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Causes and consequences of the changes in the ethnic structure of the Temerin municipality in the 20th century  [PDF]
Joki? Igor,Ristanovi? Branko
Zbornik Matice Srpske za Drustvene Nauke , 2006, DOI: 10.2298/zmsdn0621391j
Abstract: Ethnic structure in the Temerin municipality during the 20th century is characterized by great changes. The number of some ethnic grupations was changing in the relative short period. This had an influence on the increase and decrease in the development in the analyzed area… The great changes in the ethnic structure were caused by political factors that occurred in some periods, but also caused by other demographic elements that characterize some ethnic grupations. All these characteristics caused even the vanishing of for example, Germans from this area. This paper describes in details all causes that caused the changes in the ethnic structure in this municipality. Besides, the consequences of these changes are analyzed and all relations and problems that can appear primarily between the Serbs and the Hungarians are pointed out.
Ethnic Politics and Conflicts in Nigeria: Theoretical Perspective
Joseph C. Ebegbulem
Khazar Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: According to Okwudiba Nnoli (2007) “Ethnicity is a social phenomenon associated with contact among ethnic groups that exist within the same political system. it is characterized by cultural prejudice and social discrimination.”Nigeria is confronted with problems which have resulted in the dramatic upsurge in ethnic conflicts which is a bye-product of ethnic nationalism and political demands based on ethnicity. From the colonial period to the return to civil politics since 1999 Nigeria has witnessed the resurgence of political demands along ethnic lines. The liberalization of the polity and the expansion of the political space appear to have provided additional fillip to these ethnic demands. Coming after decades of colonization by the British, military rule and military dictatorship, including the centralization of power and resources that accompanied it, groups and communities that hitherto felt excluded and marginalized are seeking to be accommodated.Ethnic politics has always been the major source of growing political tension in Nigeria which has resulted in periodic outbreaks of violence between different ethnic groups in the country. This scenario has been detrimental to national unity and socioeconomic development of the country.This paper seeks to examine ethnicity and ethnic conflict in Nigeria from colonial to post-colonial eras, and x-ray the injustice of ethnic politics in Nigeria. It also delves into a panoramic overview of ethnic politics in Nigeria since independence after a conceptual approach as presented by scholars on the concept. The paper also reviews some theoretical approaches to ethnicity and ethnic conflict.
Ethnic Nepotism as a Cross-Cultural Background Factor of Ethnic Conflicts  [PDF]
Tatu Vanhanen
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2014.43016
Abstract:
The purpose of this article has been to explore why ethnic conflicts tend to break out in all ethnically divided societies. The principal explanation was traced to the evolved disposition for ethnic nepotism shared by all human populations. Ethnic nepotism was measured roughly by the degree of ethnic heterogeneity of the populations. It was correlated with the scale of ethnic conflicts in the group of 187 countries. The results of correlation analysis indicate that ethnic heterogeneity explains 55% of the variation in the scale of ethnic conflicts, and the results of regression analysis disclose that the same relationship more or less applies to all 187 countries. These results led to the conclusion that ethnic nepotism is the common cross-cultural background factor which supports the persistence of ethnic conflicts in the world as long as there are ethnically divided societies.
Democracy, human rights and ethnic conflicts in the globalise world  [PDF]
Isakovi? Zlatko
Medjunarodni Problemi , 2002, DOI: 10.2298/medjp0204357i
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to elaborate relationships between democracy, human rights and ethnic conflicts in the globalised world. The first part is devoted to an analysis of the impacts of democracy and human rights on the ethnic conflicts, and second elaborates impacts of the conflicts on the democracy and human rights. Both parts are supposed to elaborate the topic within the context of globalised world. The main conclusion is that if a system cannot be qualified as democratic one and respectful for human rights, appears the complex dilemma what should and would come first developing democracy and/or respecting human rights or eliminating ethnic conflicts or preventing their escalations/deescalating them.
Living with Security Dilemmas: Triggers of Ethnic Conflicts. The Case of Georgia
Robert Nalbandov
Transcience : a Journal of Global Studies , 2010,
Abstract: Ethnic conflicts play an important role in our contemporary world. The paper studies reasons for the mobilization of ethnic differences in and for conflict taking the recent developments in Georgia as an example.
The Economic Dimensions of the Niger Delta Ethnic Conflicts
BU Omojimite
African Research Review , 2011,
Abstract: This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the remote and immediate causes of the armed ethnic conflicts in the Niger Delta in Nigeria and attempts to proffer a strategic approach rather than the use of brute force in managing the conflicts. The study revealed that the underlying cause of the conflict is the prolonged discrimination against the ethnic nationalities in the Niger Delta in the sharing of the economic and political benefits of the oil and gas wealth of the region. Also the displacement of labour from the traditional farming and fishing due to oil exploration and production, created a pool of unemployed youths who chose to take their destiny in their own hands through armed struggle. The paper recommends a strategic transformation of the Niger Delta region by establishing industries that would add value to the abundant oil and gas deposits that are being produced in the region. Unless jobs are created in the area to absorb the youths, granting amnesty to unemployed hands will not be a long lasting solution. Finally, ethnic nationalities in the Niger Delta region should be given a sense of belonging in the sharing of economic and political benefits arising from wealth creation in Nigeria. Key Words: Ethnic conflict, Niger Delta, State power, Discrimination, Oil, Gas.
