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Adolescent Health and High School Dropout: A Prospective Cohort Study of 9000 Norwegian Adolescents (The Young-HUNT)  [PDF]
Karin A. A. De Ridder, Kristine Pape, Roar Johnsen, Turid Lingaas Holmen, Steinar Westin, Johan H?kon Bj?rngaard
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074954
Abstract: Background High school dropout is of major concern in the western world. Our aims were to estimate the risk of school dropout in adolescents following chronic somatic disease, somatic symptoms, psychological distress, concentration difficulties, insomnia or overweight and to assess to which extent the family contributes to the association between health and school dropout. Methods A population of 8950 school-attending adolescents (13–21 years) rated their health in the Young-HUNT 1 Study (90% response rate) in 1995–1997. High school dropout or completion, was defined with the Norwegian National Education Database in the calendar year the participant turned 24 years old. Parental socioeconomic status was defined by using linkages to the National Education Database, the National Insurance Administration and the HUNT2 Survey. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and risk differences of high school dropout, both in the whole population and among siblings within families differentially exposed to health problems. Results All explored health dimensions were strongly associated with high school dropout. In models adjusted for parental socioeconomic status, the risk differences of school dropout according to health exposures varied between 3.6% (95% CI 1.7 to 5.5) for having ≥1 somatic disease versus none and 11.7% (6.3 to 17.0) for being obese versus normal weight. The results from the analyses comparing differentially exposed siblings, confirmed these results with the exception of weaker associations for somatic diseases and psychological distress. School dropout was strongly clustered within families (family level conditional intraclass correlation 0.42). Conclusions Adolescent health problems are markers for high school dropout, independent of parental socioeconomic status. Although school dropout it strongly related to family-level factors, also siblings with poor health have reduced opportunity to complete high school compared to healthy siblings. Public health policy should focus on ensuring young people with poor health the best attainable education.
Patterns of screen-based sedentary behavior and physical activity and associations with overweight among Norwegian adolescents: a latent profile approach  [cached]
Ole Melkevik,Torbj?rn Torsheim,Mette Rasmussen
Norsk Epidemiologi , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Physical activity and screen based sedentary behaviors are both related to energy balance and to risk for becoming overweight. The aim of this study is to find out if these behaviors cluster together in order to find out whether groups of adolescents have particularly unfortunate levels of both physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviors. Methods: Data are from the Norwegian 2005/2006 sample of the international "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study; A WHO cross-National Survey". Data were collected through questionnaires from 13-, 15- and 16-year-olds. The final sample included 4848 adolescents. Gender-stratified latent profile analysis was used to identify the different profiles. Results: Six profiles were identified for both boys and girls. Less than 30% of adolescents were found to have behavioral patterns which were associated with higher risk for overweight relative to the most healthy behavioral profile. Physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviors cluster together in different ways suggesting independence between the behaviors. Low levels of physical activity was the most important predictor for overweight among boys. Screen-based sedentary behaviors were more important predictors of overweight among girls. Conclusions: Physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviors are independent behaviors and may cluster together in manners which lead to low energy expenditure and subsequent increased risk for overweight among adolescents.
Association of Brazilian Adolescents with Healthy Eating: Knowledge, Perceptions and Food Choices  [PDF]
Ana Carolina Barco Leme, Sonia Tucunduva Philippi, érika Christiane Toassa da Silva
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.29138
Abstract: The aim of this study is to identify the adolescents’ knowledge and perceptions of healthy and unhealthy eating. It is a qualitative cross section study with 83 adolescents of both genders between 10 and 16 years old enrolled in a public school in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The participants answered two discursive questions that assessed their knowledge and perception of their actual diet. These questions were later analyzed by a qualitative technique, “Discourse of Collective Subject” based on the Theory of Social Representations. Overall, the youth presented an adequate knowledge about healthy eating. About half (52.6%) reported a balanced and varied diet; and 56.3% considered their actual diet as being healthy. Adolescents’ knowledge about healthy eating isn’t the only determinant for their food choices; and so traditional nutritional interventions focusing on concepts about healthy eating should be modified, aiming at behavioral changes.
