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GIRESUN CULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER IN SAMPLE OF GLOBALIZATION AND APPLIED FOLKLORE  [cached]
Erdo?an ALTINKAYNAK
Zeitschrift für die Welt der Türken , 2009,
Abstract: Cultural Research Center was established in Giresun. The purpose of this center is dealing out about folklore and museum. This type of center, globalization is not due to receive under the protection of cultural values and cultural values is to ensure the development and spread.
Use of Proverbs and Narrative Thought  [PDF]
Outi Lauhakangas
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2007,
Abstract: The article is based on a research of the functions of proverbs insocial interaction. Academician Matti Kuusi’s characterization of proverbs as signs of situations and emotional loadings was a starting point for the writer to collect material of proverbs in their social contexts. The multicultural corpus consists of context examples borrowed from other scholars around the world, from Finnish folklore archives and fiction, from everyday situations and the media. The use of proverbs or proverb-like sayings deals with questions concerning the same themes as in folk narrative research in general: selective memory, reconstruction of experiences, explaining and reasoning about the past, giving instructions and warnings for the future, encouraging or amusing each other, etc. The speech where proverbs are used and its mode of rationality differ from logical and scientific argumentation. The point is in the narrative strength of proverbs in social contexts. Proverbs are multifunctional and flexible instruments of everyday reasoning, although they may maintain solidified attitudesor traditional modes of thought of a certain culture.
The gender in Bulgarian proverbs
Uzeneva Elena
Glasnik Etnografskog Instituta SANU , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/gei0553221u
Abstract: We have chosen the paremiology as the object of this article because it is the area where phraseology and folklore are closely related. This fact makes the study of proverbs significant from the lingua-cultural point of view. The subject of the Bulgarian proverbs is an important source of interpretation because most proverbs are "prescriptions-stereotypes of folk self-consciousness" (Telija). We can see proverbs as cultural stereotypes reflected in common language. The analysis of different proverbs (more then 5000) makes it possible to draw valid conclusions about the dominating tendencies and assessments. We concentrated on proverbs connected with the gender issues. They reflect the social aspects of relationships between a man and a woman. The analysis was seriously hampered by the natural semantic richness of proverbs. Our article focuses on the inner form of proverbs. Our first obvious conclusion will be as follows: the gender factor does not play the leading role in the majority of the Bulgarian proverbs. We can see in some proverbs the reflection of the masculine mentality and the power of man, which in itself is not the dominant factor. The negative female stereotype exists alongside the male one. At the same time the female character does not always have negative connotations. Very often the feminine beauty, mind, positive housewife image and patience are in focus. In addition, the indisputable fact of the presence of the female“ voice, in which sorrow and suffering dominate, and the female consciousness becomes apparent in the understanding of the world created by Bulgarian proverbs. They characterize her emotional side and decisiveness, as well as her expression of resistance. The above in-depth analysis allows us to make the conclusion about certain independence of women even in those past times which are reflected in the proverbs. Confirmation of our main conclusion can be found in some historical facts such as: a married woman had the right to manage her inherited property on her own.
The Peasant Poor and Images of Poverty: Finnish Proverbs as Discursive Representations of Cultural Knowledge
Eija Stark
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2013, DOI: 10.7592/fejf2013.53.stark
Abstract: This article examines the core idea of poverty proverbs as hints of cultural knowledge in old Finnish rural countryside. Until World War II, most of the Finns lived in a high-risk society with only few institutions to guarantee their safety and well-being. The continuous threat of absolute poverty was evident for the majority of the Finns. The basis of this research is 204 proverbs that contain the words poor, poverty, pity or unfortunate. The proverbs analyzed and classified here were collected in the Folklore Archives of the Finnish Literature Society between the years 1885 and 1950. The ideational level of the proverbs in the context of social history is crucial in revealing the schematic structure that people use to communicate about rural poverty.
