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Desai P,Basu B
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of present research work was formulation and development fast dissolving film of domperidone. Domperidone is a specific blocker of dopamine receptors Solvent casting method was used for preparation of fast dissolving film. Various film forming polymers were evaluated for selection of suitable polymer. Different polymers like maltodextrin, polyvinyl alcohol and different grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose like HPMC E5 LV, HPMC E15 LV and HPMC E3 LV were used in study for selection of polymers. Amongst them HPMC E3 LV, HPMC E5 LV was selected as film forming polymer and propylene glycol was used as plasticizer. For solubility enhancement inclusion complex from β-cyclodextine was prepared by kneading method. Films were evaluated for physical and mechanical properties, drug content, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution and stability study. Prepared films showed satisfactory physical and mechanical properties. Drug-excepients interaction study (IR spectroscopy), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Drug content, disintegration time and in vitro dissolution were also acceptable. 32 factorial design were used for optimization of film formulation. Batch F4 was found to be optimized film formulation which has 35.33 second disintegration time, tensile strength 2.180 N/cm2, drug release 75.26% after 15 min. Acelerated stability studies on the promising formulations indicated that there were no significant changes in drug content, in vitro disintegration time, tensile strength, in vitro dissolution and surface pH.
Dance Theatre: An Anti -Discursive Illustration of an Embodied Existence
Claire Hampton
Skepsi , 2012,
Abstract: This article investigates the value of dance theatre as a legitimate mode of empirical and somatic academic enquiry. It offers an in-depth analysis of Israeli choreographer Jasmin Vardimon’s recent work 7734; examining this piece in relation to the discursive theories of the post-structural philosopher Michel Foucault and the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu as well as applying the theory of ‘corporeality’ as posited by Susan Leigh Foster, Professor of Dance. Moreover, it considers Vardimon’s own identity as belonging to the third generation from the Holocaust through the lens of ‘post memory’ and analyses the impact of the choreographer’s inherited memories upon her art. Finally, the article addresses dance theatre, specifically the work of practice led researcher, Jasmin Vardimon, as a means of transcending dualistic tendencies inherent in discursive academic research; and demonstrating how dance theatre invokes the perception, reception and reflection of the unified subjective; the body and mind of those choreographing, dancing and, last but by no means least, watching.
Improved Sputter Depth Resolution in Auger Thin Film Analysis Using In Situ Low Angle Cross-Sections  [PDF]
Uwe Scheithauer
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1016/S0169-4332(01)00257-4
Abstract: A none conventional approach for depth profiling of thin film systems with enhanced depth resolution has been developed using standard Auger microprobe instruments. For the preparation of an in situ low angle cross-section, the sample is partly covered by an appropriate mask. Utilising the edge of this mask, the sample is sputtered in the Auger microprobe with ions at nearly grazing incidence. In the shadow of the mask, this produces a low angle cross section through the thin film system. Then, a conventional depth profile is measured at the point of interest where part of the thin film system is covered only by a thin top layer. As demonstrated a considerable improvement of depth resolution delta z / z can be obtained by this method.
Effect of Impurity Concentration on the Depth Profile of the Electric Field within Monolayer Thin Film  [PDF]
Journal of Nano- and Electronic Physics , 2012,
Abstract: The effect of impurity concentration ratios on the depth profile of electric field within monolayer film is presented. SnO2 monolayer thin film material was prepared and doped with Co using spray chemical pyrolysis. The concentration ratios of impurity were 1 %, 3 %, 5 % and 7 %. The analysis utilizes matrix formulas based on Abele's formulas from the calculation of reflectance and transmittance. Present study gives an information to contamination sensitivity in optical coating issue.
Direct measurements of the penetration depth in a superconducting film using magnetic force microscopy  [PDF]
E. Nazaretski,J. P. Thibodaux,I. Vekhter,L. Civale,J. D. Thompson,R. Movshovich
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1063/1.3276563
Abstract: We report the local measurements of the magnetic penetration depth $\lambda$ in a superconducting Nb film using magnetic force microscopy (MFM). We developed a method for quantitative extraction of the penetration depth from single-parameter simultaneous fits to the lateral and height profiles of the MFM signal, and demonstrate that the obtained value is in excellent agreement with that obtained from the bulk magnetization measurements.
Study of depth profile of hydrogen in hydrogenated diamond like carbon thin film using ion beam analysis techniques  [PDF]
J Datta,H S Biswas,P Rao,G L N Reddy,S Kumar,N R Ray,D P Chowdhury,A V R Reddy
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2014.02.127
Abstract: The Hydrogenated Diamond Like Carbon (HDLC) thin films are deposited on Silicon substrate at room temperature using asymmetric capacitively coupled RF plasma with varying flow rates of methane. These films are undergone annealing at high vacuum and high temperature furnace. The as-prepared and annealed HDLC films have been depth profiled for hydrogen using the resonance at 6.44 MeV in nuclear reaction between fluoride ion beam and HDLC. The as prepared films exhibit non-uniform depth distribution of hydrogen: it decreases with depth. Annealing in vacuum brings about a significant desorption of hydrogen from the films. Loss of hydrogen, albeit in much lower proportions, is also induced by the bombarding beam. The films also experience a mild loss of carbon, as shown by proton backscattering spectrometry, during high vacuum annealing. The depth profiles of hydrogen in the annealed films are indicative of the prevalence of graphitic carbon near interface between film and substrate.
