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On Sink Mobility Trajectory in Clustering Routing Protocols in WSNs  [PDF]
N. Javaid,Q. Ain,M. A. Khan,A. Javaid,Z. A. Khan,U. Qasim
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Energy efficient routing protocols are consistently cited as efficient solutions for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) routing. The area of WSNs is one of the emerging and fast growing fields which brought low cost, low power and multi-functional sensor nodes. In this paper, we examine some protocols related to homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. To evaluate the efficiency of different clustering schemes, we compare five clustering routing protocols; Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient Sensor Network (TEEN), Distributed Energy Efficient Clustering (DEEC) and two variants of TEEN which are Clustering and Multi-Hop Protocol in Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient Sensor Network (CAMPTEEN) and Hierarchical Threshold Sensitive Energy Efficient Sensor Network (H-TEEN). The contribution of this paper is to introduce sink mobility to increase the network life time of hierarchal routing protocols. Two scenarios are discussed to compare the performances of routing protocols; in first scenario static sink is implanted and in later one mobile sink is used. We perform analytical simulations in MATLAB by using different performance metrics such as, number of alive nodes, number of dead nodes and throughput.
Throughput Scaling in Random Wireless Networks: A Non-Hierarchical Multipath Routing Strategy  [PDF]
Awlok Josan,Mingyan Liu,David L. Neuhoff,S. Sandeep Pradhan
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: Franceschetti et al. have recently shown that per-node throughput in an extended, ad hoc wireless network with $\Theta(n)$ randomly distributed nodes and multihop routing can be increased from the $\Omega({1 \over \sqrt{n} \log n})$ scaling demonstrated in the seminal paper of Gupta and Kumar to $\Omega({1 \over \sqrt{n}})$. The goal of the present paper is to understand the dependence of this interesting result on the principal new features it introduced relative to Gupta-Kumar: (1) a capacity-based formula for link transmission bit-rates in terms of received signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR); (2) hierarchical routing from sources to destinations through a system of communal highways; and (3) cell-based routes constructed by percolation. The conclusion of the present paper is that the improved throughput scaling is principally due to the percolation-based routing, which enables shorter hops and, consequently, less interference. This is established by showing that throughput $\Omega({1 \over \sqrt{n}})$ can be attained by a system that does not employ highways, but instead uses percolation to establish, for each source-destination pair, a set of $\Theta(\log n)$ routes within a narrow routing corridor running from source to destination. As a result, highways are not essential. In addition, it is shown that throughput $\Omega({1 \over \sqrt{n}})$ can be attained with the original threshold transmission bit-rate model, provided that node transmission powers are permitted to grow with $n$. Thus, the benefit of the capacity bit-rate model is simply to permit the power to remain bounded, even as the network expands.
A Novel Hierarchical Ant based QoS aware Intelligent Routing Scheme for MANETS  [PDF]
Debajit Sensarma,Koushik Majumder
Computer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.5121/ijcnc.2013.5614
Abstract: MANET is a collection of mobile devices with no centralized control and no pre-existing infrastructures. Due to the nodal mobility, supporting QoS during routing in this type of networks is a very challenging task. To tackle this type of overhead many routing algorithms with clustering approach have been proposed. Clustering is an effective method for resource management regarding network performance, routing protocol design, QoS etc. Most of the flat network architecture contains homogeneous capacity of nodes but in real time nodes are with heterogeneous capacity and transmission power. Hierarchical routing provides routing through this kind of heterogeneous nodes. Here, routes can be recorded hierarchically, across clusters to increase routing flexibility. Besides this, it increases scalability and robustness of routes. In this paper, a novel ant based QoS aware routing is proposed on a three level hierarchical cluster based topology in MANET which will be more scalable and efficient compared to flat architecture and will give better throughput.
M.S.Godwin Premi,K.S.Shaji
Indian Journal of Computer Science and Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: The developments of micro and nano sensors lead the sensor networking technology to be used in all kinds of study. In underwater communications and study, wireless sensor network plays a major role. One among the characteristics of underwater communications is propagation delay that affects the network throughput. To increase the throughput, here we propose the local update routing. In this technique the end to end delay is minimized by using hierarchical WPANs. This is proved with reduced latency using Omnet++ simulator.
A Hop-by-Hop Congestion-Aware Routing Protocol for Heterogeneous Mobile Ad-hoc Networks  [PDF]
B. Narasimhan,S. Santhosh baboo
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: In Heterogeneous mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) congestion occurs with limited resources. Due to the shared wireless channel and dynamic topology, packet transmissions suffer from interference and fading. In heterogeneous ad hoc networks, throughput via a given route is depending on the minimum data rate of all its links. In a route of links with various data rates, if a high data rate node forwards more traffic to a low data rate node, there is a chance of congestion, which leads to long queuing delays in such routes. Since hop count is used as a routing metric in traditional routing, it do not adapt well to mobile nodes. A congestion-aware routing metric for MANETs should incorporate transmission capability, reliability, and congestion around a link. In this paper, we propose to develop a hop-by-hop congestion aware routing protocol which employs a combined weight value as a routing metric, based on the data rate, queuing delay, link quality and MAC overhead. Among the discovered routes, the route with minimum cost index is selected, which is based on the node weight of all the in-network nodes. Simulation results prove that our proposed routing protocol attains high throughput and packet delivery ratio, by reducing the packet drop and delay.
