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The Development of Early Childhood Education as an Academic Discipline in Finland
Eeva Hujala
Nordisk Barnehageforskning , 2008,
Abstract: Early Childhood Education (ECE) as an academic discipline has gained an academic legitimacy in Fin- land in 2005. In accordance with internationally established practice, Early Childhood Education as an academic field and a field of research has been set to cover the period from birth to eight years of age. The focus of ECE re- search is to analyse and define the development and upbringing of young children, including such themes as learning and teaching and the complex connection between child development to the growth environment. In re- cent years in Finland, the internal paradigmatic discussions within academic ECE have been both enlightened and critical. The emergence of an academic Early Childhood Education paradigm has been apparent in the discus- sions of early pedagogy, professional growth, leadership, management and quality and as a definer of pedagogy to support children’s learning. The challenge of academic Early Childhood Education is to introduce into the dis- cussion ontological and epistemological issues of early childhood and thereby activate teachers and other profes- sional educators and parents to consider personal and professional conceptions of the child, of learning and of the role of adults in the upbringing of young children from birth to eight years of age.
AS03 Adjuvanted AH1N1 Vaccine Associated with an Abrupt Increase in the Incidence of Childhood Narcolepsy in Finland  [PDF]
Hanna Nohynek, Jukka Jokinen, Markku Partinen, Outi Vaarala, Turkka Kirjavainen, Jonas Sundman, Sari-Leena Himanen, Christer Hublin, Ilkka Julkunen, P?ivi Olsén, Outi Saarenp??-Heikkil?, Terhi Kilpi
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033536
Abstract: Background Narcolepsy is a chronic sleep disorder with strong genetic predisposition causing excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy. A sudden increase in childhood narcolepsy was observed in Finland soon after pandemic influenza epidemic and vaccination with ASO3-adjuvanted Pandemrix. No increase was observed in other age groups. Methods Retrospective cohort study. From January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010 we retrospectively followed the cohort of all children living in Finland and born from January 1991 through December 2005. Vaccination data of the whole population was obtained from primary health care databases. All new cases with assigned ICD-10 code of narcolepsy were identified and the medical records reviewed by two experts to classify the diagnosis of narcolepsy according to the Brighton collaboration criteria. Onset of narcolepsy was defined as the first documented contact to health care because of excessive daytime sleepiness. The primary follow-up period was restricted to August 15, 2010, the day before media attention on post-vaccination narcolepsy started. Findings Vaccination coverage in the cohort was 75%. Of the 67 confirmed cases of narcolepsy, 46 vaccinated and 7 unvaccinated were included in the primary analysis. The incidence of narcolepsy was 9.0 in the vaccinated as compared to 0.7/100,000 person years in the unvaccinated individuals, the rate ratio being 12.7 (95% confidence interval 6.1–30.8). The vaccine-attributable risk of developing narcolepsy was 1:16,000 vaccinated 4 to 19-year-olds (95% confidence interval 1:13,000–1:21,000). Conclusions Pandemrix vaccine contributed to the onset of narcolepsy among those 4 to 19 years old during the pandemic influenza in 2009–2010 in Finland. Further studies are needed to determine whether this observation exists in other populations and to elucidate potential underlying immunological mechanism. The role of the adjuvant in particular warrants further research before drawing conclusions about the use of adjuvanted pandemic vaccines in the future.
The Association of Early Childhood Education and Care with Cognitive Learning Outcomes at 15 Years of Age in Finland  [PDF]
Aino Saarinen, Jari Lipsanen, Minna Huotilainen, Mirka Hintsanen, Liisa Keltikangas-J?rvinen
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2019.104033
Abstract: Background: We investigated whether child’s participation in early childhood education and care (ECEC) is associated with later cognitive learning outcomes at 15 years of age in Finland. Methods: The Finnish PISA 2015 data (N = 4634) was used. Learning outcomes in science, reading, mathematics, and collaborative problem-solving were evaluated with computer-based tests in 2015. Participation in ECEC and parental SES were assessed with questionnaires. Results: In any learning outcome, students who had only participated in preschool at 6 years of age did not differ from students who had started in ECEC at any other age between 1 - 5 years. Additionally, at a trend level, participation in ECEC before preschool had more beneficial effects on learning outcomes among students with high parental SES than low parental SES. Conclusions: ECEC before preschool is not associated with learning outcomes at 15 years of age in Finland. ECEC may not have compensatory effects for children coming from socioeconomically disadvantaged families in Finland. In the future, it is necessary to further investigate which factors might diminish the inequality in learning outcomes between children coming from different family background. In particular, more research is needed about the influence of both societal factors (e.g. integration of immigration families, psychosocial family environment, gender-specific factors) and child-care related factors (e.g. special education; individually tailored day care programs for high-risk children).
