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Returning to Youth and Nature —The Catcher in the Rye in Ecocriticism  [cached]
Cui Wang,Xiaofen Zhang
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.1.3.269-273
Abstract: J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye depicted a young man Holden Caulfield who spurned the adults’ world and was eager to be a catcher in the rye, which showed his passion for returning to youth and nature and his thoughts of ecophilosophy, Which is of eternal significance.
Efeito de Werther
Almeida,Ana Filipa;
Análise Psicológica , 2000,
Abstract: the format of the present study lies in the common assumption of the werther effect in the literature, that is, despite the fact that the improvement of the methodological progress has improved our knowledge on the effects of imitation, the mental schemes and motivations underlying this process remain contradicting and obscure. thus, we intend to develop an investigation methodology which doesn′t focus only on the quantitative perspective, but that will also allow the possibility of a presentation that lies in the qualitative aspect of the werther effect phenomenon. the problem and the hypothesis which were particularly placed in parallel were elaborated through the investigation of the characteristics associated with the werther effect. in this context, it was possible to make an approach in the sense that the proximity of a friend who commited suicide can eventually account for a most likely prognosis of the consequent suicidal ideation. our approach particularly seeks to achieve the purpose that the proximity to a friend who tried to commit suicide may encourage the imitation in adolescents. thus, by being aware of the magnitude of the imitation suicidal behaviour in adolescents one will be able to elaborate and implement strategies in individuals at risk, with the final aim of preventing suicidal groups generated by imitation.
Material Ecocriticism: Materiality, Agency, and Models of Narrativity  [cached]
Serenella Iovino,Serpil Oppermann
Ecozon@ : European Journal of Literature, Culture and Environment , 2012,
Abstract: The proliferation of studies bearing on the intellectual movement known as the "new materialisms" evinces that a material turn is becoming an important paradigm in environmental humanities. Ranging from social and science studies, feminism, to anthropology, geography, environmental philosophies and animal studies, this approach is bringing innovative ways of considering matter and material relations that, coupled with reflections on agency, text, and narrativity, are going to impact ecocriticism in an unprecedented way.In consideration of the relevance of this debate, we would like to draw for Ecozon@'s readers an introductory map of the new paradigm and introduce what can be called "material ecocriticism." We will illustrate what we consider to be its main features, situating them in the conceptual horizons of the new materialisms. From this genealogical sketch, we will examine the re-definitions of concepts like matter, agency, discursivity, and intentionality, with regard to their effects on ecocriticism and in terms of their ethical perspectives.
New Discussion about “Cannot Be Defeated”
—Read The Old Man and the Sea from the Perspective of Ecocriticism
 [PDF]

Qi Han
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.312022
Abstract: Hemingway’s representative work The Old Man and the Sea is a milestone great work in the history of literature, and the typical works successfully describing the relationship between man and nature. Since published, after generations of review, in the 1990s, ecocriticism aimed at discussing about the relationship between the literature and the natural environment was born. In the new round of literary criticism, people attached great importance to the masterpiece. People love the novel. The symbolic novel mainly describing the nature not only has countless achievements in the past, but also is energetic today.
Unbalanced Allocations  [PDF]
Amanda Redlich
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: We consider the unbalanced allocation of $m$ balls into $n$ bins by a randomized algorithm using the "power of two choices". For each ball, we select a set of bins at random, then place the ball in the fullest bin within the set. Applications of this generic algorithm range from cost minimization to condensed matter physics. In this paper, we analyze the distribution of the bin loads produced by this algorithm, considering, for example, largest and smallest loads, loads of subsets of the bins, and the likelihood of bins having equal loads.
The Werther Effect of Two Celebrity Suicides: an Entertainer and a Politician  [PDF]
Jae-Hyun Kim, Eun-Cheol Park, Jung-Mo Nam, SoHee Park, Jaelim Cho, Sun-Jung Kim, Jae-Woo Choi, Eun Cho
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084876
Abstract: Purpose Suicide is a major health problem in Korea. Extensive media exposure of celebrity suicide may induce imitative suicide, a phenomenon called the Werther effect. We examined the increased suicide risk following the suicides of an entertainer and a politician, and identified the relative suicide risks. Methods News articles about the celebrity suicides were obtained from three major newspapers and analysed for quantitative and qualitative features. Imitative suicide risk was investigated by applying a Poisson time series autoregression model with suicide mortality data from the National Statistics Office for 1.5 years before and 1.5 years after each celebrity’s suicide. The period with a significantly increased number of suicides immediately after the celebrity’s suicide determined the Werther effect band. The relative risk during this period was examined for different ages, genders, and suicide methods. Results News reports were more numerous and they contained more positive definitions about the entertainer’s suicide. The risk of suicide deaths rose markedly after both celebrity suicides. However, the Werther effect band was longer for the entertainer (6 weeks) than for the politician (4 weeks). The relative suicide risk was significant for almost all ages and both genders during that of both individuals. Use of the same suicide method was a prominent risk factor after both celebrity suicides. Conclusions Our results confirm the existence of imitative suicide behaviours, suggesting a facilitation effect of media reports. Guidelines for responsible media reporting need to be implemented to enhance public mental health in Korea.
