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Lost in Transition: HIV Prevalence and Correlates of Infection among Young People Living in Post-Emergency Phase Transit Camps in Gulu District, Northern Uganda  [PDF]
Sheetal Patel, Martin T. Schechter, Nelson K. Sewankambo, Stella Atim, Noah Kiwanuka, Patricia M. Spittal
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089786
Abstract: Objective Little is known about HIV infection and the related vulnerabilities of young people living in resource-scarce, post-emergency transit camps that are now home to thousands of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) following two decades of war in northern Uganda. The objective of this analysis was to assess the prevalence and correlates of HIV infection among young people living in post-conflict transition in Gulu District, northern Uganda. Methods In 2010, a cross-sectional demographic and behavioural survey was conducted in two of Gulu District’s sub-counties with 384 purposively selected transit camp residents aged 15 to 29 years. Biological specimens were collected for rapid HIV testing in the field and confirmatory laboratory testing. Multivariable logistic regression identified independent determinants of HIV infection. Results HIV prevalence was alarmingly high at 12.8% (95% CI: 9.6%, 16.5%). The strongest determinant of HIV infection among young people was a non-consensual sexual debut (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.88; 95% CI: 1.70–18.06). Residing in Awach sub-county (AOR, 2.93; 95% CI: 1.28–6.68), experiencing STI symptoms in the previous 12 months (AOR, 2.36; 95% CI: 1.43–6.17), and practicing dry sex (AOR, 2.31; 95% CI: 1.04–5.13) were other key determinants of HIV infection. Conclusions Study findings contribute to filling an important gap in epidemiological evidence and are useful for planning public health interventions in northern Uganda that effectively target young people in post-conflict transition and support them in the resettlement process. Findings serve to recommend reaching beyond traditional prevention programming in a way more effectively beneficial to young people in post-conflict settings by developing population-specific responses sensitive to local contexts and sufficient to address the underlying causes of the complex risk factors influencing the spread of HIV.
Family planning among people living with HIV in post-conflict Northern Uganda: A mixed methods study  [cached]
Nattabi Barbara,Li Jianghong,Thompson Sandra C,Orach Christopher G
Conflict and Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1505-5-18
Abstract: Background Northern Uganda experienced severe civil conflict for over 20 years and is also a region of high HIV prevalence. This study examined knowledge of, access to, and factors associated with use of family planning services among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in this region. Methods Between February and May 2009, a total of 476 HIV clinic attendees from three health facilities in Gulu, Northern Uganda, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with another 26 participants. Factors associated with use of family planning methods were examined using logistic regression methods, while qualitative data was analyzed within a social-ecological framework using thematic analysis. Results There was a high level of knowledge about family planning methods among the PLHIV surveyed (96%). However, there were a significantly higher proportion of males (52%) than females (25%) who reported using contraception. Factors significantly associated with the use of contraception were having ever gone to school [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 4.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-14.07; p = .015], discussion of family planning with a health worker (AOR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.01-4.27; p = .046), or with one's spouse (AOR = 5.13, 95% CI: 2.35-11.16; p = .000), not attending the Catholic-run clinic (AOR = 3.67, 95% CI: 1.79-7.54; p = .000), and spouses' non-desire for children (AOR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.10-4.36; p = .025). Qualitative data revealed six major factors influencing contraception use among PLHIV in Gulu including personal and structural barriers to contraceptive use, perceptions of family planning, decision making, covert use of family planning methods and targeting of women for family planning services. Conclusions Multilevel, context-specific health interventions including an integration of family planning services into HIV clinics could help overcome some of the individual and structural barriers to accessing family planning services among PLHIV in Gulu. The integration also has the potential to reduce HIV incidence in this post-conflict region.
HIV/AIDS, conflict and security in Africa: rethinking relationships
Becker Joseph U,Theodosis Christian,Kulkarni Rick
Journal of the International AIDS Society , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1758-2652-11-3
Abstract: The effect of conflict on HIV transmission and regional and global security has been the subject of much recent discussion and debate. Many long held assumptions regarding these relationships are being reconsidered. Conflict has long been assumed to contribute significantly to the spread of HIV infection. However, new research is casting doubt on this assumption. Studies from Africa suggest that conflict does not necessarily predispose to HIV transmission and indeed, there is evidence to suggest that recovery in the "post-conflict" state is potentially dangerous from the standpoint of HIV transmission. As well, refugee populations have been previously considered as highly infected vectors of HIV transmission. But in light of new investigation this belief is also being reconsidered. There has additionally been concern that high rates of HIV infection among many of the militaries of sub-Saharan Africa poses a threat to regional security. However, data is lacking on both dramatically elevated prevalence amongst soldiers and a possible negative effect on regional security. Nevertheless, HIV/AIDS remain a serious threat to population health and economic well being in this region. These issues are of vital importance for HIV programming and health sector development in conflict and "post-conflict" societies and will constitute formidable challenges to the international community. Further research is required to better inform the discussion of HIV, conflict, and security in sub-Saharan Africa.
