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THE PRINCIPAL AIRBORNE AND ALLERGENIC POLLEN SPECIES IN TIMI OARA  [PDF]
Nicoleta IANOVICI
Annals of West University of Timi?oara : Series of Biology , 2007,
Abstract: The most predominant source of allergens in the outdoor environment is pollen, the male gametophyte of flowering plants. Allergenic pollen has been identified in many flowering plant species including grass, weed, tree and crop species. Occurrence of pollens is monitored almost throughout Europe. We report here the results of the monitoring of airborne pollen concentrations throughout 1999 to 2007 from Timi oara (Romania). A total of 18 allergenic pollen types were identified of which Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen showed maximum concentration. Pollens of many plants located in public or private gardens may cause pollinosis in predisposed individuals. In this study we suggest a list of recommended plants for public and private green.
Advances in airborne allergenic pollen
空气致敏花粉污染研究进展

LI Qian,JIN Ying,HUA Zhen-Ling,LIU Jia-Xi,
李倩
,靳颖,华振玲,刘家熙

生态学报 , 2005,
Abstract: Pollinosis, a pollen-related disease, is caused by airborne allergenic pollens from certain plants. The prevalence of pollinosis has happened in recent decades. In order to prevent pollinosis, it is of great importance to do the research on airborne allergenic pollen. The advances in airborne allergenic pollen are briefly reviewed in this article pertaining to five aspects of the topic. Firstly, the concept of airborne allergenic pollen was introduced. Secondly, the characters and influential factors of airborne allergenic pollen were summarized. Airborne allergenic pollen has territorial and seasonal characters. There are some influential factors such as the type and quantity of allergenic pollen, ecological factors and contrived factors. Thirdly, the paper elaborated the improvements of pollen collectors. Several primary pollen collectors were described and compared here. For example, Burkard spore trap is based upon the same principle as the Hirst device, but the former allows uninterrupted sampling through seven days. Fourthly, the advances in airborne allergenic pollen were concluded from four different research fields. Some researchers investigated airborne allergenic pollen and several types of airborne allergenic pollen were identified. It is also very important for researchers to study pollen of different allergenic plants, to extract the substances out of them that cause pollinosis and to produce allergenic medicaments in diagnostic and medical senses. Other studies revealed the correlation between allergenic pollen and air pollution. One of these studies showed that the pollutants seem to make the surface of the exine more fragile, so triggering a mucosal reaction, making them more exposed to pollen allergens. At the same time, people took several precautionary measures, e.g. pollen forecast, to prevent the prevalence of pollinosis. There are many different remedies about pollinosis, among which there is a so-called immunotherapy. Fifthly, some problems about the study on airborne allergenic pollen and related resolutions were brought forward in the paper. Although there are many problems of study on airborne allergic pollen unsolved, the prospects of study on airborne allergic pollen is very brilliant.
Bio-Deterioration of Library Materials: Study of Fungi Threatening Printed Materials of Libraries in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011  [cached]
Rezvan Ojaghi,Mostafa Chadeganipour,Hossein Rafiei,,Mina Afshar
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology , 2013,
Abstract: Background: The importance of preserving and maintaining printed materials is crucial for the libraries. Fungi play the main role in destroying wood and paper..Objectives: This research aimed to study and identify threatening fungal agents of library resources in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences..Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive analytical study. 126 samples were collected and examined for the presence of fungi. An open plate method was used to scan airborne fungal contents and triplicate samples were collected at four different locations in the morning, at noon, and in the evening. The fungal culture media were incubated at 25-30 oC until growth appeared and then the fungi colonies were identified by routine mycological laboratory methods..Results: 1265 colonies of fungi belonging to 26 genera were identified in the air and different surfaces of books (references and circulation departments) and also surfaces of shelves in libraries. Cladosporium sp., Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp. and Alternaria sp. were the most common isolated fungi in libraries of Isfahan University of medical sciences. .Conclusions: We suggest training librarians as one of the most important steps in libraries to preserve library materials because having no knowledge about threatening factors and the way to fight with them are the main reasons of most frequent damages to library resources. Using new methods and technologies of preserving and maintenance of materials should be a priority in library managers’ planning .
Allergenic fungi in deteriorating historic objects of Shahrekord Museum, in Iran  [cached]
Azizollah Ebrahimi,Saeid Karimi,Sharareh Lotfalian,Fariba Majidi
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology , 2011,
Abstract: Introduction and objective: Presence of fungi in exhibition and storage spaces of museums may be dangerous to museum professionals and users. The aim of the present study was to assess the level of allergenic fungi in deteriorating historic objects of the Shahrekord Museum collection.Materials and methods: In this investigation, samples of 115 deteriorating historic objects aged from 50 to 200 years were inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated up to two weeks at 28°C in order to isolate fungal contaminants.Results: Samples of 105 items (91.3%) were positive for the presence of fungi. The most common isolated fungi were Aspergillus spp. (32.9%), Penicillium spp. (19.1%), and Madurella spp. (5.2%). The number for Zygomycota was 17.3%. Differences in contamination rates between fabrics, leather made and wooden objects for Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. were statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion: In fabrics Aspergillus spp. and Zygomycota, in leather made objects Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. and in wooden objects Zygomycota, Aspergillus spp. were dominant moulds. Majority of isolated species were common allergens.Significance and impact of the study: Most of the isolated fungi are allergenic and can cause adverse human health effects in both museum workers and users.