From Conversation to Proverbs: Estonian ikka- and iks-constructions
Karl Pajusalu,Renate Pajusalu
Folklore : Electronic Journal of Folklore , 2011,
Abstract: The article provides an overview of the use of the Estonian particleikka ‘sure, still’ in spoken Estonian and makes an attempt to explain why this particle is so common in proverbs and South Estonian folk songs. Etymologically, ikka is associated with a temporal meaning and stems from the word iga ‘time, lifetime, full time’. In contemporary Estonian ikka refers to the typicality and recurrence of an action, but it also points to an interruption in the continuity of an action after which the previous situation is restored. As such it marks(re-)validity in fixed expressions and folklore; however, it could also serve as a means of showing continuity of narrative discourse. The article focuses on the occurrence of ikka in contemporary spoken language and proverbs (both in the database and in the contemporary media language) and on a special usage of the expletive iks/ ks in Setu/Seto South Estonian folk songs. In folklore, as well in contemporary informal speech, the use of ikka is motivated both by lexical meaning on the syntactic level and the general structure of discourse.
Cognition-Based Medicine: A new paradigm for medicine - applied to Homoeopathy  [cached]
Christine Wittenburg
Journal of Case Studies in Homeopathy , 2013,
Abstract: The objective of this article is to introduce the concept of Cognition Based Medicine (CBM) as a convincing alternative to Evidence Based Medicine (EBM). CBM was developed on the basis of a refutation of the positivist paradigm through Karl Duncker and Curt J. Ducasse. Contrary to Hume′s ideas, we are well capable to discern causality by observation in single cases. This has been demonstrated by Duncker through some simple examples of causal cognition. He termed this concept “Gestalt-cognition”. “Gestalt” means form, structure and process and stretches from a cause into its effect.Helmut Kiene, a German medical doctor and researcher, introduced CBM in 2001, by publishing his book “Komplement re Methodenlehre der Klinischen Forschung” (Complementary Methodology in Clinical Research).Following Kiene′s arguments, the development of the epistemological foundations for EBM from the 16th up to the 20th century will be depicted, with a special focus on RCTs, and on “placebo” in its role as a surveyor′s rod for measuring the effect of any given therapy.Next, CBM with its focus on single-case-cognition as the basis of progress in medicine will be described. Kiene analyzed the published research of four volumes of ′The Lancet′ to demonstrate the validity of this concept.Hahnemann′s finding of the Law of Similars serves as an example of gestalt-cognition.Practitioners should make the tacit knowledge they are gaining from single-case-cognition available to other colleagues, to improve the bases of clinical judgement. Kiene and his co-researchers propose a structure for the publication of single cases, which contains various important criteria to be fulfilled.This structure will be applied to the special necessities of Homoeopathy. A custom-made questionnaire will be presented.
The African Proverbs Project and After  [cached]
John S. Mbiti
Lexikos , 2011, DOI: 10.5788/12--773
Abstract: : The Pew Charitable Trusts financed the African Proverbs Project with Dr Stan Nussbaum as co-ordinator, for three years (1993?1996). He assembled a number of scholars who had collected and studied proverbs. The purpose of the Project was to encourage further work of collecting, studying and publishing proverbs. It organised international and interdisciplinary symposia and embarked on three types of publications. One kind of publication was the African Proverbs Series, with Prof. John Mbiti as editor. Five volumes were published in 1997, each with proverbs from respectively Ethiopia, Uganda, Lesotho, Burkina Faso and Ghana. Their size ranged from 584 to 1 497 proverbs in African languages, with translations into English or French. Another set of publications with the Rev. Joshua Kudadjie as editor, covered proverbs for preaching and teaching purposes. Three volumes have come from Malawi, Ghana and Liberia. The Project also published an annotated bibliography by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder. The report from one of the symposia appeared in 1997. The third manner of publication is in the form of a CD-ROM edited by Dr Stan Nussbaum and published in 1996. This is a very comprehensive collection and source of material that includes, inter