Increased Incidence and Clinical Picture of Childhood Narcolepsy following the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Vaccination Campaign in Finland  [PDF]
Markku Partinen, Outi Saarenp??-Heikkil?, Ismo Ilveskoski, Christer Hublin, Miika Linna, P?ivi Olsén, Pekka Nokelainen, Reija Alén, Tiina Wallden, Merimaaria Espo, Harri Rusanen, Jan Olme, Heli S?til?, Harri Arikka, Pekka Kaipainen, Ilkka Julkunen, Turkka Kirjavainen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033723
Abstract: Background Narcolepsy is a rare neurological sleep disorder especially in children who are younger than 10 years. In the beginning of 2010, an exceptionally large number of Finnish children suffered from an abrupt onset of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and cataplexy. Therefore, we carried out a systematic analysis of the incidence of narcolepsy in Finland between the years 2002–2010. Methods All Finnish hospitals and sleep clinics were contacted to find out the incidence of narcolepsy in 2010. The national hospital discharge register from 2002 to 2009 was used as a reference. Findings Altogether 335 cases (all ages) of narcolepsy were diagnosed in Finland during 2002–2009 giving an annual incidence of 0.79 per 100 000 inhabitants (95% confidence interval 0.62–0.96). The average annual incidence among subjects under 17 years of age was 0.31 (0.12–0.51) per 100 000 inhabitants. In 2010, 54 children under age 17 were diagnosed with narcolepsy (5.3/100 000; 17-fold increase). Among adults ≥20 years of age the incidence rate in 2010 was 0.87/100 000, which equals that in 2002–2009. Thirty-four of the 54 children were HLA-typed, and they were all positive for narcolepsy risk allele DQB1*0602/DRB1*15. 50/54 children had received Pandemrix vaccination 0 to 242 days (median 42) before onset. All 50 had EDS with abnormal multiple sleep latency test (sleep latency <8 min and ≥2 sleep onset REM periods). The symptoms started abruptly. Forty-seven (94%) had cataplexy, which started at the same time or soon after the onset of EDS. Psychiatric symptoms were common. Otherwise the clinical picture was similar to that described in childhood narcolepsy. Interpretation A sudden increase in the incidence of abrupt childhood narcolepsy was observed in Finland in 2010. We consider it likely that Pandemrix vaccination contributed, perhaps together with other environmental factors, to this increase in genetically susceptible children.
Governing Sustainability Transitions: Multi-Stakeholder Initiatives and Regime Change in United States Agriculture  [PDF]
Jason Konefal
Sustainability , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/su7010612
Abstract: Using a case study of US agriculture, this paper examines how governance affects sustainability transitions in socio-technical systems. The multi-level perspective (MLP) has become a leading framework for theorizing sustainability transitions in socio-technical systems. It posits that transitions to more sustainable socio-technical systems are an outcome of external pressure at the landscape level and internal pressure emanating from niches. While the MLP is a robust analytical framework, it under-theorizes the role that governance plays in sustainability transitions. This paper addresses this research gap through examining three multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSIs) that have developed sustainability metrics and standards for US agriculture: Field to Market; LEO-4000; and the Stewardship Index for Specialty Crops. Applying a governance analytical framework, membership selection, decision-making procedures, and access to resources are found to affect the kinds of sustainability metrics developed, as well as their likely implementation. Specifically, the governance processes functioned to channel sustainability metrics towards ones that were congruent with the existing agrifood regime, and marginalize metrics that had the potential to disrupt regime processes. Thus, this article proposes that governance is a key component of sustainability transitions, and that current usage of MSIs in much of environmental governance may function to moderate sustainability transitions.
