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Occurrence of heavy metals and antibiotic resistance in bacteria from internal organs of american bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) raised in Malaysia
Lee, SW;Najiah, M;Wendy, W;Nadirah, M;Faizah, SH;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992009000200016
Abstract: a total of 40 bacteria have been successfully isolated from internal organs of the american bullfrog (rana catesbeiana) raised in malaysia, namely, eight isolates of aeromonas spp., 21 of edwardsiella spp., six of flavobacterium spp. and five of vibrio spp. in terms of antibiotic susceptibility testing, each isolate was tested against 21 antibiotics, resulting in 482 (57.3%) cases of sensitivity and 61 (7.3%) cases of partial sensitivity. meanwhile, 297 (35.4%) bacterial isolates were registered as resistant. the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) index of each bacterial species indicated that bacteria from raised bullfrogs have been exposed to tested antibiotics with results ranging from 0.27 to 0.39. additionally, high percentages of heavy metal resistance among these isolates were observed, with values ranging from 85.0 to 100.0%. the current results provided us information on bacterial levels of locally farmed bullfrogs exposed to copper, cadmium, chromium as well as 21 types of antibiotics.
Pakistan Veterinary Journal , 2006,
Abstract: The present study was conducted for the isolation of bacterial agents and in vitro antibiogram of the isolates from the yolk and visceral organs of up to one week old broiler and layer chicks suffering from omphalitis. Samples from the yolk and visceral organs were aseptically collected and cultured on various selective and differential media. The isolated organisms were identified and subjected to commonly used antibiotics for determination of antibiogram. During the period of 39 months (May, 2002 to August, 2005), 330 samples from yolk and visceral organs were taken from those chicks which were not medicated with antibiotics, as per history provided by the poultry farmers. Among these, 223(68%) showed bacterial growth. Various bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli (47.93%), proteus (5.87%), mixed infection (3.59%), streptococci (2.89%), klebsiella (1.79%), salmonella (0.5%), staphylococci (0.5%), pseudomonas (0.5%), pasteurella (0.5%) and yarseinia (0.5%). The antibiotics found most effective were Norfloxacin (45.3%), Enrofloxacin (36.81%), Gentamicin (33.21%), Chloramphenicol (33.21%), Cephradin (25.1%), Augmentine (24.7%), Kanammycin (17.5%) and Ampicillin (12.1%).
Antibiogram pattern of bacteria causing endometritis in cows  [cached]
S. Udhayavel,S. Malmarugan,K Palanisamy,Johnson Rajeswar
Veterinary World , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2013.100-102
Abstract: Aim : To find out the organisms causing endometritis in cattle and to determine their in vitro sensitivity to various antibiotics Materials and methods: Thirty uterine secretion samples, 9 from Holstein Friesian and 21 from Jersey cows were collected in and around Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu from clinical cases of endometritis. The bacteria isolated both aerobically and anaerobically from endometritis showed the characteristic colony, were gram stained and confirmed by standard biochemical tests. The invitro antibiotic sensitivity test with different antibiotic discs were carried out. Results and Discussion: Out of 30 samples, 25 contained different strains of bacteria and 5 were found bacteriologically sterile. Different species of bacteria isolated from these samples were, Escherichia coli (36.66%), Klebsiella spp (30%), Proteus spp (13.33%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.66%), Clostridium spp (3.33%). The in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that the highest number of isolates (64%) were sensitive to Ceftriaxone, followed by Gentamicin, Enrofloxacin and Chlortetracycline (32%). Chloramphenicol showed sensitivity in minimum number (8%) of isolates. Conclusion : This study revealed that the bacteria E.coli and Klebisella spp are more commonly isolated in endometritis in cows and the drug Ceftriaxone is highly effective. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000): 100-102]
Identification of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica from American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) farmed in Sabah, Malaysia using PCR method and future management of outbreak  [PDF]
Ransangan, J.,Zainuri, N.,Lal, T. M.,Jintoni, B.
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology , 2013,
Abstract: Aims: High demand for frog meat in Malaysia especially the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) has promoted intensive farming of the animal. However, the farming of American bullfrog is restricted by the occurrence of diseases. This study reports the first isolation of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica from specimens of American bullfrog that suffer from cataract and ‘red-leg’ syndrome.Methodology and Result: The pathogen was isolated from eyes and internal organs (liver, kidney and spleen) of thediseased bullfrog specimens. All the bacterial isolates were subjected to phenotypic characterization and antibiotic susceptibility assay, and further identified by using the 16S rDNA sequencing analysis. We designed two pair of specific PCR primers (22-25 mers) which are complimentary to the β-lactamase gene in the reference strain ofE. meningoseptica ATCC49470. The result showed all the bacterial isolates shared similar phenotypic characters and antibiotic susceptibility. BLAST analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences indicated that the bacterial isolates had very high sequence homology (100%) with E. meningospetica ATCC49470 and E. meningoseptica isolates from mosquito. The two PCR primers were very specific to E. meningoseptica isolates of this study. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first isolation and characterization of bacterial pathogen, E. meningoseptica in cultured American bullfrog (Rana catesbeina) that suffered from eye cataract and ‘red-leg’syndrome in Sabah, Malaysia. It is suspected that one of the possible transmission routes of the bacterial pathogen could be via mosquito bites. The findings suggest that there is urgent requirement for standard guideline of good farming practice to be adopted in frog farms throughout the country. Such a guideline can help in minimizing economic losses, preventing transmission of the zoonotic bacterial pathogen to farm workers, and sustaining the industry in Malaysia andupgrading frog meat quality for international market.
