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Translational health research: perspectives from health education specialists
Holly J Mata, Sharon Davis
Clinical and Translational Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2001-1326-1-27
Abstract: Health Education Specialists have the training and experience to engage in and facilitate translational research, as well as the opportunity to learn from the translational efforts of other professions and enhance our research, practice, and community partnerships through translational efforts. In this paper, a Translational Health Education Research framework for health education researchers is suggested to foster increased translational efforts within our profession as well as to promote interdisciplinary collaborations to translate a variety of health-related research. A conceptual framework adapted from translational health disparities research that highlights the level and scope of translational research necessary for changes in practice and policy is also provided.A recent commentary [1] focused on diverse interpretations and definitions of clinical and translational medicine. Health Education Specialists and health disparities researchers have a particular interest in translational health disparities research and community health. Health disparities have been defined as “systematic, plausibly avoidable health differences that adversely affect socially disadvantaged groups” ([2], p. S151). Health equity – the concept of social justice in health – thus involves addressing structural and societal barriers that get in the way of people being able to attain optimal health [2]. The integration of a “social mission” perspective [1] among clinical translational scientists has been prioritized, and it is important for our public health colleagues to consider their own role in the translational research process. The phrase “from bench to bedside to curbside” is a common definition of translational research among health disparities researchers [3]. Health Education Specialists make important contributions to the field of clinical translational medicine, particularly in light of U.S. health care reform and a renewed emphasis on medical home or health care home [4] models
Advancing Transdisciplinary and Translational Research Practice: Issues and Models of Doctoral Education in Public Health  [cached]
Linda Neuhauser,Dawn Richardson,Sonja Mackenzie,Meredith Minkler
Journal of Research Practice , 2007,
Abstract: Finding solutions to complex health problems, such as obesity, violence, and climate change, will require radical changes in cross-disciplinary education, research, and practice. The fundamental determinants of health include many interrelated factors such as poverty, culture, education, environment, and government policies. However, traditional public health training has tended to focus more narrowly on diseases and risk factors, and has not adequately leveraged the rich contributions of sociology, anthropology, economics, geography, communication, political science, and other disciplines. Further, students are often not sufficiently trained to work across sectors to translate research findings into effective, large-scale sustainable actions.During the past 2 decades, national and international organizations have called for more effective interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and translational approaches to graduate education. Although it has been difficult to work across traditional academic boundaries, some promising models draw on pedagogical theory and feature cross-disciplinary training focused on real-world problems, linkage between research, professional practice, community action, and cultivation of leadership skills.We describe the development the Doctor of Public Health program at the University of California, Berkeley, USA and its efforts to improve transdisciplinary and translational research education. We stress the need for international collaboration to improve educational approaches and better evaluate their impact.
Important steps to improve translation from medical research to health policy  [cached]
Jiang Fan,Zhang Jun,Wang Xiangdong,Shen Xiaoming
Journal of Translational Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-11-33
Abstract: Translational medicine entails not only “from-bench-to-bedside” but also preventive medicine. The present article proposes a conceptual framework of translational research from scientific research to health care policy and public health policy. We highlight the importance of translational medicine to bridge between research and policy and share our experience of translating medical research to public health policy in China as well as obstacles and challenges we are facing in the translation process.
Local Role of Food Producers' Communities for a Global One-Health Framework: The Experience of Translational Research in an Italian Dairy Chain  [PDF]
Chiara Frazzoli, Alberto Mantovani, Roberto Dragone
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2014.32B003
Abstract:

Community is the foundation of public health: the present paper reports the approach and strategy for intervention on the dairy production community developed by the Italian project ALERT (www.alert2015.it), which implements the transfer of technical innovation and technological know-how from public research. Starting from the local role of primary producers, North-South and South-South networking (www.noodlesonlus.org) is needed to share solutions for transnational problems like climatic change, contaminated agro-farming sites and food waste and losses in the era of food crisis. Based on risk analysis, science-society dialogue and global health, the main drivers of this experience of translational research are One Health, i.e. the web of inter-relationships among environment, farm animals and human health, and sustainable food safety (prevention actions on diet of young women, today, to protect next generation’s health) to increase population life expectancy in good health.

