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Social Influences on Inequity Aversion in Children  [PDF]
Katherine McAuliffe, Peter R. Blake, Grace Kim, Richard W. Wrangham, Felix Warneken
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080966
Abstract: Adults and children are willing to sacrifice personal gain to avoid both disadvantageous and advantageous inequity. These two forms of inequity aversion follow different developmental trajectories, with disadvantageous inequity aversion emerging around 4 years and advantageous inequity aversion emerging around 8 years. Although inequity aversion is assumed to be specific to situations where resources are distributed among individuals, the role of social context has not been tested in children. Here, we investigated the influence of two aspects of social context on inequity aversion in 4- to 9-year-old children: (1) the role of the experimenter distributing rewards and (2) the presence of a peer with whom rewards could be shared. Experiment 1 showed that children rejected inequity at the same rate, regardless of whether the experimenter had control over reward allocations. This indicates that children’s decisions are based upon reward allocations between themselves and a peer and are not attempts to elicit more favorable distributions from the experimenter. Experiment 2 compared rejections of unequal reward allocations in children interacting with or without a peer partner. When faced with a disadvantageous distribution, children frequently rejected a smaller reward when a larger reward was visible, even if no partner would obtain the larger reward. This suggests that nonsocial factors partly explain disadvantageous inequity rejections. However, rejections of disadvantageous distributions were higher when the larger amount would go to a peer, indicating that social context enhances disadvantageous inequity aversion. By contrast, children rejected advantageous distributions almost exclusively in the social context. Therefore, advantageous inequity aversion appears to be genuinely social, highlighting its potential relevance for the development of fairness concerns. By comparing social and nonsocial factors, this study provides a detailed picture of the expression of inequity aversion in human ontogeny and raises questions about the function and evolution of inequity aversion in humans.
Human organ trafficking in the cyber space
Vuleti? Dejan
Temida , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/tem0903063v
Abstract: The accelerated growth of the information-communication technology use brought about cyber crime as a new form of crime connected with the misuse of computer network. Human trafficking and human organ trafficking are changing in line with the state-of-art technological achievements i.e. becoming more and more characteristic of cyber space. Passing appropriate regulations at both national and international levels presents an important step in solving the problem of human organ trafficking through Internet.
Combat organ trafficking – reward the donor or regulate sales  [cached]
M. Slabbert
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 2008, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v73i1.154
Abstract: There is an acute shortage of transplantable human organs worldwide. The current systems of organ procurement cannot supply in the demand. A new approach is imperative. While countries struggle to find ways of motivating more people to become organ donors, the international illegal black market is thriving. A possible solution to the problem in South Africa might be to change current legislation by confirming human organ trafficking a specific crime as is the case in the United Kingdom. However, more available organs for transplantation in the current recognised system are also essential. To achieve this, it is proposed that donors should be rewarded more effectively, or a regulated market in human organs should be allowed.
Social inequalities and health inequity in Morocco
Abdesslam Boutayeb
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-5-1
Abstract: Our study was based mainly on annual reports and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organisation (WHO), The Moroccan Health Ministry and related papers published in international journals.As indicated by the last Arab Human Development Reports (AHDR 2002, AHDR 2003, AHDR 2004) and implicitly confirmed by the "National Initiative for Human Development" (NIHD) launched in May 2005 by the King of Morocco, many districts and shanty towns, urban or peri-urban, and a multitude of rural communes live in situations characterized by difficult access to basic social services of which education and health are examples.Recent evidence showed that improved health is more than a consequence of development. It is a central input into economic and social development and poverty reduction. Serious initiatives for human development should consider the reduction of social inequalities and health inequities as a first priority. Otherwise, the eventual development achieved cannot be sustained.According to the last census, Morocco has a population approaching 30 million people, experiencing a transition on different levels. In 2005, 55% of the population is living in urban areas, compared to 43% in 1982 and 29% in 1960. The Moroccan population is young, with 38% under the age of 14 years, and life expectancy at birth has increased from 65 in 1980 to 68.5 in 2004. The country has made good progress in the control of preventable childhood diseases but social inequalities and health inequities remain the major problems for the third millennium.Despite the diverse resources (agriculture, phosphates, fishing, potentialities for tourism, etc...) and the progress achieved during the last decade, the country still ranks 125th according to the Human Development Index (HDI) (UNDP, 2004)[1]. This unpleasant position is mainly explained by low income, high adult illiteracy, lack of generalized education, and health indi
Social inequalities, regional disparities and health inequity in North African countries
Abdesslam Boutayeb, Uwe Helmert
International Journal for Equity in Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-9276-10-23
Abstract: This study is based on data available for comparison between North African countries. The main data sources are provided by reports released by the World Health Organisation (WHO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the World Bank, surveys such as Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and finally recent papers published on equity in different countries of the region.There is no doubt that education, health and human development in general have improved in North Africa during the last decades. Improvement was, however, uneven and unequally enjoyed by different socioeconomic groups. Indeed, each country included in this study shows large urban-rural disparities, discrepancies between advantaged and disadvantaged regions and cities; and unacceptable differences between rich and poor. Health inequity is particularly seen through access to health services and infant mortality.During the last decades, North African decision makers have endeavoured to improve social and economic conditions of their populations. Globally, health, education and living standard in general have substantially improved in average. However, North African countries have still a long way to go to reduce social inequalities and health inequity at different levels: rural-urban, advantaged-marginalised regions and cities, between groups of different level of income and wealth. The challenge for the next decade is not only to improve economic, social and health conditions in average but also and mainly to reduce avoidable inequalities in parallel.During the last decades, North African countries have seen a substantial improvement in the living standard of their populations. Life expectancy, literacy and per capita income improved in all countries and consequently, human development index has been steadily increasing. Beyond the global trend, however, improvement was not equally enjoyed. Indeed, urban-rural dispa
Inequity in India: the case of maternal and reproductive health  [cached]
Linda Sanneving,Nadja Trygg,Deepak Saxena,Dileep Mavalankar
Global Health Action , 2013, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v6i0.19145
Abstract: Background: Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 is focused on reducing maternal mortality and achieving universal access to reproductive health care. India has made extensive efforts to achieve MDG 5 and in some regions much progress has been achieved. Progress has been uneven and inequitable however, and many women still lack access to maternal and reproductive health care. Objective: In this review, a framework developed by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) is used to categorize and explain determinants of inequity in maternal and reproductive health in India. Design: A review of peer-reviewed, published literature was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed and Popline. The search was performed using a carefully developed list of search terms designed to capture published papers from India on: 1) maternal and reproductive health, and 2) equity, including disadvantaged populations. A matrix was developed to sort the relevant information, which was extracted and categorized based on the CSDH framework. In this way, the main sources of inequity in maternal and reproductive health in India and their inter-relationships were determined. Results: Five main structural determinants emerged from the analysis as important in understanding equity in India: economic status, gender, education, social status (registered caste or tribe), and age (adolescents). These five determinants were found to be closely interrelated, a feature which was reflected in the literature. Conclusion: In India, economic status, gender, and social status are all closely interrelated when influencing use of and access to maternal and reproductive health care. Appropriate attention should be given to how these social determinants interplay in generating and sustaining inequity when designing policies and programs to reach equitable progress toward improved maternal and reproductive health.
