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Genetic variability of five indigenous Ethiopian cattle breeds using RAPD markers
F Hassen, E Bekele, W Ayalew, T Dessie
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Genetic diversity is the basis for present day diversified living systems and future genetic improvement needs. This diversity should be properly utilized, improved and conserved. Conservation and improvement strategies ought to be based on proper genetic characterization in association with phenotypic characterization. The objective of this work was to assess between and within breed genetic variability of five indigenous Ethiopian cattle breeds (Horro, Sheko, Arsi, Abigar and Guraghe highland) using RAPD markers. The Guraghe highland and Arsi breeds fall under Zebu breed group, the Sheko come from Humpless Shorthorn, the Abigar from the Sanga group and the Horro from Zenga group. Genetic relationships were estimated using three primers which produced 33 loci. The gene diversity obtained in this study was found to be moderate and Analysis of Molecular Variance revealed that within breed genetic variation is much higher than that between breeds. Except few cases, genetic differentiation was highly significant. The smallest genetic divergence was between Guraghe highland and Abigar followed by Guraghe highland and Arsi. Sheko, historically considered to be humpless shorthorn, formed a distinct cluster whereas the remaining breeds formed another cluster. The RAPD markers were found to be useful to distinguish the breeds studied, but they failed to differentiate between Guraghe Highland and Abigar as they did the two zebu breeds -Guraghe Highland and Arsi. The Pearson’s correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.22) was found to be statistically insignificant (P > 0.05).
S.S. Maske,B.R. Phule
Review of Research , 2012,
Abstract: Cattle are an important economic livestock species contributing greatly to the Indian economy. Solapur district is predominantly an agricultural district with about 70 percent of its population depends on income from agriculture. Animal husbandry is an adjunct to crop agriculture and cattle are kept for motive power for various farm operations, village transport, irrigation, production of manure and milk. The aim of present paper is to study the indigenous cattle breeds and their characteristics in Solapur district of Maharashtra. The entire investigation is based on secondary sources of data have been used obtained from various sources. That data is processed and presented in the form of tables and graphs. From this study khillar, gaolao, devani, gir, lal kandari and dangi indigenous cattle breeds in Solapur district.
Comparison of the milk composition of free-ranging indigenous African cattle breeds
J Myburgh, G Osthoff, A Hugo, M de Wit, K Nel, D Fourie
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2012,
Abstract: The milk composition of free-ranging indigenous African cattle breeds was analysed. These breeds were chosen because they have not been bred specifically for milk production and might be considered the closest to a “natural” or “wild type” of the Bos species. It was found that the nutrient composition of the milk of these cattle, in particular the dry matter, is as low as that of European beef breeds. The content of whey proteins and NPN is also lower than that of dairy breeds. Statistically significant differences in milk fatty acid composition between the Sanga-type cattle and the Afrikaner and its derivatives were observed for the content of lactose, whey protein and non-protein nitrogen, as well as fatty acid composition regarding medium long chain and long chain fatty acids. A genetic relationship is evident and suggests the preference of certain fatty acid synthesis pathways.
Investigations of variability of morphometric characteristics in Busa and Gatacko cattle in order to preserve autochthonous genome  [PDF]
Rogi? Biljana,Va?i? Bo?o,Jovanovi? Slobodan,Stamenkovi?-Radak Marina
Veterinarski Glasnik , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/vetgl1102061r
Abstract: With the objective of studying and protecting genomes of autochthonous breeds of cattle, investigations were performed of the variability of morphometric characteristics of the autochthonous breeds Busa and Gatacko cattle, as well as a retrospective analysis of the development of the examined populations. The investigations covered 97 cows, specifically 22 head of western Herzegovina Busa cattle, 24 head of eastern Herzegovina Busa cattle, and 51 head of Gatacko cattle. Morphometric measurements were examined: height at withers, body length, foot circumference, and chest girth. The obtained data were processed statistically, and variability was established using simple variance analysis with an unequal number of repetitions. The significance of the obtained differences from the three investigated localities was tested using the F test and t-test. A significant degree of variability was established for the morphological characteristics within the examined populations, as well as between the populations. The established differences are primarily a result of the influence of different natural conditions and breeding conditions, as well as the genome share of Alpine cattle, with which the Busa has been crossbred.
Genetic diversity and relationships among indigenous Mozambican cattle breeds
I Bessa, I Pinheiro, M Matola, K Dzama, A Rocha, P Alexandrino
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2009,
Abstract: Three indigenous Mozambican cattle breeds, namely the Angone, Landim and Bovino de Tete were characterized using six proteins, 13 autosomal microsatellite loci and one Y-specific microsatellite locus (INRA124). The Mashona breed from Zimbabwe was also studied to elucidate the origin of the Bovino de Tete cattle. Expected mean heterozygosity ranged from 0.46 - 0.50 in the proteins and from 0.66 - 0.69 in the microsatellites. Population genetic variability was relatively high when compared to other African breeds. Only 4.5% of the total genetic variation could be attributed to the differences among the breeds. DA genetic distances and principal component analysis suggest that Mozambican breeds occupy an intermediate position between Indian Zebu and African taurine cattle. The genetic contribution from Indian Zebu, estimated by mR and average percentage of Zebu diagnostic alleles, was highest in the Angone breed and lowest in the Landim breed. The indicine Y-specific allele was fixed in the Angone breed (classified as Zebu), was found in 62% of the Bovino de Tete breed and was absent in the Landim breed (classified as Sanga). The hybrid nature of these breeds was also revealed by using an admixture model to infer population structure. Cluster analysis correctly assigned individuals to their rightful populations with probabilities ranging from 0.96 to 0.98, using prior population information. The results support the hypothesis of the Bovino de Tete cattle being a result of crossbreeding between Sanga and Zebu breeds. This study presents the first extensive information on the genetic diversity and relationships among Mozambican cattle breeds and with other breeds from different continents.