Developing a Public Health Framework for the Epidemiological Linkages between HIV/AIDS and NCDs: A Thematic Research Synthesis
International Journal of Prevention and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.ijpt.20120104.01
Abstract: The Political Declaration of High-level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Prevention and Control of NCDs has noted possible linkages between HIV/AIDS and NCDs. The aim of this study was to develop a public health framework for those linkages between HIV/AIDS and the common NCDs. The overall method used in this study was a thematic research synthesis. Descriptive, integrative and configurative syntheses of evidence on linkages between HIV/AIDS and NCDs were conducted. The searching process was iterative; appraisal was stepwise; and extraction was verbatim. All retrieved information was described, analysed and then configured in to a concept map using major pathways of relationships between HIV/AIDS and NCDs. The concept map was developed in to the public health framework through progressive review and revisions. Two major forms and pathways of linkages between HIV/AIDS and NCDs were identified. There are five nodes that mediate the indirect HIV-NCD linkage: common underlying factors, life style factors, antiretroviral treatment, common complications, and other mediating disease conditions. These linkages along with mediating factors are organized in to a public health framework. In conclusion, the main pathways and forms of relationship between HIV/AIDS and NCDs were described; and a public health framework for the epidemiological interrelationships between HIV/AIDS and NCDs was developed.
Translational Research: From Biological Discovery to Public Benefit (or Not)  [PDF]
Michael R. Emmert-Buck
Advances in Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/278789
Abstract: Advances in biology are occurring at a breathtaking pace today, from genetic insights facilitated by the Human Genome Project and next generation DNA sequencing technologies, to global nucleic acid and proteomic expression measurement using new high-throughput methods. Less publicized in recent years, yet still the central driver of progress, are the steadily proceeding biological insights gained through tried and true hypothesis-driven investigation into the complex worlds of metabolism, growth, development, and regulation. Certainly, the basic science ecosystem is productive and this portends well for the myriad new applications that will benefit mankind; drugs, vaccines, devices, and related economic growth—or perhaps not—in stark contrast to the generation of fundamental biological knowledge are inefficiencies in applying this information to real-world problems, especially those of the clinic. While investigation hums along at light speed, translation often does not. The good news is that obstacles to progress are tractable. The bad news, however, is that these problems are difficult. The present paper examines translational research from multiple perspectives, beginning with a historical account and proceeding to the current state of the art. Included are descriptions of successes and challenges, along with conjecture on how the field may need to evolve in the future. 1. Introduction Our greatest glory is not in never failing, but in rising up every time we fail. (Ralph Waldo Emerson) Nothing exemplifies the quote above from Emerson more than the translation of a biological discovery into a new drug, device, or other intervention that helps society. This is no easy task. The stakes here are high—human health and wellbeing; thus it is important that the translational system is critically examined and understood in order to maximize the likelihood that basic research performed in the laboratory and clinic benefits the public [1–7] (see Appendix for relevant websites). Moreover, if positive economic activity is generated this strengthens the biotechnology and pharmaceutical company sectors, which in turn grows the scientific ecosystem writ large, ultimately making more funds available for research and training, creating high-level jobs, and increasing appreciation of the overall enterprise by the public [8–10]. At the outset, it is important to recognize three important aspects of translational research as it is performed today. First, the system is not broken per se as there are many advances to celebrate, exemplified by the discovery, production,
An Organizing Framework for Translation in Public Health: The Knowledge to Action Framework  [cached]
Katherine M. Wilson, PhD, MPH, CHES,Teresa J. Brady, PhD,Catherine Lesesne, PhD, MPH
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2011,
Abstract: A priority for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is translating scientific knowledge into action to improve the public’s health. No area has a more pressing need for translation than the prevention and control of chronic diseases. Staff from CDC’s National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion worked across disciplines and content areas to develop an organizing framework to describe and depict the high-level processes necessary to move from discovery into action through translation of evidence-based programs, practices, or policies. The Knowledge to Action (K2A) Framework identifies 3 phases (research, translation, and institutionalization) and the decision points, interactions, and supporting structures within the phases that are necessary to move knowledge to sustainable action. Evaluation undergirds the entire K2A process. Development of the K2A Framework highlighted the importance of planning for translation, attending to supporting structures, and evaluating the public health impact of our efforts.
