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Managing uncertainty of young people's transitions to adulthood in Bulgaria
Kovacheva Siyka
Sociologija , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/soc1202245k
Abstract: The paper examines the strategies of young people in Bulgaria for responding to and dealing with uncertainty in the passage to autonomy. It focuses on the active engagement of the young in the processes of identity formation and gaining independence, thus initiating a change in the common patterns of growing up. The biographical choices that the young make are analysed as embedded in a multilayered social context involving the interplay of macro societal changes, shifts in organisational policies and practices and restructuring of gender and generational relations in the family. Theoretically this paper builds upon the concept of uncertainty in understanding the dilemma of structure and agency in youth transitions. The analysis is based upon official statistical information about economic and demographic trends in 21st century Bulgaria and the findings of an organisational case study of a social service agency and biographical interviews with young working parents, which were conducted within the framework of the international Transitions project. Two case studies of individual strategies of young women - one from a working class family and the other from an ethnic minority - are presented in more detail in order to examine the agency they apply in coping with uncertainty and the resources they mobilize in devising (everyday and short-term) life projects. The combination of quantitative and qualitative data allows a reflection on the process of managing uncertainty with regards to the past experiences, present meanings and future aspirations of young people as influenced by the contracting state support and contradictory company policies in Bulgaria.
Attitudes on transition to adulthood among young people in Serbia
Tomanovi? Smiljka,Ignjatovi? Suzana
Sociologija , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/soc0601055t
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explore the attitudes on transition to adulthood among young people in Serbia. The empirical basis of our analysis was a multidimensional study carried out by an interdisciplinary team of experts and organized by the Center for Policy Studies from Belgrade. After outlining the analytical framework for youth transition on the normative level, we intend to analyze the attitudes of young people concerning adulthood with special reference to family transitions: independence from the family of origin, partner relationships, marriage, parenthood, as well as perceptions of their agency in transition to adulthood. In the concluding part, we will interpret the findings by comparison with the trends outlined in studies of young people from some Western and post-socialist countries in the region.
Changes in transition to adulthood of young people in Serbia between 2003 and 2011  [PDF]
Tomanovi? Smiljka
Sociologija , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/soc1202227t
Abstract: The paper deals with transition to adulthood of young people in Serbia through analysis of findings of the two surveys from 2003 and 2011. The aims are to explore the changes in pace, as well as in transitional trajectories that could indicate their destandardisation and individualisation. Some of the debatable issues related to the transition to adulthood approach are presented in the framework and discussed further in relation to the results of the analysis in the concluding section. The findings indicate that there exists some acceleration in the pace of transition, mainly due to increased financial independence of young people. The trajectories, however, are still standardised, while transition is postponed and prolonged. The comparative analyses of some features of young people’s transitions to adulthood in the Balkans led to the conclusion that an alternative conceptualization is needed.
The Role of Age and Social Motivation in Developmental Transitions in Young and Old Adulthood  [PDF]
Jana Nikitin,Alexandra M. Freund
Frontiers in Psychology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00366
Abstract: Two diary studies investigated the role of social approach and avoidance motivation in important developmental transitions in young and old adulthood. Study 1 comprised a sample of young adults (N = 93, M = 21.5 years) who moved out of their parental homes. The sample of Study 2 consisted of older adults (N = 69, M = 76.95 years) who moved into senior housing. In both studies, participants reported their habitual social approach and avoidance motives as well as their daily social experience and subjective well-being over the course of 2 weeks. In line with the literature, social approach motives and age were related to higher subjective well-being, whereas social avoidance motives were negatively associated with subjective well-being. Time since the transition was an important moderator of the association between social avoidance motives and negative outcomes. With increasing time from the transition, the negative effects of social avoidance motives decreased. The positive effects of social approach motives remained fairly stable over time. Importantly, age did not moderate any of the associations between social motivation and outcomes. Results are discussed in terms of transition-related instability and age-related stability.
THE RECRUITMENT OF YOUNG PEOPLE FOR R&D ACTIVITY AND THE ISSUE OF GENDER EQUALITY – THE CASE OF SLOVENIA
Franc Mali,Blanka Jelnikar,Maja ?kafar
Sociología y Tecnociencia , 2010,
Abstract: In the last few years European Union and its member states are facing with a big policy challenge how to increase the human resources in R&D activities and how to attract young people for entering science careers, first of all women. Although the participation of women in science has increased in recent decades, they are still too often dispriviliged and underrepresented in everyday scientific practice. In the article, there is addressed the case of Slovenia. There is analysed the recruitment of young female researchers in “The Young Research Programme” in Slovenia and mentor’s support to the female PhD candidates. The results of empirical study show that regardless of the efficiency of “The Young Research Programme” it has not succeeded in improving the gender structure of young researchers in Slovenia. Moreover, the authors of empirical analysis come to the conclusion, that on the micro level young female researchers receive less intellectual and psychological support from their mentors than their male counterparts.
Conceptualising Adulthood in the Transition Society Context – the Case of Estonia  [PDF]
Raili Nugin
Studies of Transition States and Societies , 2010,
Abstract: The paper focuses on the conception of adulthood in post-communist Estonia, a society that has undergone vast structural, institutional and cultural changes. To this end, 179 essays written by high school graduates in fve Estonian schools are analyzed. It is argued that the conceptualisation of adulthood is contextual and young people position and conceptualise themselves in the framework of these changes. Youth in Estonia, like their peers in Western Countries, stress intangible features (such as responsibility, mental maturity, social maturity, freedom) along with measurable transitions (employment, marriage, parenthood) when conceptualising adulthood. However, the meanings behind the concepts difer and are valued diferently among respondents. This paper aims to provide a glance into what meanings are given to these perceptions. The most prevalent themes picked up by respondents were institutional transitions, responsibility and social maturity. Such prevalence is plausible, since these features in the transition to adulthood have changed the most in recent decades: the institutional context has changed and measurable transitions have prolonged; the level of individual responsibility in transitions has grown and the society has transformed.