In-depth analysis of CIGS film for solar cells, structural and optical characterization  [PDF]
A. Slobodskyy,T. Slobodskyy,T. Ulyanenkova,S. Doyle,M. Powalla,T. Baumbach,U. Lemmer
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1063/1.3529939
Abstract: Space-resolved X-ray diffraction measurements performed on gradient-etched CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells provide information about stress and texture depth profiles in the absorber layer. An important parameter for CIGS layer growth dynamics, the absorber thickness-dependent stress in the molybdenum back contact is analyzed. Texturing of grains and quality of the polycrystalline absorber layer are correlated with the intentional composition gradients (band gap grading). Band gap gradient is determined by space-resolved photoluminescence measurements and correlated with composition and strain profiles.
Investigation on MEMS-based Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Design with Aspect of Autonomous Automobile Sensors  [PDF]
M.S. Bhuyan,Masuri Othman,Sawal Hamid Md Ali,Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis
Asian Journal of Scientific Research , 2013,
Abstract: Exponential progress in Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) miniaturization feasibility and ultra-low-power electronics to date, micro sensors require so small energy that may be simply harvested from sensors ambient environment. To power-up sensors, batteries and chemical fuel sources may be considered. However, it is impractical to power-up automotive sensors through wired means because they derive their self-worth through their distribution and mobility. Moreover, if battery is used, questions of lifetime, design complexity, costs etc arise. The key objective of our research was to design and fabricate a micro piezoelectric energy harvester for converting low-frequency vibrations into electrical power. In this review paper, we have investigated most recent micro piezoelectric harvesters at depth, with focus on design structure and output characteristics. Contrary to designs that follow cantilever structure to use the bending strain on the piezoelectric beam, a novel design is required to be investigated as sensors power source instead of conventional batteries. As in automotive ambient environment, energy harvesting device will be in direct contact with driving force and ambient acceleration amplitudes will be large enough for previously reported cantilever based design. In this regards, this research will explore new geometries to utilize tensile stress/strain on piezoelectric film instead of cantilever bending strain. The harvester will be modeled in CoventorWare. To realize an efficient autonomous energy harvesting platform, it is also necessary to integrate ultra-low-power electronic circuitry with harvesting device. The electrical schematic will be simulated in Cadence Virtuoso Spectre. A short discussion on energy harvester under development followed by research methodology is presented.
Reflection of two-gap nature in penetration depth measurements of MgB$_2$ film  [PDF]
Mun-Seog Kim,John A. Skinta,Thomas R. Lemberger,W. N. Kang,Hyeong-Jin Kim,Eun-Mi Choi,Sung-Ik Lee
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.66.064511
Abstract: The magnetic penetration depth, $\lambda^{-2}(T)$, in the basal plane of a magnesium diboride (MgB$_2$) film was measured using a two-coil mutual inductance technique at 50 kHz. This film has $T_c\simeq 38$ K, $\Delta T_c \leq 1$ K, and $\lambda(0)\sim 1500$ \AA. At low temperatures, $\lambda^{-2}(T)$ shows a clear exponential temperature dependence, indicating s-wave superconducting order parameter symmetry. However, the data are not quantitatively well described by theory assuming a single gap. From the data fit by the full BCS calculation assuming a double gap, the values of the two distinct gaps were obtained: $\Delta_S(0)=2.61\pm0.41$ meV and $\Delta_L(0)=6.50\pm0.33$ meV. The contributions of the small and the large gaps to the total superfluid density at T=0 were estimated to be 21% and 79%, respectively. Finally, we consider the effect of gap anisotropy on the penetration depth measurements, and find that the anisotropy does not play a significant role in determining the temperature dependence of the penetration depth.
Examples for the improvements in AES Depth Profiling of Multilayer Thin Film Systems by Application of Factor Analysis Data Evaluation  [PDF]
Uwe Scheithauer
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1007/BF00322089
Abstract: Factor Analysis has proved to be a powerful tool for the full exploitation of the chemical information included in the peak shapes and peak positions of spectra measured by AES depth profiling. Due to its ability to extract the number of independent chemical components, their spectra and their depth distributions, its information content exceeds the one of the usual peak-to-peak height evaluation of AES depth profile data. Using modern software with a graphically interactive user interface the analyst is put into a position, where he can work with Factor Analysis on a physically intuitive level despite of all the matrix algebra mathematics which it is based upon. The progress brought about by Factor Analysis to AES depth profiles of thin films is demonstrated by the analysis of two thin film systems. The first one is a Pt/Ti metallisation used as bottom electrode for ferroelectric thin films, the second one is multilayer system where a Ti silicide formation of burried Ti/Si bilayers has been induced. Both examples show that Factor Analysis evaluation of AES depth profile data is capable to give access to stoichiometry information and to reveal interfacial layer phases, information which is hardly obtained from the conventional peak-to-peak height data evaluation.
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