Genetic relationships between three indigenous cattle breeds in Mozambique
A. Kotze, M. Harun, F. Otto, F.H. Van der Bank
South African Journal of Animal Science , 2000,
Abstract: This study provides the first account of genetic relationships between three indigenous cattle breeds from Mozambique. Forty-two blood group factors and six blood proteins revealed genetic variation of 84% (Angone), 88% (Bovine de Tete) and 90% (Landim) at the loci studied. Average heterozygosity values ranged from 33% for Angone and Bovine de Tete to 35% for the Landim. The genetic distance was greatest between the Landim and both the Bovine de Tete and the Angone breeds, whereas the smallest genetic distance was observed between the Bovine de Tete and the Angone. These results show the intermediate relationship of Bovine de Tete with the Angone and Landim breeds and show that the Bovine de Tete is an admixture of taurine and indicus genes. (South African Journal of Animal Science, 2000, 30(2): 92-97)
Milk fat globules in different dairy cattle breeds Part I: morphometric analysis  [cached]
M. Martini,F. Cecchi,C. Scolozzi,R. Leotta
Italian Journal of Animal Science , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ijas.2003.s1.272
Abstract: INTRODUCTION – The study of the morphometric parameters of milk fat globules can aid in increasing our knowledge of the relationship between the number and dimensions of globules and the chemical, nutritional and technological characteristics of milk and its by-products. It is well-known that the fat globules secreted from the mammary cell are of heterogeneous dimensions, and at present the process of their synthesis in the cell is not yet entirely clear (Keenan, 2001). The few studies previously carried out on livestock mainly concern dairy cattle....
Morphometric studies on the passive role of menisci in upward fixation of the patella in buffalo and cattle  [cached]
Abdalla Hifny,Kamal Eldin Hashem Abdalla,Yousria A. Abdel Rahman,Khaled Aly
Veterinary Science Development , 2012, DOI: 10.4081/vsd.2012.e14
Abstract: The present study showed that the medial and lateral compartments of the femorotibial joint have an intervening meniscus located between the femur and tibia. The lateral meniscus is semicircular and covers a larger portion of the tibial condyle than the medial meniscus. The lateral meniscus has cranial and caudal meniscal ligaments anchoring it to the tibia. The present investigation shows that the dimensions of the meniscal ligaments of buffalo and cattle are almost the same except for the caudal ligament of lateral meniscus and the meniscofemoral ligament. The caudal ligament of lateral meniscus is longer in buffalo than in cattle. Therefore, the femur moves more cranially than normal to straighten the joint. The meniscofemoral ligament is thicker in cattle (6.55±0.04 mm) than in buffalo (3.85±0.05 mm). Therefore, it helps to stabilize the movement of the menisci. Furthermore, the presence of the transverse genual ligament which fixes the two menisci cranially increases stability and prevents a more forward movement of the femur.
The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Para tuberculosis in Indigenous and Exotic Cattle in Wakiso and Masaka Districts, Uganda
J. Erume,F. Mutebi
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of bovine par atuberculosis occurrence in indigenous and exotic cattle breeds in Wakiso and Masaka districts, Uganda. A cross-sectional survey was carried in these districts with a well-established small-holder commercial dairy system supplying livestock products to major urban centers. Questionnaires were administered to farmers prior to blood sampling. Results revealed farmers operated open herds and were acquiring replacement stock from fellow farmers, cattle traders or donations. Most cattle in Wakiso were zero-grazed with a few grazed on pastures; communally, in paddocks or tethered. In contrast most cattle in Masaka were fed on pastures as opposed to zero grazing. Of 436 adult cattle sero-tested in Wakiso, par atuberculosis was highest in indigenous cattle (15%), was 8.3% in cross-breeds and 5.8% in exotic breeds. Individual cow prevalence in Wakiso was 7.8% whilst herd prevalence was 36.23%. Screening of 384 adult cattle in Masaka revealed prevalence of par atuberculosis of 3.26, 4.48 and 4.9% in the indigenous breeds, exotic dairy and cross breeds, respectively, with individual cow prevalence of 3.91% and herd prevalence of 24.44%. The prevalence of par atuberculosis was significantly higher in Wakiso compared to Masaka (p<0.05, χ2 = 5.5043). The factors associated with increased risk of herd infection included; “where adult cattle were housed”, “adult cattle fed on pasture”, “calves allowed to suckle their mothers” and “calves not separated from their mothers”. This study confirms the presense of par atuberculosis in Ugandan cattle and shows that farmers are unaware of its occurrence or prevention.
Seroprevalence of bluetongue in north eastern Indian state- Assam  [cached]
Siddhartha N. Joardar,Biswajit Barkataki,Arkendu Halder,Chandan Lodh
Veterinary World , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2013.196-199
Abstract: Aim: The study was undertaken to assess presence of sub-clinical bluetongue in the state of Assam, one of the un-affected north-eastern state of India. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from apparently healthy as well as suspected sheep, goat and cattle from different districts of Assam encompassing various agro-climatic zones. Anti-BT antibodies were screened in sera using indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Results: Out of total 313 animal serum samples screened (sheep-68, goat-195, cattle-50), 58.82% of sheep, 31.79% of goat and 70.00% of cattle serum samples were found positive. The prevalence of anti-BT antibodies in different agro climatic zones ranged between 31-50%. Conclusion: This study revealed high seroprevalence of bluetongue in cattle, sheep and goats in Assam. Incidence of bluetongue in animals of Assam being not reported so far; the present seroprevalence status of bluetongue in Assam indicates presence of sub-clinical infection in the state for the first time. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000): 196-199]

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