Airborne fungi causing respiratory allergy in patients from Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil
Menezes, Everardo Albuquerque;Carvalho, Paulo Germano;Trindade, Emmerson Cristhiano Pereira M.;Madeira Sobrinho, Geraldo;Cunha, Francisco Afranio;Castro, Fábio F. Morato;
Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-24442004000200006
Abstract: the dispersal of airborne fungi is made through atmospherical air. knowledge of anemophilous fungi in a given city is important for the ecological diagnosis and specific treatment of allergic manifestations induced by inhaled allergens. their use in individuals' allergy is widespread, and probably will remain so in the years to come. the purpose of this research was to make a relationship between the airborne fungi and the patients' respiratory allergy (asthma and rhinitis) from the city of fortaleza, state of ceará, brazil. first a research was made in fortaleza about the fungal allergens dispersed in atmospherical air. fungal allergen extracts were made from the ten most predominant moulds in the air, using sodium bicarbonate. the prick tests were made in fifty patients with asthma and rhinitis and in ten healthy persons (with no respiratory allergy). the positive test was made using histamine and the negative test with sodium bicarbonate preparation. the predominant fungi in the air of fortaleza were: aspergillus, penicillium, curvularia, cladosporium, mycelia sterilia, fusarium, rhizopus, drechslera, absidia and alternaria. as determined by the prick test: three fungal extracts (aspergillus, alternaria and drechslera) were positive in all patients; two (penicillium and curvularia) were positive in thirty-five patients; two (cladosporium and mycelia sterilia) were positive in thirty patients; and three (rhizopus, absidia and fusarium) were positive in nine patients. all the control tests were negative. all the ten most predominant anemophilous fungi isolated in the air could provoke skin test reactivity in individuals with respiratory allergy in fortaleza.
Airborne fungi causing respiratory allergy in patients from Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil
Menezes Everardo Albuquerque,Carvalho Paulo Germano,Trindade Emmerson Cristhiano Pereira M.,Madeira Sobrinho Geraldo
Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial , 2004,
Abstract: The dispersal of airborne fungi is made through atmospherical air. Knowledge of anemophilous fungi in a given city is important for the ecological diagnosis and specific treatment of allergic manifestations induced by inhaled allergens. Their use in individuals' allergy is widespread, and probably will remain so in the years to come. The purpose of this research was to make a relationship between the airborne fungi and the patients' respiratory allergy (asthma and rhinitis) from the city of Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil. First a research was made in Fortaleza about the fungal allergens dispersed in atmospherical air. Fungal allergen extracts were made from the ten most predominant moulds in the air, using sodium bicarbonate. The prick tests were made in fifty patients with asthma and rhinitis and in ten healthy persons (with no respiratory allergy). The positive test was made using histamine and the negative test with sodium bicarbonate preparation. The predominant fungi in the air of Fortaleza were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Curvularia, Cladosporium, Mycelia sterilia, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Drechslera, Absidia and Alternaria. As determined by the prick test: three fungal extracts (Aspergillus, Alternaria and Drechslera) were positive in all patients; two (Penicillium and Curvularia) were positive in thirty-five patients; two (Cladosporium and Mycelia sterilia) were positive in thirty patients; and three (Rhizopus, Absidia and Fusarium) were positive in nine patients. All the control tests were negative. All the ten most predominant anemophilous fungi isolated in the air could provoke skin test reactivity in individuals with respiratory allergy in Fortaleza.
Analysis of Changing Factors on Airborne Allergenic Pollens Distribution in Taiyuan Downtown, North China  [PDF]
Kejun Zhang, Binquan Wang, Yanli Zhang, Yanli Zhang, Nasha Cheng, Changsheng Wang, Chunming Zhang, Wei Gao, Ganggang Chen
International Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery (IJOHNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijohns.2015.42026
Abstract: To study and analyse 2 surveys on airborne allergenic pollens distribution in Taiyuan Downtown, North China 30 years apart, the surveys focused on the phenomenon and the influence factors on types, counts, drift patterns, growth and decline rhythm and distribution features of airborne pollen with the same methods in the region in March 1977 to February 1978 and July 2008 to June 2009, respectively. The data of two airborne pollens surveys were treated with statistics, comparation and analysis, and the influence factors of pollen distribution in Taiyuan Downtown were explored. In the 2 surveys, 24 species and 35 species of pollen were collected in the region, respectively. Two pollen drift peaks were formed in spring and autumn in the two surveys. Artemisia L. is still the absolute dominant allergy airborne pollen. The types, counts, drift patterns and composition of pollen in air could be changed by the plants variation. Climate warming might affect pollen peak appearing time and lasting time, climate warming and Poplar & Willow contents changes in spring and autumn reversed the airborne pollen peak. It was found that Humulus L. had become the region’s main allergic pollen. Invasive strong allergen ragweed was spread to the inland city Taiyuan. Allergists should focus on exotic invasive harmful plants in the region.
