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Formation of Folk Tales in Kodavere Parish  [PDF]
Mall Hiiem?e
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2005,
Abstract: The article focuses on personal narratives of narrow distribution area about locally known characters and true life events. The study is based on author’s observations from a 1966 collection expedition to the peripheral rural area, where the story-telling tradition is still active. The article analyses the formation and development process of folk tale from passing on personal experiences to its formation into a folk tale type. The focus is on the genesis stage, when the audience accepts the tales authorship, the tale type is still in the inchoate stage, the genre classification vague, but traditional stylistic devices and some more widely spread folk tale motifs are already used.
From Folk Tales to Popular Culture: Poaching and Relevance in the Process of History
Kinga Varga-Dobai
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2008,
Abstract: In this paper the author examines the concept of relevance and itsrelationship with poaching, a popular culture activity and a practice detectable in the transition of oral folk tales to literary fairytales, and in the further modification of the genre of fairytales by feminist writers. The author illustrates the practice of poaching with the different versions and variants of the Little Red Riding Hood story, written in different historical eras for different authorial purposes. In the examination of the concept of poaching and relevance, the authors relies on the theories of de Certeau, Fiske and Jenkins as well as Zipes.
The Category of Time in Fairy Tales: Searching for Folk Calendar Time in the Estonian Fairy Tale Corpus  [cached]
Mairi Kaasik
Journal of Ethnology and Folkloristics , 2008,
Abstract: The article examines how folk calendar holidays are represented in Estonian fairy tales. It introduces some views presented in folklore studies about the concept of time in fairy tales and finds parallels with them in the Estonian context. The analysis relies on the digital corpus of Estonian fairy tales (5400 variants), created from the texts found in the Estonian Folklore Archives by the Fairy Tale Project of the Department of Estonian and Comparative Folklore, University of Tartu. Folk calendar holidays occur in Estonian fairy tales relatively seldom; most often these are holidays that occupy a significant place in the Estonian folk calendar (Christmas, St. John’s Day, Easter, St. George’s Day). Calendar holidays are notably mentioned more often in tale types which remain on the borderline between the fairy tale and the legend or the fairy tale and the religious tale. In Estonian fairy tales, calendar holidays are used on three levels of meaning: (1) the holiday is organically associated with the tale type; it has an essential role in the plot of the tale; (2) to a certain extent, the holiday could be replaced by another holiday having an analogous meaning; (3) the holiday forms an unimportant or occasional addition to the tale.
Cultural Anthropological Perspective of Development Re-Examined  [cached]
Abdulla Al Mamun
Canadian Social Science , 2008,
Abstract: ‘Development” –a term that entered popular discourse in the late 1980s has certainly been become one of the most debatable buzzwords of the new millennium. The nature and philosophy of development has been the subject matter of profound debates and concerns in economic, political, cultural studies and academic circles since the mid 1980s. However, mainstream economic thought regarding development promises that it would lift the poor above poverty, dissolve dictatorship, protect the environment, integrate cultures, and reverse the growing gap between the rich and poor countries of the world. But in reality, models of the mainstream economic development has brought about the devastating destruction of the traditions, the continued subordination of poor nations and regions by richer countries of the west, environmental degradation, and posed a serious thread to indigenous and non-western cultures and economies. The conventional development thought has resulted in the penetration and expansion of western economist, media, technologies and tremendous clout to define the situation. This paper argues that through the development process, like colonization, modernization, globalization, the west is exploiting and exerting dominance over the other country’s economies, cultures and traditional way of life. The west makes space of development by identifying, defining certain problems and prescribes remedy for the “Third World” countries. Through the United Nations, the IMF, the World Bank, Donor Agencies and these institutions’ legal authority, the West along with its most advanced technologies and professional and institutional knowledge controls all major political and economic affairs of the globe. The paper argues this issue from anthropological perspective that is, holistic perspective, that encompasses economic and non-economic factors simultaneously. In fact, those who advocate development today inherit form Entitlement orientation. The Entitlement offered a universal application of reason to human affairs and it embedded in a philosophy of history with a meta-narrative concerning the continued onward march of society due to the result of science, technology and money. And in this connection, development resurrects an imagined totality of human culture. Anthropological perspective, on the other hand, rejects any such overarching “meta-narrative” and scheme of totalitarian human society and that would pretend to erase the irreducible differences of human experiences. Yet, whatever the nature and philosophy of development how anthropological view can provide a
Water and the Configuration of Social Worlds: An Anthropological Perspective  [PDF]
Kirsten Hastrup
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.54A009
Abstract:

From an anthropological perspective, water is not only the sine qua non of life in general, it is also seen to configure societies in particular ways, and to generate particular values. This will be substantiated in four moves. First, the hydrological cycle and other elementals of water will be discussed. Second, we shall zoom in on rivers, transforming natural resources and social communities as they bend and twist. Third, we shall discuss artificially established canals, emulating natural flows, but having their own long-term social and political implications. Fourth, we shall focus on wells, providing nodal points of social life and potential conflict. The article ends with some observations on water as a theory-machine.