Mapping service activity: the example of childhood obesity schemes in England
Catherine Aicken, Helen Roberts, Lisa Arai
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-310
Abstract: Our search strategy, inclusion criteria and coding frame had to be suitable for describing a potentially large number of schemes within a short timeframe. Data were collected from key informants, scheme publicity and reports, and via a web-survey. To be included, schemes had to be based in England, follow a structured programme lasting at least two weeks, promote healthy weight, and be delivered exclusively to overweight and/or obese children and young people (age range 4-18). Data were entered into a coding frame recording similar information for each scheme, including any underpinning research evidence, evaluation or monitoring reports. Priority questions were identified in consultation with colleagues from the Department of Health and the Cross Government Obesity Unit.Fifty-one schemes were identified. Some operated in multiple areas, and by using estimates of the number of schemes provided by multi-site scheme leads, we found that between 314 and 375 local programmes were running at any time. Uncertainty is largely due to the largest scheme provider undergoing rapid expansion at the time of the mapping exercise and therefore able to provide only an estimate of the number of programmes running.Many schemes were similar in their approach, had been recently established and were following NICE guidelines on interventions to promote healthy weight. Rigorous evaluation was rare.Our methods enabled us to produce a rapid overview of service activity across a wide geographic area and a range of organisations and sectors. In order to develop the evidence base for childhood obesity interventions, rigorous evaluation of these schemes is required. This overview can serve as a starting point for evaluations of interventions to address obesity. More generally, a rapid and systematic approach of this type is transferable to other types of service activity in health and social care, and may be a tool to inform public health planning.In the UK, there is considerable policy and re
Tilting of Lake Pielinen, eastern Finland – an example of extreme transgressions and regressions caused by differential post-glacial isostatic uplift
Heikki Sepp?,Matti Tikkanen,Jari-Pekka M?kiaho
Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3176/earth.2012.3.02
Abstract: Tilting of large lakes due to differential isostatic uplift in the glaciated regions of the Northern Hemisphere is a well-documented process. With the help of accurate digital elevation models and spatial GIS analysis techniques, the resulting hydro-logical changes, including shifts in the outlets and changes in the size and configuration of lakes, can now be mapped and calculated more precisely than before. As a case study to highlight the magnitude of such changes in Fennoscandia, we investigated and reinterpreted the Holocene palaeogeography and palaeohydrology of Lake Pielinen in eastern Finland. This lake is currently 99 km long and located parallel to the direction of land uplift, being thus particularly sensitive to the impacts of tilting. Our results show that the lake was formed at the end of the regional deglaciation, following drainage of a local ice-dammed lake. In its initial stage until 10 200 cal yr BP, the outlet of the newly-formed lake was located in its northwestern end, but the tilting led to a major water level transgression in the basin, eventually causing formation of a new outlet over the southeastern threshold. The lake area was 143 km long and its area was 1998 km2 at the time of formation of the southeastern outlet at 10 200 cal yr BP. The lake level has been regressive throughout the basin during the last 10 200 years. This regression will continue for approximately another 10 000 years until all the glacial isostatic adjustment has occurred, after which Lake Pielinen will be only 89 km long and 565 km2 in area.
No Serological Evidence of Influenza A H1N1pdm09 Virus Infection as a Contributing Factor in Childhood Narcolepsy after Pandemrix Vaccination Campaign in Finland  [PDF]
Krister Melén, Markku Partinen, Janne Tynell, Maarit Sillanp??, Sari-Leena Himanen, Outi Saarenp??-Heikkil?, Christer Hublin, P?ivi Olsen, Jorma Ilonen, Hanna Nohynek, Ritva Syrj?nen, Terhi Kilpi, Arja Vuorela, Turkka Kirjavainen, Outi Vaarala, Ilkka Julkunen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068402
Abstract: Background Narcolepsy cataplexy syndrome, characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy, is strongly associated with a genetic marker, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1*06:02. A sudden increase in the incidence of childhood narcolepsy was observed after vaccination with AS03-adjuvanted Pandemrix influenza vaccine in Finland at the beginning of 2010. Here, we analysed whether the coinciding influenza A H1N1pdm pandemic contributed, together with the Pandemrix vaccination, to the increased incidence of childhood narcolepsy in 2010. The analysis was based on the presence or absence of antibody response against non-structural protein 1 (NS1) from H1N1pdm09 virus, which was not a component of Pandemrix vaccine. Methods Non-structural (NS) 1 proteins from recombinant influenza A/Udorn/72 (H3N2) and influenza A/Finland/554/09 (H1N1pdm09) viruses were purified and used in Western blot analysis to determine specific antibody responses in human sera. The sera were obtained from 45 patients who fell ill with narcolepsy after vaccination with AS03-adjuvanted Pandemrix at the end of 2009, and from controls. Findings Based on quantitative Western blot analysis, only two of the 45 (4.4%) Pandemrix-vaccinated narcoleptic patients showed specific antibody response against the NS1 protein from the H1N1pdm09 virus, indicating past infection with the H1N1pdm09 virus. Instead, paired serum samples from patients, who suffered from a laboratory confirmed H1N1pdm09 infection, showed high levels or diagnostic rises (96%) in H1N1pdm virus NS1-specific antibodies and very high cross-reactivity to H3N2 subtype influenza A virus NS1 protein. Conclusion Based on our findings, it is unlikely that H1N1pdm09 virus infection contributed to a sudden increase in the incidence of childhood narcolepsy observed in Finland in 2010 after AS03-adjuvanted Pandemrix vaccination.
