the Latin-American School of Nursing. Were prioritized environments of primary attention, carried out, especially, in S o Paulo. From the total, 27 studies (71.0%) did not have theoretical references. There was a predominance of doctors authors and productions of qualitative nature 18 (47,3%). The subjects concerned, on its major part, about multi-professional approach 10 (26,3%) and handling with medicines 7 (18,4%). We consider fundamental the continuity of works approaching that theme, therefore there is need of catalyze and to improve the researches in nursing, being important the identification of gaps in the existing knowledge. Keywords: research; nursing; hypertension
Review: Results of studying atmospheric corrosion in Vietnam 1995–2005
Le Thi Hong Lien, Pham Thy San and Hoang Lam Hong
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials , 2007,
Abstract: Vietnam is situated in the wet tropical zone; thus, atmospheric conditions are characterized by high temperatures and a long time of wetness (TOW). In addition, the salt air coming in from the sea causes a high chloride concentration in coastal areas. Furthermore, Vietnam is a developing country, which means that air pollution is increasing with the development of industry. These factors result in significant damage to materials by atmospheric corrosion. In this report, the results of a recent study on the corrosion of carbon steel and zinc-galvanized steel at 6–8 testing sites in Vietnam over 10 recent years (1995–2005) are focused on as well as the effects of environmental factors on atmospheric corrosion. The results showed that the corrosion of carbon steel is dominated by TOW, whereas zinc-galvanized-steel corrosion strongly depends on the chloride ion concentration in the air. The corrosion losses of both carbon- and zinc-galvanized steel fit the power model well with high correlation coefficients. In addition, the characteristics of the Vietnamese climate are introduced in the form of distribution maps of temperature (T), relative humidity (RH), total rainfall and TOW. A relationship between TOW, T and RH was found that enabled the calculation of TOW from T and RH data, which are available at meteorological stations. Finally, atmospheric corrosivity is determined on the basis of data on TOW, Cl and SO2 concentrations, and the carbon steel corrosion rate. It is shown that in Vietnam, TOW is so long that the corrosion rate of carbon steel is in the C3 category; nevertheless, Cl and SO2 concentrations in the atmosphere are not high.
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