Stalled de-standardization of partnerships: Case of young people in Serbia  [PDF]
Bobi? Mirjana
Sociologija , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/soc1202351b
Abstract: The paper tackles reasons for the delay of family formation in contemporary Serbia in the cultural context of pro-familism and standardized life course. Life course perspective is applied as the most suitable one because it fruitfully reconciles structure and agency, demography and sociology. Young people’s transition to adulthood in Serbia is assessed as protracted, somewhat like in Mediterranean and CEE countries (e.g. Slovenia). The empirical evidence is based on various sources of data, combining quantitative (surveys and demographics) and qualitative approaches. The main conclusion is that structural barriers mostly hamper individualization and emancipation of young people from the family of origin, although personal reasons are not negligible (lack of a “proper partner”). Entry into marriage and start of childbearing are tightly related and compressed processes in a life course of young people in Serbia, thus identifying markers of adulthood. If we expect these groups of population to be the forerunners of (post)modernization, then more social, political support and action is needed for the sake of fostering: empowerment (employment, housing, and development of welfare state), services aimed at institutionalization of parenthood and care work, as well as gender equality in everyday life.
Three-Dimensional Facial Asymmetry in Attractive and Normal People from Childhood to Young Adulthood  [PDF]
Chiarella Sforza,Alberto Laino,Gaia Grandi,Luca Pisoni,Virgilio Ferruccio Ferrario
Symmetry , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/sym2041925
Abstract: We are currently investigating measurable esthetic characteristics in persons considered “attractive” by the media. Three-dimensional soft-tissue facial asymmetry was quantified in 380 attractive (148 males, 232 females) and 669 control (397 males, 272 females) healthy persons aged 4–30 years. The coordinates of 50 facial landmarks were collected by a computerized digitizer, and asymmetry computed. Soft-tissue facial asymmetries reduced as a function of age in all cases. Attractive children were more symmetric than control children, but the reverse was true for young adults. The effect of symmetry on attractiveness seems to change as a function of age.
Evaluation of diets of young people aged 13-15 from rural areas in Karpatian province in terms of diet-related disease risk in adulthood
Diana Wolańska
Polish Gastroenterology , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction: The proper eating habits are the essential elements of recommended prohealthy lifestyle. Establishing healthy eating habits in childhood and adolescence is essential to young people's dental and general health in the future. Both nutritional deficiency and excess may lead to dietrelated diseases which impair the population health condition. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was the evaluation of dietary habits in regard to dietary recommendations in the adolescents, aged 13-15 living in the rural region of south-eastern Poland. Material and methods: The examinations were performer on 110 youth, aged from 13 to 15 years, living in the region of south-eastern Poland (in the municipality Bukowsko).The research tool was an anonymous questionnaire that included information about the number of meals during the day, data pertaining to meal frequency, size, contents and composition. Data obtained with 24-hour questionnaire method were calculated with computer program Dieta 2.0 and compared with dietary recommendations for young people aged 13-15. Results: Our results show many dietary errors, such as long breaks between meals and irregularity of daily meals. Consumption of min. 4 meals per day on weekdays and holidays was declared by 41% and 64% of the patients, respectively. It is alarming that the intake of milk and dairy products remains insufficient - milk consumed only 42% of the young people. Fermented milk beverages rarely were considered in the diet - daily yogurt or kefir chose only 23% and 6%, respectively. The results indicate that adolescents consume too little vegetables and fruits. Very worrying in terms of risk of developing diet-related diseases was excessive consumption of fruit juices and sweet beverages, which are daily consumed 68% and 32% respondents. We noticed an increasing tendency to snacking between main meals, especially sweets and crisps. We observed a high prevalence of children with nutritional deficiencies. We found also deficiencies of vitamins - most children did not meet recommendations for vitamins D and C as well as folate. Intake of mineral components was very low, especially calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc and copper. Significant excess of dietary intake of sodium was found in all respondents. Conclusions: Nutrition study group of young people aged 13-15 years deviate from the principles of healthy nutrition. Perpetuate the existing incorrect dietary behavior may result in the continuation of their adulthood, and consequently adversely affect the normal development and health in present and future. The st
Disabled people and accessibility: How successful is Slovenia in the elimination and prevention of built-environment and communication barriers?  [PDF]
Richard Sendi,Bo?tjan Kerbler
Urbani Izziv , 2009,
Abstract: The Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of Slovenia and the Institute of the Republic of Slovenia for Social Protection, together conducted a research project entitled Measures for the realisation of the rights of the disabled to barrier-free access which was concluded in December 2008. The research was funded jointly by the Slovenian Research Agency and the Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs. The main aim of the research was to conduct an extensive analysis of the state of care for persons with disabilities in Slovenia. This involved analysing the accessibility of the built environment and accessibility of communication and information, as well as investigating the efficiency of implementation of the policies and measures that were adopted at the national level for guaranteeing disabled persons barrier-free movement and social inclusion. The main part of the research is constituted of two field surveys, one conducted among individual disabled persons and the other conducted among the major disabled people’s organisation in Slovenia. On the basis of a preliminary literature review and a review of the current legislation and policies concerning the disabled, the guiding hypothesis for the survey was that very little has been done, so far, towards the realisation of the rights of the disabled which are declared in the various national documents. The results of the empirical research provide evidence in support of this hypothesis. In this paper, we present the results of both field surveys, give a summary of the major findings and, in conclusion, suggest some measures that need to be implemented in order to ensure greater efficiency of the realisation of the rights of the disabled to barrier-free access.
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