Investigation of airborne fungi at different altitudes in Shenzhen University  [PDF]
Li Li, Chao Lei, Zhi-Gang Liu
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.25063
Abstract: Aim: To investigate the richness of species or genera of airborne fungi, the amount of airborne fungi, and its seasonal variation at different al-titudes in Shenzhen University. The effect of meteorological factors on airborne fungi was also analyzed. Methods: Slide-exposure me- thod and open-plate method were used. Results: There were 27 genera or species of fungus spores identified. Among the identified fungal genus, Cladosporium, Ustilago, Alternaria, Helminth-sporium and Uredinales were more prevalent. There were 18 genera of fungi colonies identified. Among which Penicillium, non-sporulating fungi, Aspergillus, Saccharomyces and Cladosporium were more common. The airborne fungal spores were present in the atmosphere of Shenzhen University all year round. The peaks of airborne spores appeared during April and October, while the lowest numbers were observed during January, July and December from March 2005-Febrary 2006. The highest volumes of fungi colonies were observed during April, October and September, while the lowest numbers were de-tected during in January, July and December or May from March 2005-Febrary 2006. The meteoro-logical factors had no relationship between the total monthly spore count at 10 and 30 meter height. At 70 meter, the total spores count was negatively correlated with solar radiation. Conclusions: Most of the fungi spores decreased along with the increase of altitudes.
Prevalence of airborne allergenic Amaranthus viridis pollen in seven different regions of Saudi Arabia  [cached]
Hasnain Syed,Fatima Khatija,Al-Frayh Abdulrahman
Annals of Saudi Medicine , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Amaranthus pollen grains are known to be highly allergenic and a potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. Methods: We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A. viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samplers were operated continuously for one year at each location. Results: The data revealed A. viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. viridis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000/m 3 of air in October and 1827/m 3 of air in September. The data also exhibited a seasonal pattern in their maximum appearance. Conclusion: Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Qualitative Analysis of Indoor and Outdoor Airborne Fungi in Cowshed  [PDF]
R. Pavan,K. Manjunath
Journal of Mycology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/985921
Abstract: Air pollution is one of the most serious problems to human health. Fungi are the causal agents for different diseases in animals, plants, and human beings. Otomycosis, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, allergy, and systemic mycosis are among the fungal diseases caused. The present study was conducted to analyze the monthly incidence of airborne fungi, seasonal variation, and influence of meteorological parameters in indoor and outdoor fungi of cowshed at Hesaraghatta village, Bangalore. An aeromycological survey of indoor and outdoor area of cowshed at Hesaraghatta village in Bangalore city was carried out using the Andersen two-stage sampler onto a petri dish containing malt extract agar from January 2011 to December 2011. Altogether, 29 species belonging to 13 genera from indoor and 26 species belonging to 12 genera were recorded from outdoor environment of the cowshed; the dominant fungal species identified were Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp., and Alternaria alternata. Seasonal occurrence of fungal spores in both indoor and outdoor of the cowshed revealed that maximum spores were recorded in summer season followed by winter and rainy season. 1. Introduction Airborne particles are present throughout the environment. Despite the fact that atmospheric air does not favour growth of microorganisms due to lack of nutrients, the microorganisms are present in aerosol form, suspended in the air. The basic sources of microbes are soil, water, animals, and humans and they originate in many different forms and affect visibility, climate, human health, and the quality of life [1]. Airborne microbial quantity and quality vary with time of day, year, and location [2]. Fungi are common in indoor and outdoor environment. Nearly 10% of people worldwide have fungal allergy [3]. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to fungi may be associated with acute toxic effects, allergies, and asthma [4]. Researchers believe that more than 80 genera of fungi are associated with symptoms of respiratory tract allergies [5]. Over 100 species of fungi are involved with serious human and animal infections, whereas many other species cause serious plant diseases [6]. Many fungal spores are involved in respiratory allergies and different kinds of infections [7]. Fungal aerosols produced in animal rearing houses may threaten caretakers and external environment. Respiratory infection or damage may occur in caretakers as well as in animal rearing houses with prolonged exposure to the environment at high microorganism levels [8]. Microbial aerosols of high levels are also
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