The Example of a Study of Socio-Cultural Education at the Early Childhood: Architect Sinan
Sevgi Co?kun Keskin,Duygu Daysal Ersoy
International Online Journal of Educational Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This study aims to build an example that shows children in early childhood can learn historical Turkish figures taken place in their culture within the framework of socio cultural education. Because the idea of difficulty for children in understanding concepts and facts about past in this period, also reflected in pre-school programs. For this reason objectives about important historical Turkish figures that lived in the past are not included in programs. It is important to demonstrate the lack of that situation in the program. To resolve these deficiency activities were carried out in a kindergarten in the age group of 6 by developing appropriate pre-school activities for 2 weeks related to Architect Sinan who provided important contributions to Turkey with his works. In this study which is carried out with action research pattern of qualitative research methods, 5 activities prepared about Architect Sinan were applied 16 students in the early childhood period. A month after the application children were interviewed by asking questions that were prepared on the subject. Documents, observation records and interview questions obtained from application process were subjected to descriptive analysis and data analysis is carried out. Thus, it was investigated that learning Architect Sinan is possible or not and through which activities learning can occur. At the end of the study, it is determined that when the appropriate activities are prepared children in the early childhood can learn historical Turkish figures who lived in the past and provided socio-cultural contributions to our nation. A month after applying activities, 14 of 16 students remembered the Architect Sinan and his works and appreciated him. In addition, it is seen that these activities activate children’s problem solving skills, aesthetic feelings and persistent imagination. Therefore, it is proposed to include socio cultural activities for early childhood programs, enrichment of samples of events in this regard, training of early childhood educators in this direction, and providing materials such as song, ront, visuals in addition to cartoons, and movie productions to the educators of this period.
Adverse Childhood Experiences and Risk of Binge Drinking and Drunkenness in Middle-Aged Finnish Men  [PDF]
Laura Kauhanen,Janne Leino,Hanna-Maaria Lakka,John W. Lynch,Jussi Kauhanen
Advances in Preventive Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/478741
Abstract: Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking and drunkenness in adulthood using both historical and recalled data from childhood. Methods. Data on childhood adverse experiences were collected from school health records and questionnaires completed in adulthood. Adulthood data were obtained from the baseline examinations of the male participants ( ) in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) in 1984–1989 from eastern Finland. School health records from the 1930s to 1950s were available for a subsample of KIHD men ( ). Results. According to the school health records, men who had adverse childhood experiences had a 1.51-fold (95% CI 1.05 to 2.18) age- and examination-year adjusted odds of binge drinking in adulthood. After adjustment for socioeconomic position in adulthood or behavioural factors in adulthood, the association remained unchanged. Adjustment for socioeconomic position in childhood attenuated these effects. Also the recalled data showed associations with adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking with different beverages. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that childhood adversities are associated with increased risk of binge drinking in adulthood. 1. Introduction Binge drinking is commonly defined as consuming five or more servings of alcohol at a time. In Nordic countries, however, consuming six or more alcoholic units of one type of beverage on one drinking occasion is often used in research [1, 2]. It is also a threshold for risky drinking according to the National Institute of Health and Welfare in Finland [3]. Binge drinking is associated with multiple adverse health outcomes [4–9] and is common in the Eastern European and Nordic countries [10, 11]. For example in a study by Palj?rvi et al., an increasing volume of alcohol consumption increased the risk of fatal injury [12]. In Finland, alcohol consumption increased quite steadily in the past decades at least until the mid-2000s. In 2008, the total annual consumption per capita was 10.4 litres of pure alcohol, which is somewhat above the average consumption level in the European countries [13]. Approximately, 25% of men and 10% of women binge when they consume alcohol [14]. Binge-drinking behaviour among young people has also been increasing since 2007, except in the youngest age group of 14 years according to the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle survey 2009. In 2009, 22% of boys and 21% of girls aged 14–18 years got heavily drunk on a monthly basis. The prevalence of problem drinkers
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