alia, books from the Project, some 28 000 proverbs, a bibliography with 1 000 items, summaries and extracts from published collections, and a language survey of work on proverbs. The Project has generated both local and international interest in African paremiography and paremiology. Four academic institutions in South Africa, Kenya, Ghana and the Ivory Coast, with links to others in Africa, Europe and America, are continuing this work on proverbs. Keywords: AFRICAN PROVERBS PROJECT, AFRICAN PROVERBS SERIES, PROVERB, PAREMIOGRAPHY, PAREMIOLOGY Opsomming: Die African Proverbs Project en daarna. Die Pew Charitable Trusts het die African Proverbs Project, met dr. Stan Nussbaum as ko?rdineerder, vir drie jaar (1993?1996) gefinansier. Hy het 'n aantal vakkundiges bymekaargebring wat spreekwoorde versamel en bestudeer het. Die doel van die projek was om verdere werk ten opsigte van die versameling, bestudering en publikasie van spreekwoorde aan te moedig. Dit het internasionale en interdissiplin?re simposia georganiseer en drie soorte publikasies onderneem. Een soort publikasie was die African Proverbs Series, met prof. John Mbiti as redakteur. Vyf bande is in 1997 gepubliseer, elkeen met spreekwoorde van onderskeidelik Ethiopi?, Uganda, Lesotho, Burkina Faso en Ghana. Hul omvang het gewissel van 584 tot 1 497 spreekwoorde in Afrikatale,
The African proverbs project and after
J Mbiti
Lexikos , 2002,
Abstract: The Pew Charitable Trusts financed the African Proverbs Project with Dr Stan Nussbaum as co-ordinator, for three years (1993–1996). He assembled a number of scholars who had collected and studied proverbs. The purpose of the Project was to encourage further work of collecting, studying and publishing proverbs. It organised international and interdisciplinary symposia and embarked on three types of publications. One kind of publication was the African Proverbs Series, with Prof. John Mbiti as editor. Five volumes were published in 1997, each with proverbs from respectively Ethiopia, Uganda, Lesotho, Burkina Faso and Ghana. Their size ranged from 584 to 1 497 proverbs in African languages, with translations into English or French. Another set of publications with the Rev. Joshua Kudadjie as editor, covered proverbs for preaching and teaching purposes. Three volumes have come from Malawi, Ghana and Liberia. The Project also published an annotated bibliography by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder. The report from one of the symposia appeared in 1997. The third manner of publication is in the form of a CD-ROM edited by Dr Stan Nussbaum and published in 1996. This is a very comprehensive collection and source of material that includes, inter alia, books from the Project, some 28 000 proverbs, a bibliography with 1 000 items, summaries and extracts from published collections, and a language survey of work on proverbs. The Project has generated both local and international interest in African paremiography and paremiology. Four academic institutions in South Africa, Kenya, Ghana and the Ivory Coast, with links to others in Africa, Europe and America, are continuing this work on proverbs.
Proverbs from the Viewpoint of Translation
Azizollah Dabaghi,Elham Pishbin,Leila Niknasab
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.1.6.807-814
Abstract: Undoubtedly passing the world of translation opens new windows toward getting familiar with literature, language and culture of those who think, behave and look at the world in a similar and/or different manners. Although going through many linguistic features seems much less problematic, catching what is going to be transferred through non-linguistic ones is the most problematic to deal with. Among those non- linguistic features, including figurative devices, proverbs are going to be examined in this paper. First some definitions are represented, then proverbs' characteristics and classifications are given and at the end we examine strategies suggested for translation of proverbs by different theorists. Examples of English and Persian proverbs are presented and compared in order to clarify language differences and/or similarities and translating strategies.
A Novel Approach Applied to the Largest Clique Problem  [PDF]
Vladimir Gudkov,Shmuel Nussinov,Zohar Nussinov
Physics , 2002,
Abstract: A novel approach to complex problems has been previously applied to graph classification and the graph equivalence problem. Here we apply it to the NP complete problem of finding the largest perfect clique within a graph $G$.
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