Social Merchandising: Human Trafficking in Brazilian Soap Opera  [PDF]
Denise Avancini Alves, Maria Helena Weber
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2015.34010
Abstract: Human trafficking is one of today’s largest shadow economies. This theme was included in plot of Salve Jorge, a soap opera in Brazil (broadcasted by Globo Network between October 2012 and May 2013). This article analyzes the social merchandising, an approach given to international human trafficking in entertainment venues of television, especially, from the telenovela Salve Jorge. The strategy of inclusion of social issues in the plots is recognized as social merchandising. So, it is in this privileged media space that the story of a social problem is also constituted. The study focuses on the discussion of the power of the telenovela to dramatize issues of public interest, having main broadcasting and audience of Salve Jorge. One seeks to question the maintenance and the impact of the subject of human trafficking as a dialogue between fiction and reality portrayed by Brazilian television. The show, Salve Jorge, is based on the real-life story of a Brazilian woman who was led to Israel and forced into prostitution. Therefore, human trafficking emerges as the central theme of this study over the main plot of Salve Jorge.
Circadian and Social Cues Regulate Ion Channel Trafficking  [PDF]
Michael R. Markham,M. Lynne McAnelly,Philip K. Stoddard,Harold H. Zakon
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000203
Abstract: Electric fish generate and sense electric fields for navigation and communication. These signals can be energetically costly to produce and can attract electroreceptive predators. To minimize costs, some nocturnally active electric fish rapidly boost the power of their signals only at times of high social activity, either as night approaches or in response to social encounters. Here we show that the gymnotiform electric fish Sternopygus macrurus rapidly boosts signal amplitude by 40% at night and during social encounters. S. macrurus increases signal magnitude through the rapid and selective trafficking of voltage-gated sodium channels into the excitable membranes of its electrogenic cells, a process under the control of pituitary peptide hormones and intracellular second-messenger pathways. S. macrurus thus maintains a circadian rhythm in signal amplitude and adapts within minutes to environmental events by increasing signal amplitude through the rapid trafficking of ion channels, a process that directly modifies an ongoing behavior in real time.
Circadian and Social Cues Regulate Ion Channel Trafficking  [PDF]
Michael R. Markham ,M. Lynne McAnelly,Philip K. Stoddard,Harold H. Zakon
PLOS Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000203
Abstract: Electric fish generate and sense electric fields for navigation and communication. These signals can be energetically costly to produce and can attract electroreceptive predators. To minimize costs, some nocturnally active electric fish rapidly boost the power of their signals only at times of high social activity, either as night approaches or in response to social encounters. Here we show that the gymnotiform electric fish Sternopygus macrurus rapidly boosts signal amplitude by 40% at night and during social encounters. S. macrurus increases signal magnitude through the rapid and selective trafficking of voltage-gated sodium channels into the excitable membranes of its electrogenic cells, a process under the control of pituitary peptide hormones and intracellular second-messenger pathways. S. macrurus thus maintains a circadian rhythm in signal amplitude and adapts within minutes to environmental events by increasing signal amplitude through the rapid trafficking of ion channels, a process that directly modifies an ongoing behavior in real time.
Inequidades sociales en atención materna Social inequity in maternal care  [cached]
Flor de María Cáceres-Manrique,Gloria Molina-Marín
Revista Colombiana de Obstetricia y Ginecología , 2010,
Abstract: Introducción y objetivo: el presente artículo tiene como objetivo reflexionar sobre las inequidades sociales que afectan la salud de las mujeres embarazadas. Las inequidades, definidas como desigualdades injustas y evitables, son frecuentes a pesar de los acuerdos internacionales, políticas y programas que promueven la equidad en salud. Existen enfoques teóricos y metodológicos para realizar investigación sobre inequidades sociales que ameritan ser probados en el contexto para obtener evidencia y orientar las intervenciones. Introduction and objective: this article was aimedat reflecting onthesocial inequitiesaffecting pregnant women’s health. Inequities are defined as being unfair and avoidable disparities which are prevalent in spite of international agreements, policies and programmes promoting equity in health. Some theoretical and methodological approaches for conducting research on social inequities deserve to be tested within the context of providing evidence and guiding interventions.
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