FOLK TALES FROM THE PEN OF Z YA G KALP: AN IDEOLOGUE AND POET / “ DEOLOG”1 - SA R Z YA G KALP’ N KALEM NDEN MASALLAR
Prof. Dr. Alev SINAR U?URLU
Turkish Studies , 2009,
Abstract: When he was a small child, Ziya G kalp wasinterested in folk tales and stories, and later as aresearcher, he realized that this tradition was animportant and rich resource. While inculcating the ideaof Turkism, he particularly uses this resource. During theyears G kalp wrote the tales in verse or prose (1911-1922), the Turkish nation was showing resistance againstbeing eliminated from the page of history and strugglingto survive. However, it was impossible to surmount thisstruggle with the old life style and to continue to live bypreserving the old customs. It was necessary to adopt anew life style. And the principles of this new life wereincluded in Turkism, the most popular ideology of theperiod. This ideology aimed at the syntesis of hars(national culture) and civilization. Benefited especiallyfrom the folk tales while telling about the new life, ZiyaG kalp both gave the folk tales forgotten by the Turkishliterature experiencing the periods of Tanzimat, Servet-iFün n and Fecr-i ti their reputation back and indicatedthe way toward the synthesis of hars (national culture)and civilization by inculcating new ideas through folktales, a class of literature, as well. In this study, we willshow how the ideologue-poet used the folk tale, a class offolk literature.
Folk Culture" in Romania in the Communist Period. An Analysis from the Perspective of Cultural Studies  [PDF]
SIMONA ?TEF?NESCU
Revista Roman? de Sociologie , 2010,
Abstract: The paper starts from the theoretical perspective opened by the culturalist approach, that introduced the so-called break from the end of '50s in cultural studies, and took into consideration the meaning of the concept popular culture not as opposite to that of elite culture or high culture, but as a term which refers to the cultural products, practices and artefacts produced by and for people, also with a special focus on their complex relationship with the political and economic agenda of the period. The research focuses on the popular culture in the communist Romanian society between 1947-1989. The general objective of this larger study was to outline the main aspects of the popular culture in the communist Romania and to identify the popular culture practices and artefacts and their roots. In this paper there will be presented the results regarding the folk culture as a distinct part of the popular culture. I analyzed both the practices of folk culture (what is included in the term of lived culture) and the products and artefacts of folk culture (as a part of the larger concept of lifestyle). Besides this, because these issues have been little explored from this perspective in Romania, I also paid close attention to unanticipated themes that could arise from the empirical research. The method used for accomplishing the objectives of the research was the social biography (in the form of life histories). More exactly, I used the technique of ‘multiple autobiographies', understanding the term in its classic sense, as subjects' narrations about themselves, about their own lives. This method allowed me to obtain ‘subjective' data about the ‘lived culture', and also about the existence, evolution, appropriation, negotiation, resistance or rejection of the popular culture products, which in the end could lead us to outline the situation of popular culture elements in Romania in the communist epoch.
An Anthropological Perspective: Another Dimension to Modern Dental Wear Concepts  [PDF]
John A. Kaidonis,Sarbin Ranjitkar,Dimitra Lekkas,Grant C. Townsend
International Journal of Dentistry , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/741405
Abstract: For many years, research on tooth wear by dental academics has been diametrically opposite to that of anthropological research, with each discipline having a different understanding as to the nature of the wear processes. Dental focus revolved around preventive and restorative considerations while the anthropological focus was a biological understanding related to human evolution, diet, environment, form, and function and included all the craniofacial structures. Introducing the anthropological perspective into modern dentistry gives an insight into the “bigger picture” of the nature and extent of tooth wear. By combining anthropological evidence with clinical knowledge and experience, it is most likely to provide the best-informed and biologically based approach to the management of tooth wear in modern societies. 1. Introduction The current mechanisms of tooth wear that are generally accepted within the dental literature include abrasion, erosion, and attrition. Abrasion occurs from the friction of any foreign substance forced over tooth surfaces (e.g., toothbrush, food); erosion is a modern-day condition resulting from the dissolution of tooth substance by acids that do not originate from oral biofilms, and attrition results from tooth grinding without the presence of food. Although it is not the purpose of this paper to detail the specifics of each mechanism, it can be said that abrasion caused by food generally acts more broadly on a tooth surface eventually causing dentinal scooping, whereas the characteristic feature of attrition is the production of well-defined facets on opposing teeth. Erosion can act on nonoccluding surfaces, does cause dentinal scooping, and can be distinguished clinically by the characteristic appearance of a glazed affected surface [1]. The microwear detail resulting from these mechanisms enables them to be distinguished from one another reasonably easily, particularly if one of the mechanisms is dominant. However, they often act together with different intensities and durations, making it difficult to differentiate between them [2]. In addition to the mechanisms described above, abfraction can also be included as a mechanism of tooth loss. Although currently controversial, it nevertheless may be considered as an added factor contributing to noncarious cervical lesions [3–6]. Erosion and abfraction are certainly modern-day conditions, while abrasion and attrition have been described in different species and phyla throughout the course of vertebrate evolution. Human tooth wear in precontemporary populations has been studied
APPLE IN TURKISH FOLK CULTURE / TüRK HALK KüLTüRüNDE ELMA
Dr. I??l ALTUN
Turkish Studies , 2008,
Abstract: This is a study of apple in folk beliefs, tales, folksongs, proverbs, expressions, riddles, folk medicine andculinary practices.
Diasporic identities in Andean folk dance. A cyber-anthropological study Identidades de diáspora a través de la danza folclórica. Un estudio ciberantropológico
Eveline Sigl
Anthropologica , 2011,
Abstract: Parting from the reality of diasporic communities of Bolivian migrants the present article explores what people communicate within the Web 2.0 and using Web 2.0 technologies. It is a cyber-anthropological study researching the implications Bolivian folk dance has for the Bolivian migrants and their descendants, especially focussing on issues of identity and ethnicity. El presente artículo explora el discurso sobre las danzas folclóricas bolivianas desde la perspectiva de diáspora tal como se presenta en la Web 2.0 y a través de ella. Metodológicamente se trata de un estudio ciberantropológico que investiga las implicaciones que tiene la danza folclórica no solo para los migrantes bolivianos y sus descendientes sino también para bailarines no bolivianos, y se enfoca especialmente en cuestiones de identidad y etnicidad.
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