The Effectiveness of School-Based Nutritional Education Program among Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Study  [PDF]
Supinya In-Iw,Tridsanun Saetae,Boonying Manaboriboon
International Journal of Pediatrics , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/608920
Abstract: The purpose of the study was to determine the change in body weight and body mass index (BMI), as well as diet behaviors at 4 months after intervention between obese adolescent girls who participated in the school-based nutritional education program, addressed by pediatrician, compared to those who attended regular nutritional class. Methods. 49 obese girls were recruited from a secondary school. Those, were randomized into 2 groups of intervention and control. The intensive interactive nutritional program was provided to the intervention group. Weight and height, dietary record and % fat consumption, as well as self-administered questionnaires on healthy diet attitudes were collected at baseline and 4-month follow-up, and then compared between two groups. Results. There was a statistically significant change of BMI in the intervention group by ?kg/m2 ( ) compared to the control group ( ?kg/m2, ) but no significant change in calorie and % fat consumption between groups. The attitudes on healthy eating behaviors in the intervention group were shown improving significantly ( ). Conclusions. Interactive and intensive nutritional education program as shown in the study was one of the most successful school-based interventions for obese adolescents. 1. Introduction The influence of western lifestyle such as high-calorie-dense food and sedentary lifestyle has shown impact on Thai children and adolescents [1]. Obesity in these populations has been dramaticlly increasing and addressed worldwide as a critical global health problem [2–7]. Also, we knew that the important predictor of adulthood obesity was related to being obese during childhood and adolescence [8]; also being obese during puberty; in 7th grade was a relative risk factor of obesity when becoming a late adolescents, in 12th grade [9]. Obesity is an entirely preventable disease which mainly needed to be started early with the effective intervention and prevention programs in order to reduce the negative health consequences in later life. Many researchers had focused on developing strategies to promote healthy eating and behavior modification at schools. The key success of school-based obesity prevention program needed the combination of cultural elements and tailored-classroom curriculum targeting behavioral change. School policy had to provide healthy environment, encourage students to eat lesser calories and low-sugar food and take more fruits and vegetables, and promote physical activity [10]. An evidence-based review strongly showed the impact of school-based obesity prevention program that
Behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescents in Chile
Caris,Luis; Varas,Marianela; Anthony,Christopher B.; Anthony,James C.;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892003000700002
Abstract: objective: to examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco smoking among adolescent students in chile. methods: data were drawn from a study that included questionnaire surveys of 46 907 school-attending adolescents in all 13 of the administrative regions of chile. assessments were based on an adapted, spanish-language version of the drug use screening inventory. the conditional form of the logistic regression model was used for analysis, with matching of students on individual schools, and with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. results: the prevalence of tobacco smoking among the adolescents was very high across all of chile, with a level between 56% and 65% in each of the 13 regions. the estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest level of behavioral problems was about twice that for youths at the lowest levels, both before and after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family attention, and mental health. conclusions: these findings help to complement and complete the evidence of prior studies on tobacco smoking among adolescents with behavior problems, including recent research on central american youths. although the magnitude of observed associations in chile was not as great as that for the associations found in central america, both the strength of these associations and their statistical significance were observed throughout chile. this is the first study in chile on potentially causal relationships such as these.
Behavioral problems and tobacco use among adolescents in Chile  [cached]
Caris Luis,Varas Marianela,Anthony Christopher B.,Anthony James C.
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2003,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between behavioral problems and tobacco smoking among adolescent students in Chile. METHODS: Data were drawn from a study that included questionnaire surveys of 46 907 school-attending adolescents in all 13 of the administrative regions of Chile. Assessments were based on an adapted, Spanish-language version of the Drug Use Screening Inventory. The conditional form of the logistic regression model was used for analysis, with matching of students on individual schools, and with further statistical adjustments for sex, age, and selected risk factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco smoking among the adolescents was very high across all of Chile, with a level between 56% and 65% in each of the 13 regions. The estimated odds of tobacco use in youths at the highest level of behavioral problems was about twice that for youths at the lowest levels, both before and after controlling for sex, age, lack of participation in recreational activities, level of irritability, and levels of problems with school, family attention, and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: These findings help to complement and complete the evidence of prior studies on tobacco smoking among adolescents with behavior problems, including recent research on Central American youths. Although the magnitude of observed associations in Chile was not as great as that for the associations found in Central America, both the strength of these associations and their statistical significance were observed throughout Chile. This is the first study in Chile on potentially causal relationships such as these.
Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Afghan Refugees and War-Zone Adolescents
Reza Rostami,Jalil Babapour-Kheiroddin,Behzad Shalchi,Farzaneh Badinloo
Iranian Journal of Psychiatry , 2009,
Abstract: "nObjective: Wars' stress and violence can have tremendous effects on children's and adolescents' health and general well being; it may result in patterns of bio-psychosocial problems. The goal of this study was to compare emotional and behavioral problems in Afghan refugees and war-zone adolescents. "n Method: One hundred and eighty high school students (90 students in the refugee group and 90 in the war-zone group) in Harat were included in this research. All participants completed the Youth Self-Report (YSR). War zone and refugee adolescents were compared based on their scores on different scales of behavioral and emotional problems. "n Results: War-zone adolescents scored significantly higher on Anxious/Depression, Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Attention Problems, and Internalizing Problems scales than refugee adolescents. In this study, no significant difference was found between the two groups on Social Problems, Thought Problems, Delinquent Behavior, Aggressive Behavior, and Externalizing scales. "nConclusion: Findings revealed that although asylum is not an ideal condition for children's and adolescents' psychological development and prosperity, it can have a protective role in comparison with war zone's circumstances. Further investigation is needed, however, to elucidate the lack of significant differences in externalizing scales among war zone and refugee adolescents
Adolescent diet and risk of breast cancer
A Lindsay Frazier, Catherine Ryan, Helaine Rockett, Walter C Willett, Graham A Colditz
Breast Cancer Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/bcr583
Abstract: A nested case-control study was conducted among participants in the Nurses' Health Study who completed a 24-item questionnaire about diet during high school. There were 843 eligible cases diagnosed between onset of study (1976) and before the return of the high school diet questionnaire (1986), who were matched 10:1 with controls on the basis of age.Women who had, during adolescence, a higher consumption of eggs, vegetable fat and fiber had a lower risk of breast cancer, whereas risk of breast cancer was increased among women who consumed more butter.A possible association of elements of adolescent diet with risk of breast cancer is reported, but the findings require confirmation in prospective study.The evidence that adolescent diet may affect the risk of breast cancer derives from several lines of evidence [1]. Rates of breast cancer among Asian immigrants to the United States do not approach those of US white women until the second or third generation, suggesting that exposures during childhood and adolescence are important in establishing a higher risk of breast cancer [2,3]. Norwegian women who were adolescents during World War II, when average caloric intake decreased by 22%, have a reduced incidence of breast cancer, suggesting that energy restriction might affect risk [4]. Similarly, in animal models, energy restriction in the peripubertal period inhibits mammary tissue proliferation and reduces the subsequent risk of mammary tumors [5,6]. Exposure of rats to carcinogens before first pregnancy increases the incidence of mammary tumors compared with exposure after first pregnancy [7]. After differentiation of the mammary gland at the time of first full-term pregnancy of the rat, the rate of cell division decreases and length of the cell cycle increases, allowing more time for DNA repair [8]. This biologic phenomenon might explain the apparent vulnerability of the adolescent breast tissue to carcinogenic exposures. Among atomic bomb survivors and women exposed
Gender Differences in Usage of Over-the-Counter Analgesics among Norwegian Adolescents  [PDF]
Sindre Lorentzen, Bente Lorentzen, Britt-Maj Wikstr?m
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2018.811065
Abstract: Introduction: Usage of over-the-counter (OTC) analgesic has increased among Norwegian adolescents since 2001. It has been noted that females tend to have a higher usage compared to males. In this paper we explore this gender difference. Data: Our dataset consists of 284,674 from Norwegian adolescents attending junior high school and high school between 2014 and 2017. Methods: The econometric approach consists of applying ordered logistic regressions with usage of OTC analgesics as the dependent variable and a dichotomous gender variable as the independent variable. Control variables include variables such as frequency of physical and mental health problems and other sociodemographic variables. Results: Gender, physical and mental health problems and various sociodemographic variables are found to have a significant effect on usage of OTC analgesics. Females are predicted to use significantly more analgesics. A large proportion of the gender difference evaporates when controlling for various other determinants. Conclusion: A considerable part of the observed gender difference in OTC analgesic usage can be traced back to differences in frequency and severity of physical and mental health problems. Part of the gender difference in usage, however remains unexplained.
Changes in screen time activity in Norwegian children from 2001 to 2008: two cross sectional studies
Nina C ?verby, Knut-Inge Klepp, Elling Bere
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-80
Abstract: Within the project Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM), 1488 6th and 7th grade pupils from 27 Norwegian elementary schools completed a questionnaire including a question about time spent on television viewing and personal computer use in 2001 and 1339 pupils from the same schools completed the same questionnaire in 2008. Data were analyzed by multilevel linear mixed models.The proportions of 6th and 7th grade pupils at the 27 schools that reported screen time activity outside school of 2 hours/day or more decreased from 55% to 45% (p<0.001) from 2001 to 2008 when adjusting for sex, grade level and parental education. The decrease was most evident in 6th graders (51% to 37%) and in children with highly educated parents (54% to 39%).The present study shows that there has been a marked reduction in screen time activity outside school in this group of Norwegian 10–12 year olds from 2001 to 2008.Over the past 20 years there has been an expansion in screen-based communication and entertainment available to adolescents [1]. Following this, there has been an emerging concern about the negative health effects of screen time activity in children and adolescents. These effects include less time for physical activity [2], poorer academic performance [3], aggressive behaviour [4], higher energy-intake [5], more physical complaints [6], higher risk of overweight [7,8] and other metabolic risk factors [9]. In addition, a recent review concluded that sedentary behaviours track at moderate levels from childhood to adolescence [10]. The WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health identified physical inactivity together with poor nutrition as major risk factors for some of the leading causes of mortality [11].A systematic review on correlates of screen-viewing show that screen-viewing is not equally distributed across social and demographic groups [12]. A Norwegian study found differences in screen time activity between the sexes [13], that screen time increase w
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