Colombia Internacional , 2009,
Abstract: an estimated 33 million people are today infected with hiv, many living in conflict or post conflict settings. the international community is increasingly recognising the effect hiv/aids can have on national security and conflict, both exacerbating conflict and being an obstacle to peace. the article argues for considering hiv/aids as a security issue and concludes four main theories on the links between hiv/aids, national security and conflict: 1. uniformed personnel as a vector of hiv, 2. national security threatened by hiv/aids affected state institutions, 3. increased vulnerability to hiv infection in conflict and post-conflict environments, and 4. hiv as an obstacle to peace building. these four theories are explored in the colombian context. of the four theories investigated it was found that 1 and 3 presented the strongest linkages between hiv/aids, national security and conflict. the theories 2 and 4 were less strong, mainly due to the relatively low hiv prevalence rate in colombia.
Knowledge and misconceptions about HIV counseling and testing (HCT) among the post-conflict youths of Gulu, Northern Uganda. A prospective study design
David Lagoro Kitara, Charles Amone, Christopher Okello
Pan African Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Uganda has been reported as the most successful country in Africa in reducing the prevalence of HIV/AIDS from 18% to 6.4% over the last two decades. There is evidence to suggest that despite a significant decline between 1992 and 2002, HIV prevalence has stagnated over the last 5-9 years at between 6.1 and 6.5% and it is rising in some parts of the country such as Gulu. This rise are thought to be due to the high levels of stigma and superstition preventing HIV counseling and testing (HCT). WHO reports in 2009 showed that only 20% of Uganda’s populations knew their HIV sero-status. This study was designed to find out the knowledge, misconceptions, attitude and practices of youths of Gulu about HCT. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gulu, Pece among the youths 15 to 35 years. An in-depth interview using a questionnaire was administered to youths of Commercial Road Sub-ward. Informed consent and ethical approval was obtained and 86 respondents were interviewed. Results: Ninety three percent of respondents had knowledge about HCT and 97.7% were able to mention two or more of its benefits. Most (88.4%) agreed on public disclosure of their HIV status and 84.9% would encourage others to undertake it. Only 36.1% of respondents had undertaken HCT while the rest had not undertaken it due to fear of stigmatization. Conclusion: There is adequate knowledge, good attitude but poor practice and misconceptions to HCT. The young adults in Gulu should be supported in a special program to enable them undertake HCT and access other services for HIV/AIDS prevention. Pan African Medical Journal 2012; 12:31
Others in post-conflict contexts  [PDF]
?eri? Gordana
Filozofija i Dru?tvo , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/fid0803259d
Abstract: Researches conducted so far within the project Spinning out of control: rhetoric and violent conflict. Representations of 'self' - 'other' in the Yugoslav successor states focused on exploring the relations towards the Other in a state of conflict. Moreover: most of the author's and coauthors' contributions were oriented towards discourse analysis in the context of violence. Except for the peaceful dismemberment of Montenegro and Serbia, proclamation of independence of other Yugoslav states did not go without violence, to a greater or lesser extent. The Other in these situations was predominantly the ethnic Other, and usually treated as enemy. For that reason, the greater part of our past work was oriented towards analysing media reports of the most stiking war events. Also, some of the contributions intentionally targeted media reportings of tense situations and those bearing the unpredictable outcomes, such as referenda or meetings discussing war and peace matters; or, we focused our inquiries on radical standpoints expressed by certain media or political parties - all that in order to explore the essencial forms of constructing and manifesting the Otherness on a rhetoric level. From a broader perspective, the analysed period, marked by the wars of ex - Yugoslavia in the last decade of 20th century, could be comprehended as the preiod of a state of emergency, where the old order had been brutally and radically destroyed and the new one was installed. In such a process, as it was shown, the relation towards the Other was also usually extreme and ethnically motivated. Now, after the constitution of seven new states where once former Yugoslavia was, new questions emerge. We are interested, as we were before, in the identity constructions, especially in the relations toward the Other, and Otherness in general, now in the period of transition and normalization of mutual relationships that these societies are undergoing. Along with the theories of ethnicity and identity construction, the key perspective remains discursive analysis. Our main question is What is happening with the phenomenon of Otherness in public discourse, in the peaceful times, or in the post conflict state? Do the ways of representing Others from the conflict times disappear, or do they 'freeze', that is to say, remain the same, or get manifested on some other levels and by different rhetorical tools? In short, what is happening with the Others in discourses that do not 'spin out of control'? Are the Others stable, mutable or flexible category and where are the imagological boundaries of
Understanding sexual violence, HIV/AIDS and conflict  [cached]
Judy El-Bushra
Forced Migration Review , 2010,
Abstract: A broad gender approach is needed to understand the social context of HIV transmission within conflict environments.