Young children's detection and decoding of ironic intonation
Catherine Rattray , Andrew Tolmie
Psychology of Language and Communication , 2008, DOI: 10.2478/v10057-008-0002-1
Abstract: Two studies examined 3- and 4-year-olds' ability to follow the mental ‘sub-text’ of conversations employing ironic intonation. In Study 1, children were asked what a confederate thought was inside a tin, following an exchange in which she saw (joke conditions) or did not see (lie conditions) the contents (a stone) and heard these referred to in neutral or ironic tone as a cake. Study 2 repeated the joke conditions, with the confederate touching the stone. Amongst 4-year-olds, intonation was found to trigger complex assessment of the information available to the confederate, whilst 3-year-olds appeared confused. The data suggest that ability to track the belief implications of conversations is underpinned by substantial improvements in working memory between 3 and 4 years.
Ecocriticism & Irish Poetry. A Preliminary Outline  [PDF]
James Mc Elroy
Estudios Irlandeses : Journal of Irish Studies , 2011,
Abstract: The article offers a brief thumbnail sketch of how Irish poetry has situated “nature” inside its competing narrative forms. Beginning with Irish poetry’s earliest lyrics and concluding with some of Ireland’s most recent, and most experimental, writers, the goal of the piece is to introduce some rudimentary eco-critical theory as a means of better understanding how nature acts as a complex cultural and political semiotic, so often overlooked, in Irish literature. En route, the article examines and in part deconstructs those critical categories that have often divided Irish literature into two distinct ecological camps: the picturesque (read colonialist/tourist) and the oral (read native/indigenous). The article also considers the importance of ecofeminist theory and asks how critics might better read Ireland’s women poets as nature poets in their own right. In closing, the piece turns its attention to a number of recent poets, both men and women, who have exceeded the picturesque/oral divide and now require eco-alternative readings of nature as we enter the second decade of the 21st Century.
Isn’t it ironic? Neural Correlates of Irony Comprehension in Schizophrenia  [PDF]
Alexander M. Rapp, Karin Langohr, Dorothee E. Mutschler, Stefan Klingberg, Barbara Wild, Michael Erb
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074224
Abstract: Ironic remarks are frequent in everyday language and represent an important form of social cognition. Increasing evidence indicates a deficit in comprehension in schizophrenia. Several models for defective comprehension have been proposed, including possible roles of the medial prefrontal lobe, default mode network, inferior frontal gyri, mirror neurons, right cerebral hemisphere and a possible mediating role of schizotypal personality traits. We investigated the neural correlates of irony comprehension in schizophrenia by using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a prosody-free reading paradigm, 15 female patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy female controls silently read ironic and literal text vignettes during fMRI. Each text vignette ended in either an ironic (n = 22) or literal (n = 22) statement. Ironic and literal text vignettes were matched for word frequency, length, grammatical complexity, and syntax. After fMRI, the subjects performed an off-line test to detect error rate. In this test, the subjects indicated by button press whether the target sentence has ironic, literal, or meaningless content. Schizotypal personality traits were assessed using the German version of the schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ). Patients with schizophrenia made significantly more errors than did the controls (correct answers, 85.3% vs. 96.3%) on a behavioural level. Patients showed attenuated blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response during irony comprehension mainly in right hemisphere temporal regions (ironic>literal contrast) and in posterior medial prefrontal and left anterior insula regions (for ironic>visual baseline, but not for literal>visual baseline). In patients with schizophrenia, the parahippocampal gyrus showed increased activation. Across all subjects, BOLD response in the medial prefrontal area was negatively correlated with the SPQ score. These results highlight the role of the posterior medial prefrontal and right temporal regions in defective irony comprehension in schizophrenia and the mediating role of schizotypal personality traits.
Sarma Phase in Trapped Unbalanced Fermi Gases  [PDF]
K. B. Gubbels,M. W. J. Romans,H. T. C. Stoof
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.210402
Abstract: We consider a trapped unbalanced Fermi gas at nonzero temperatures where the superfluid Sarma phase is stable. We determine in particular the phase boundaries between the superfluid, normal, and phase separated regions of the trapped unbalanced Fermi mixture. We show that the physics of the Sarma phase is sufficient to understand the recent observations of Zwierlein et al. [Science 311, 492 (2006); Nature 442, 54 (2006)] and indicate how the apparent contradictions between this experiment and the experiment of Partridge et al. [Science 311, 503 (2006)] may be resolved.
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