CEEC: Centralized Energy Efficient Clustering A New Routing Protocol for WSNs  [PDF]
M. Aslam,T. Shah,N. Javaid,A. Rahim,Z. Rahman,Z. A. Khan
Computer Science , 2012,
Abstract: Energy efficient routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is one of the most challenging task for researcher. Hierarchical routing protocols have been proved more energy efficient routing protocols, as compare to flat and location based routing protocols. Heterogeneity of nodes with respect to their energy level, has also added extra lifespan for sensor network. In this paper, we propose a Centralized Energy Efficient Clustering (CEEC) routing protocol. We design the CEEC for three level heterogeneous network. CEEC can also be implemented in multi-level heterogeneity of networks. For initial practical, we design and analyze CEEC for three level advance heterogeneous network. In CEEC, whole network area is divided into three equal regions, in which nodes with same energy are spread in same region.
Energy Proficient Reliable Rim Routing Technique for Wireless Heterogeneous Sensor Networks Lifespan Fortification  [PDF]
S. G. Susila, J. Arputhavijayaselvi
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.78151
Abstract: Sensor nodes are mainly shielded in the field with limited power supply. In Wireless Sensor Networks, there must be a requirement of an efficient power management, because sensor nodes are deployed in unman attended area with non-rechargeable batteries. Power management can be done by different methods of routing protocols. The proposed Reliable Rim Routing (3R) technique is based on hybrid routing protocol for homogeneous and heterogeneous system for WSNs to ameliorate the performance of the overall system. In 3R, total node deployment area can be multipart in terms of rim and in each rim, and some of the sensor nodes transmit their sensed data directly to base station, and meanwhile remaining sensor nodes send the data through clustering technique to base station like SEP. Proposed 3R technique implementation proves its enhanced WSNs lifetime of 70% energy consumption and 40% throughput compared with existing protocols. Simulation and evaluation results outperformed in terms of energy consumption with increased throughput and network lifetime.
Development of an Enhanced Efficient Secured Multi-Hop Routing Technique for Wireless Sensor Networks
International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering , 2013,
Abstract: :Wireless Sensor Networks use numbers of sensors to send data from sender to base station. Wireless Sensor Nodes are battery-powered devices. Power saving is always vital to increase the lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks. There are many Protocols has designed and proposed for WS Networks to increase its performance in terms of throughput, network lifetime and security, An efficient secured multi-hop routing technique for wireless sensor networks (ES-MHRT) was proposed recently, which was a two contemporary hybrid Multi-Hop Routing Techniques, namely, Flat Multi- Hop Routing Technique and Hierarchical Multi-Hop Routing Technique for providing trustworthy and efficient routing in WS networks. It demonstrates the effective performance in terms of Network Lifetime and superior connectivity. However, from the literature survey, it is observed that in ES-MHRT the sender understand the status of delivery report from receiver only, which costs more time to understand the reliable route. Thus Sender couldn t forward the data in fast manner, which affects the Network Performance in terms of Throughput and Bandwidth Utilization. This is the major issue. To address this issue, this project work is planned to design an efficient Distributed Monitoring System, which will help the ES-MHRT to push more volume of Data with Secured Route.
Dynamic cluster-based security routing protocol in HWSN

重庆邮电大学学报(自然科学版) , 2011,
Abstract: At present, many routing protocols of wireless sensor network do not take the safety factors into account, and some security schemes do not have close contact with a typical routing mechanism of cluster-based hierarchical wireless sensor network. Therefore, a security routing protocol named SRDC(secure routing for dynamic clustering) based on heterogeneous and dynamic cluster-based wireless sensor network was proposed. The new protocol, on the basis of energy consumption in the network, includes a variety of security mechanisms for key agreement, node authentication and efficient group key updates. Simulation results show that the protocol proposed not only can effectively prolong the network life time but also can greatly withstand conspiracy attack from attackers.
QoS Based and Energy Aware Multi-Path Hierarchical Routing Algorithm in WSNs  [PDF]
Mohammad Reza Mazaheri, Behzad Homayounfar, Sayyed Majid Mazinani
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2012.42005
Abstract: In hierarchical networks, nodes are separated to play different roles such as CHs and cluster members. Each CH collects data from the cluster members within its cluster, aggregates the data and then transmits the data to the sink. Each algorithm that is used for packet routing in quality of service (QoS) based applications should be able to establish a tradeoffs between end to end delay parameter and energy consumption. Therefore, enabling QoS applications in sensor networks requires energy and QoS awareness in different layers of the protocol stack. We propose a QoS based and Energy aware Multi-path Hierarchical Routing Algorithm in wireless sensor networks namely QEMH. In this protocol, we try to satisfy the QoS requirements with the minimum energy via hierarchical methods. Our routing protocol includes two phase. In first phase, performs cluster heads election based on two parameters: node residual energy and node distance to sink. In second phase, accomplishes routes discovery using multiple criteria such as residual energy, remaining buffer size, signal-to-noise ratio and distance to sink. When each node detect an event can send data to the CH as single hop and CH to the sink along the paths. We use a weighted traffic allocation strategy to distribute the traffic amongst the available paths to improve the end to end delay and throughput. In this strategy, the CH distributes the traffic between the paths according to the end to end delay of each path. The end to end delay of each path is obtained during the paths discovery phase. QEMH maximizes the network lifetime as load balancing that causes energy consume uniformly throughout the network. Furthermore employs a queuing model to handle both real-time and non-real-time traffic. By means of simulations, we evaluate and compare the performance of our routing protocol with the MCMP and EAP protocols. Simulation results show that our proposed protocol is more efficient than those protocols in providing QoS requirements and minimizing energy consumption.
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