Post-Conflict Peace Management in Angola
Kunle Ajayi
The Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Peace-building and peace sustenance pose major challenges in societies emerging from endemic conflicts. Can the demise of Jonathan Savimbi be a permanent road to peace in Angola? Post-conflict peace management is as difficult as conflict management. Management of deep conflicts in divided societies has gone beyond negative peace, which embodies cessation of hostilities by belligerents/insurgents. The challenges in post-conflict Angola are, therefore, the consolidation and sustenance of the seeming peace and the engendering of durable security and political stability. The major concern of the study is to examine the possibility interventions for realizing sustainable peace in post-conflict Angola.
Economic Approach to Conflict Issue: Investment in Post- Conflict Situation for International Business  [cached]
Umit Hacioglu,Hasan Dincer,Ismail Erkan Celik
International Journal of Business Administration , 2012, DOI: 10.5430/ijba.v3n5p1
Abstract: The latest Global Economic Crisis and the latest Sovereign Crisis in the euro area have substantially deepened. Financial and economic conditions became a challenging matter for many investors and business organizations. The latest economic outlook is also prominent problem of researchers questioning the methods of sustaining long term interethnic peace in post- conflict countries (PCCs) and economies whilst the economic slowdown has effects on prosperity and development. In this study, it is aimed to develop an interdisciplinary approach to conflict issue within a theoretical framework in order to contribute to success of strategic decision making process at corporate level. Strategy makers at this level must evaluate the nature of conflict and develop conceptual skills before attempting to invest in conflict-prone economies. In this study, economic dimensions of conflict and its effect on investment climate have been evaluated to guide international business organizations. This study demonstrates that (i) there is strong tie between economic conditions and conflict risk, (ii) an increase in employment and income level in post conflicted economies is likely to decrease the probability of future conflict risk among interethnic groups (iii) inequality of income and resource distribution priorities among members of different ethnic groups escalate the risk of conflict, subsequently (iv) the success in the process of economic rehabilitation and recovery is a key contributory factor in sustaining peace and prosperity.
Determinants of HIV/AIDS in armed conflict populations  [cached]
Danvas Omare,Amar Shireesh Kanekar
Journal of Public Health in Africa , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2011.e9
Abstract: More than 40 million people worldwide have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) since it was first reported in 1981. Over 25 million of these have lost their lives to the disease. Most of the studies related to HIV/AIDS have been conducted in stable populations across the globe. Few of these studies have been devoted to displaced populations, particularly those in areas of conflict. Displaced populations that are forced to leave their homes in most cases find themselves in unfamiliar territories, often poor and hungry. Many of them become refugees and internally displaced people (IDPs). The objective of this review was to address a number of different social determinants of HIV/AIDS in displaced populations in areas of conflict. A comprehensive review of peer reviewed literature published in English between 1990 and 2010 obtained through an open search of PUBMED database using key words such as “HIV and war”, “HIV/AIDS and conflict”, “AIDS and security” was conducted. Twelve different studies that looked at the implications of HIV/AIDS in conflict or displaced populations were retrieved. The review revealed that there were various factors influencing conflict and HIV/AIDS such as forced population displacement, breakdown of traditional sexual norms, lack of health infrastructure, and poverty and powerlessness of women and children. Social determinants of increased HIV/AIDS prevalence in displaced populations are scarcity of food, poverty, insecurity of displaced populations and gender power differentials.
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