Journal of Sustainability Science and Management , 2011,
Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the antibiogram, plasmid profiling and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index of Edwardsiella tarda isolated from freshwater-fish cultures. To date, the information on antibiogram of local E. tarda isolates is still lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to reveal the most suitable choice of antibiotic for aquaculture use among six types of commonly-used antibiotics (ampicillin, kanamycin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, furazolidone and sulphamethoxazole). In the present study, antibiotic susceptibility test against local E. tarda was tested using disk diffusion and two-fold microdilution method was applied to determine its sensitivity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values, respectively. The results showed that antibiotic sensitivity and resistance cases were reported as 63.0 % and 28.7 %, respectively. Intermediary sensitivity case was recorded as 8.3 %. The MIC value of the 6 antibiotics against the present isolates ranged from 1 mg/L to equal or more than 128 mg/l. 12 out of 18 isolates were found to carry plasmid where the sizes of plasmids were in the range of 54kb to 300 bp. All the isolates from cultured freshwater fish were found to carry plasmid except for Isolate T2. Only 4 (E1, G1, G2 and G3) out of 9 isolates from wild freshwater fish were found to carry plasmid, whereas Isolate E2, E3, E3, E4, G4 and G5 did not possess any plasmid. The total number of plasmid carried by the present isolates ranged from 1 to 8 plasmids. No correlation was found between the incidence of antibiotic resistance and plasmid carried by the present isolates. MAR index revealed that cultured freshwater fish in Terengganu received high-risk exposure to the tested antibiotics. On the other hand, wild freshwater fish were under the level of exposure to the antibiotics. Overall, ampicillin, kanamycin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid and furazolidone were successfully found to inhibit more than 50 % of the present bacterial isolates. On the other hand, more than 80 % of bacterial isolates were resistant to sulphamethoxazole. In terms of MIC values, ampicillin and nalidixic acid showed the lowest MIC value (1 mg/l) to control the growth of E. tarda. Therefore, we suggested that ampicillin and nalidixic acid can be used for combating Edwardsiellosis due to E. tarda in freshwater-fish cultures in Malaysia.
Hospital antibiogram: A necessity  [cached]
Joshi S
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2010,
Abstract: The hospital antibiogram is a periodic summary of antimicrobial susceptibilities of local bacterial isolates submitted to the hospital′s clinical microbiology laboratory. Antibiograms are often used by clinicians to assess local susceptibility rates, as an aid in selecting empiric antibiotic therapy, and in monitoring resistance trends over time within an institution. Antibiograms can also used to compare susceptibility rates across institutions and track resistance trends. Some hospitals have adequate support from the computer department to be able to extract data from their reporting module. The WHONET software can be freely downloaded and used for analysis. Consensus guidelines have been developed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) to standardise methods used in constructing antibiograms. These guidelines can be incorporated into the WHONET software for analysis. Only the first isolate from the patient is to be included in the analysis. The analysis should be done on the basis of patient location and specimen type. The percentage susceptibility of the most frequently isolated bacteria should be presented in the antibiogram, preferably in a tabular form. The antibiogram must be printed or put up in the intranet for easy access to all clinicians. Antibiotic policy is one of the mandatory requirements for accreditation, and making an antibiogram is the first step before framing the antibiotic policy. The future of antibiograms would be the incorporation of patient related data to make information more reliable and for predicting outbreaks.
Quantitative evaluation of acidity tolerance of root nodule bacteria
Oliveira, Luiz Antonio de;Magalh?es, Hélio Paracaima de;
Revista de Microbiologia , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37141999000300004
Abstract: quantification of acidity tolerance in the laboratory may be the first step in rhizobial strain selection for the amazon region. the present method evaluated rhizobia in petri dishes with yma medium at ph 6.5 (control) and 4.5, using scores of 1.0 (sensitive, "no visible" growth) to 4.0 (tolerant, maximum growth). growth evaluations were done at 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 day periods. this method permits preliminary selection of root nodule bacteria from amazonian soils with statistical precision. among the 31 rhizobia strains initially tested, the inpa strains 048, 078, and 671 presented scores of 4.0 at both phs after 9 days of growth. strain analyses using a less rigorous criterion (growth scores higher than 3.0) included in this highly tolerant group the inpa strains 511, 565, 576, 632, 649, and 658, which grew on the most diluted zone (zone 4) after 9 days. tolerant strains still must be tested for nitrogen fixation effectiveness, competitiveness for nodule sites, and soil persistence before their recommendation as inoculants.