Some Results on Ethnic Conflicts Based on Evolutionary Game Simulation  [PDF]
Jun Qin,Yunfei Yi,Hongrun Wu,Yuhang Liu,Xiaonian Tong,Bojin Zheng
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.physa.2014.03.049
Abstract: The force of the ethnic separatism, essentially origining from negative effect of ethnic identity, is damaging the stability and harmony of multiethnic countries. In order to eliminate the foundation of the ethnic separatism and set up a harmonious ethnic relationship, some scholars have proposed a viewpoint: ethnic harmony could be promoted by popularizing civic identity. However, this viewpoint is discussed only from a philosophical prospective and still lack supports of scientific evidences. Because ethic group and ethnic identity are products of evolution and ethnic identity is the parochialism strategy under the perspective of game theory, this paper proposes an evolutionary game simulation model to study the relationship between civic identity and ethnic conflict based on evolutionary game theory. The simulation results indicate that: 1) the ratio of individuals with civic identity has a positive association with the frequency of ethnic conflicts; 2) ethnic conflict will not die out by killing all ethnic members once for all, and it also cannot be reduced by a forcible pressure, i.e., increasing the ratio of individuals with civic identity; 3) the average frequencies of conflicts can stay in a low level by promoting civic identity periodically and persistently.
BOOK REVIEW: JACK D. ELLER, FROM CULTURE, TO ETHNICITY, TO CONFLICT: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE ON INTERNATIONAL ETHNIC CONFLICTS
Patty Zakaria
Romanian Journal of European Affairs (RJEA) , 2011,
Abstract: From Culture, to Ethnicity, to Conflict: An Anthropological Perspective on International Ethnic Conflicts, Eller illustrates that the characteristics used to define ethnicity cannot be freely applied to all groups since group perception of what their ethnicity encompasses vary significantly. Further, Eller points out that once a group becomes self-conscious of their difference within society, this realization leads to the initiation of group mobilization, from this viewpoint a group is then considered a nationalistic group as opposed to a mere ethnic group within society. This was evident in Sir Lanka when both the Sinhalese and the Tamils were aware of their differences and had established their own nationalistic group, wherein each nationalistic group seeks to control the island. Taken as a whole, Eller’s From Culture, to Ethnicity, to Conflict: An Anthropological Perspective on International Ethnic Conflicts, offers an insightful and extensive understanding of ethnicity and conflict, by arguing that ethnicity and conflict have developed out of modern social condition and circumstances, as opposed to primordial dynamics. The move away from primordial understanding sheds light into why once dormant groups become politically active as in the cases presented by Eller.
DEMOCRACY, HUMAN RIGHTS AND ETHNIC CONFLICTS WITHIN THE PROCESSES OF GLOBALIZATION AND EUROPEAN INTEGRATION  [PDF]
Prof. Dr. Zlatko Isakovic
Bezbednosni Dijalozi , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to elaborate relationships between democracy, human rights and ethnic conflicts within the process and globalization and European integration. The first part is devoted to analysis of the assumed preventive and resolving impacts of democracy (and human rights respect) on the ethnic conflicts. The second part elaborates the well known more or less negative impacts of the ethnic (and some other) conflicts (particularly violently escalated ones) on the democracy and respecting human rights within the mentioned context of globalization.The main predicted conclusion could be that if a system cannot be qualified as democratic one and respectful for human rights, appears the complex dilemma. Namely, the dilemma is what should come first: developing democracy (and respecting human rights) or eliminating ethnic conflicts and/or preventing their escalations/deescalating them. It will be also presented various theoretical and practical answers and solutions of this dilemma within the process of globalization and European integration. In addition, a few open questions related to the process of globalization as possible source of conflicts, human (in)security, etc.
Bioethical aspects of ethnic prejudice
Radenovi? Sandra,Turza Karel
Sociologija , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/soc0704369r
Abstract: It is assumed that considerable ethnic distance is an empirical manifestation of the ethnonationalistic political pattern still dominant in contemporary Serbian society. The results of our research of ethnic distance on a non-representative sample of Medical School students (University in Belgrade) confirm this assumption. We discuss a specific sample -future medical professionals who are a priori expected to be free from all kind of prejudice, while the physician-patient relation implies a complete and unreserved engagement of the medical professional, disregarding patient’s race, nation, religion, sex/gender, age etc. Nevertheless, the findings indicate considerable distance among students toward certain ethnic, national and racial groups. The authors point to the importance of bioethics in the education of future medical doctors since, among other things, bioethics reflects various dimensions of specific interaction/communication in the physician-patient relation. Finally, the authors emphasize the significance of bioethics in critical reflexion of a priori and unquestionable authority of the "white coat".
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