"Globalized public health.” A transdisciplinary comprehensive framework for analyzing contemporary globalization’s influences on the field of public health
Véronique Lapaige
Risk Management and Healthcare Policy , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S6134
Abstract: balized public health.” A transdisciplinary comprehensive framework for analyzing contemporary globalization’s influences on the field of public health Original Research (13679) Total Article Views Authors: Véronique Lapaige Published Date October 2009 Volume 2009:2 Pages 73 - 89 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S6134 Véronique Lapaige Canadian Health Services Research Foundation Fellow, Centre intégré de formation en sciences de la santé (CIFSS), Université Laval, Québec, Canada Abstract: The current phase of globalization represents a “double-edged sword” challenge facing public health practitioners and health policy makers. The first “edge” throws light on two constructs in the field of public health: global health (formerly international health) and globalized public health. The second “edge” is that of global governance, and raises the question, “how can we construct public health regulations that adequately respond to both global and local complexities related to the two constructs mentioned earlier (global health and globalized public health)?” The two constructs call for the development of norms that will assure sustained population-wide health improvement and these two constructs have their own conceptual tools and theoretical models that permit a better understanding of them. In this paper, we introduce the “globalized public health” construct and we present an interactive comprehensive framework for critically analyzing contemporary globalization’s influences on the field of public health. “Globalized public health”, simultaneously a theoretical model and a conceptual framework, concerns the transformation of the field of public health in the sociohistorical context of globalization. The model is the fruit of an original theoretical research study conducted from 2005 to 2008 (“contextualized research,” Gibbons’ Mode II of knowledge production), founded on a QUAL-quant sequential mixed-method design. This research also reflects our political and ideological position, fuelled with aspirations of social democracy and cosmopolitical values. It is profoundly anchored in the pragmatic approach to globalization, looking to “reconcile” the market and equity. The model offers several features to users: (1) it is transdisciplinary; (2) it is interactive (CD-ROM); (3) it is nonlinear (nonlinear interrelations between the contextual globalization and the field of public health); (4) it is synchronic/diachronic (a double-crossed perspective permits analysis of global social change, the emergence of global agency and the transmutation of the field of public health, in the full complexity of their nonlinear interaction); (5) it offers five characteristics as an auto-eco-organized system of social interactions, or dynamic, nonlinear sociohistorical system. The model features a visual interface (five interrelated figures), a structure of 30 “integrator concepts” that integrates 114 other element-parts via 1,300 hypertext links. The model is both a k
A unified framework for managing provenance information in translational research
Satya S Sahoo, Vinh Nguyen, Olivier Bodenreider, Priti Parikh, Todd Minning, Amit P Sheth
BMC Bioinformatics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-12-461
Abstract: We identify a common set of challenges in managing provenance information across the pre-publication and post-publication phases of data in the translational research lifecycle. We define the semantic provenance framework (SPF), underpinned by the Provenir upper-level provenance ontology, to address these challenges in the four stages of provenance metadata:(a) Provenance collection - during data generation(b) Provenance representation - to support interoperability, reasoning, and incorporate domain semantics(c) Provenance storage and propagation - to allow efficient storage and seamless propagation of provenance as the data is transferred across applications(d) Provenance query - to support queries with increasing complexity over large data size and also support knowledge discovery applicationsWe apply the SPF to two exemplar translational research projects, namely the Semantic Problem Solving Environment for Trypanosoma cruzi (T.cruzi SPSE) and the Biomedical Knowledge Repository (BKR) project, to demonstrate its effectiveness.The SPF provides a unified framework to effectively manage provenance of translational research data during pre and post-publication phases. This framework is underpinned by an upper-level provenance ontology called Provenir that is extended to create domain-specific provenance ontologies to facilitate provenance interoperability, seamless propagation of provenance, automated querying, and analysis.The key notion of translational research is the flow of information resources (experiment data, publications/literature, clinical trial data, or patient records) across organizations, domains, and projects that impacts both patient care and (through a feedback process) basic research. This necessitates keeping track of the provenance metadata of resources from the point of their creation to intermediate processing, and finally their end use. Provenance, derived from the French term provenir meaning "to come from", has traditionally played an impor
A Threat- and Efficacy-Based Framework to Understand Confidence in Vaccines among the Public Health Workforce  [PDF]
Daniel J. Barnett,Nicole A. Errett,Lainie Rutkow
Vaccines , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/vaccines1020077
Abstract: The Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) is an established threat- and efficacy-based behavioral framework for understanding health behaviors in the face of uncertain risk. A growing body of research has applied this model to understand these behaviors among the public health workforce. In this manuscript, we aim to explore the application of this framework to the public health workforce, with a novel focus on their confidence in vaccines and perceptions of vaccine injury compensation mechanisms. We characterize specific connections between EPPM’s threat and efficacy dimensions and relevant vaccine policy frameworks and highlight how these connections can usefully inform training interventions for public health workers to enhance their confidence in these vaccine policy measures.
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