Quantitative evaluation of acidity tolerance of root nodule bacteria
Oliveira Luiz Antonio de,Magalh?es Hélio Paracaima de
Revista de Microbiologia , 1999,
Abstract: Quantification of acidity tolerance in the laboratory may be the first step in rhizobial strain selection for the Amazon region. The present method evaluated rhizobia in Petri dishes with YMA medium at pH 6.5 (control) and 4.5, using scores of 1.0 (sensitive, "no visible" growth) to 4.0 (tolerant, maximum growth). Growth evaluations were done at 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 day periods. This method permits preliminary selection of root nodule bacteria from Amazonian soils with statistical precision. Among the 31 rhizobia strains initially tested, the INPA strains 048, 078, and 671 presented scores of 4.0 at both pHs after 9 days of growth. Strain analyses using a less rigorous criterion (growth scores higher than 3.0) included in this highly tolerant group the INPA strains 511, 565, 576, 632, 649, and 658, which grew on the most diluted zone (zone 4) after 9 days. Tolerant strains still must be tested for nitrogen fixation effectiveness, competitiveness for nodule sites, and soil persistence before their recommendation as inoculants.
Antibiogram for Haemodialysis Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections  [PDF]
Abdul Halim Abdul Gafor,Pau Cheong Ping,Anis Farahanum Zainal Abidin,Muhammad Zulhilmie Saruddin,Ng Kah Yan,Siti Qania’ah Adam,Ramliza Ramli,Anita Sulong,Petrick Periyasamy
International Journal of Nephrology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/629459
Abstract: Background. Haemodialysis (HD) catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are a major complication of long-term catheter use in HD. This study identified the epidemiology of HD CRBSIs and to aid in the choice of empiric antibiotics therapy given to patients with HD CRBSIs. Methods. Patients with HD CRBSIs were identified. Their blood cultures were performed according to standard sterile technique. Specimens were sent to the microbiology lab for culture and sensitivity testing. Results were tabulated in antibiograms. Results. 18 patients with a median age of 61.0 years (IQR: 51.5–73.25) were confirmed to have HD CRBSIs based on our study criteria. Eight (44.4%) patients had gram-negative infections, 7 (38.9%) patients gram-positive infections, and 3 (16.7%) patients had polymicrobial infections. We noted that most of the gram-negative bacteria were sensitive to ceftazidime. Unfortunately, cloxacillin resistance was high among gram-positive organisms. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Bacillus sp. were the most common gram-positive organisms and they were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion. Our study revealed the increased incidence of gram-negative organism in HD CRBSIs. Antibiogram is an important tool in deciding empirical antibiotics for HD CRBSIs. Tailoring your antibiotics accordingly to the antibiogram can increase the chance of successful treatment and prevent the emergence of bacterial resistance. 1. Introduction Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health burden [1]. The contribution of CKD to the global burden of disease may be underestimated due to the lack of significant importance in certain kidney disease classifications and failure to realize the relationship of CKD with cardiovascular disease [1]. The prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasing exponentially worldwide. USA, Japan, and Taiwan had the highest rate of prevalence of ESRD [2]. In Malaysia, dialysis is the main modality of renal replacement therapy. There were about 26,000 patients on dialysis in 2011 with the prevalence of 900 per million populations [3]. Haemodialysis (HD) accounts for about 89% of dialysis patients and most of them were accepted to centre HD [4]. Unfortunately, not all patients enter HD program with a native vascular access. Many patients still presented late and HD access catheter, either cuffed or noncuffed catheters, is needed to perform HD. The use of HD catheter had increased from 3% in 2002 to 8.1% in 2011 of all vascular accesses [5]. We cannot argue that HD catheter plays a very important role in the treatment of
BIOTROPIA : the Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology , 2006,
Abstract: Schizophyllum commune Fr., is one of the important fungi, causes brown germ and seed rot of oil palm. Biodiversity of antagonistic bacteria from oil palm plantations in Peninsular Malaysia is expected to support in development of biopesticide. Isolation with liquid assay and screening antagonistic bacteria using dual culture assay were carried out in the bioexploration. A total of 265 bacterial isolates from plant parts of oil palm screened 52 antagonistic bacterial isolates against 5. commune. Bacterial isolates were identified by using Biolog* Identification System i.e. Bacillus macroccanus, B. thermoglucosidasius, Burkholderia cepacia, B. gladioli, B. multivorans, B pyrrocinia, B. spinosa, Corynebacterium agropyri, C. misitidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Microbacterium testaceum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. citronellolis, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Serratia ficaria, Serratia sp., S. marcescens, Staphylococcus sciuri, Sternotrophomonas maltophilia.

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