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Sliding Mode Controller for Three-Phase Hybrid Active Power Filter with Photovoltaic Application  [PDF]
Ayman Blorfan, Jean Mercklé, Damien Flieller, Patrice Wira, Guy Sturtzer
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2012.31003
Abstract: This paper presents a new three-phase hybrid active power filter configuration that interconnects a passive high-pass filter in parallel with an active power filter and a photovoltaic system. The proposed configuration can improves the filtering performance of the conventional active power filter, as well as simultaneously supply the power from the photovoltaic arrays to the load and utility. This paper will describe the proposed hybrid active power filter control using sliding mode with photovoltaic system. The proposed technique effectively filters harmonics under 1 kHz but also higher frequency to achieve wideband harmonics compensation. The THD of source current is reduced from 30.09% to 1.95%. The result indicates that the sliding mode controller can track the reference signals and have good dynamic characteristics.
Design of a Solar Motor Drive System Fed by a Direct-Connected Photovoltaic Array  [cached]
Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.4316/aece.2012.03008
Abstract: A solar motor pump drive system is modeled and simulated. The proposed drive system does not require any kind of energy storage system and dc-dc converter. The system is connected directly to a photovoltaic (PV) array. Thus, a low cost solar system can be achieved. A vector controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) is used as a solar motor to increase the efficiency of system. The motor is designed for a low rated voltage level about 24V. The hill climbing MPPT method is used for balanced the motor power and PV power to obtain a high efficiency. The results are performed by using MATLAB/SimPowerSystem blocks. In addition, the PV array is modeled to allow for the possibility of running as on-line adjustable in simulation environment without using lookup table. The performances of motor, MPPT and drive system are analyzed in different conditions as temperature and irradiation of PV array.
Performance of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System in Two Sites in Kuwait  [PDF]
Ali Hajiah,Tamer Khatib,K. Sopian,M. Sebzali
International Journal of Photoenergy , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/178175
Abstract: This paper presents an assessment of the electricity generated by photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected systems in Kuwait. Three years of meteorological data are provided for two main sites in Kuwait, namely, Al-Wafra and Mutla. These data and a PV grid-connected system mathematical model are used to assist a 100?kWp grid-connected PV system proposed for both sites. The proposed systems show high energy productivity whereas the annual capacity factors for Mutla and Al-Wafra are 22.25% and 21.6%, respectively. Meanwhile the annual yield factors for Mutla and Al-Wafra are 1861?kWh/kWp/year and 1922.7?kWh/kWp/year, respectively. On the other hand the cost of the energy generated by both systems is about 0.1 USD/kWh which is very close to the price of the energy sold by the Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW). Furthermore the invested money is recovered during the assumed life cycle time whereas the payback period for both sites is about 15 years. This work contains worthwhile technical information for those who are interested in PV technology investment in Kuwait. 1. Introduction Based on the fact that PV systems are clean, environment friendly, and secure energy sources, PV system installation has played an important role worldwide. However, the drawback of PV systems is the high capital cost as compared to conventional energy sources. Therefore, many research works are carried out currently focusing on optimization of PV systems [1]. Grid-connected PV systems can be divided into two parts: building integrated PV systems (BiPV) and distribution generation PV (DGPV) systems. BiPV systems usually supply a specific load and inject the excess energy to the grid. On the other hand the DGPV systems inject the whole produced energy to the grid without feeding any local load. The grid-connected systems can consist of a PV array only as an energy source, or anther energy source can be in cooperation with the PV array such as wind turbine, diesel system, or a storage unit [2]. PV system size and performance strongly depend on metrological variables such as solar energy, wind speed, and ambient temperature and, therefore, to optimize a PV system, extensive studies related to the metrological variables have to be done [3]. The importance of the meteorological data in sizing PV systems lies in the fact that the PV modules output energy strongly depends on the available solar energy and the ambient temperature, while the wind turbines (in case of hybrid PV/Wind systems) output power is a function of the available wind speed. The performance of a PV module strongly
Modelling and Control of a Grid Connected Photovoltaic System
N. Hamrouni,A. Cherif
International Journal of Electrical and Power Engineering , 2012,
Abstract: This study presents a simulationmodel of the electric part of a grid connected photovoltaic generator. The model contains a detailed representation of the main components of the system that are the solar array, boost converter and the grid side inverter. A proper control of the DC/DC converter is developed in order to extract the maximum amount of from the photovoltaic generator. The grid interface inverter transfers the energy drawn from the PV module into the grid by keeping common dc voltage constant. The PQ control approach has been presented for the inverter. Modelling and control is carried out using the causal informational graph method. The simulation results under MATLAB/SIMULINK show the control performance and dynamic behaviour of grid connected photovoltaic system.
Design of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System  [PDF]
Naseer Khan, Muhammad Aamir, Faisal Mehmood, Muhammad Aslam, Muhammad Arif
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2017.58001
Abstract: This paper presents a grid connected photovoltaic system (PV) with a proposed high voltage conversion ratio DC-DC converter which steps up the variable low input voltages of photovoltaic module to the required DC link voltage. This voltage is applied to an H-bridge inverter which converts DC voltage into AC voltage and a low pass filter is used to filter the output. By adjusting the duty ratio of switches in DC-DC converter, the magnitude of inverter’s output voltage is controlled. The frequency and phase synchronization are ensured by a feedback signal taken from the grid. In this way, inverter is synchronized and connected with the grid to meet the energy demand. The PV system has been designed and simulated.
Improved PLL Tuning of Shunt Active Power Filter for Grid Connected Photo Voltaic Energy System  [PDF]
Rajmohan Rajalakshmi, Vairamani Rajasekaran
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.710261
Abstract: This research work brings out the unique predictive current control method for attaining an efficient grid connected Photo Voltaic (PV) system by Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) as grid connected converter. The major objective of the research work is to address the presence of Direct Current (DC) component, frequency improvement, quicker theta response, voltage magnitude estimation in the input signal of the Phase Locked Loop (PLL) which is challenging. This work focuses on tuning the PLL block (Kp,?Ki,?Kv?and Ko)?through Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) optimization algorithm. The proposed ABC based modified three-phase PLL method is based on adding a new loop inside the PLL structure. In power converters, ABC algorithm is used to select the optimal switching states. The voltage vector which minimizes a cost optimization function is selected. Simulation is carried out for both balanced and unbalanced system and the results validate that the performance of the proposed approach is better in terms of harmonic compensation as per the IEEE standards within ±5%, power factor improvement of the system, quicker theta tracking and suppression of frequency jump with the interconnection of PV system.
Performance Analysis of Grid Connected and Islanded Modes of AC/DC Microgrid for Residential Home Cluster  [PDF]
Ahmed M. Othman, Hossam A. Gabbar, Negar Honarmand
Intelligent Control and Automation (ICA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ica.2015.64024
Abstract: This paper presents performance analysis on hybrid AC/DC microgrid networks for residential home cluster. The design of the proposed microgrid includes comprehensive types of Distributed Generators (DGs) as hybrid power sources (wind, Photovoltaic (PV) solar cell, battery, fuel cell). Details about each DG dynamic modeling are presented and discussed. The customers in home cluster can be connected in both of the operating modes: islanded to the microgrid or connected to utility grid. Each DG has appended control system with its modeling that will be discussed to control DG performance. The wind turbine will be controlled by AC control system within three sub-control systems: 1) speed regulator and pitch control, 2) rotor side converter control, and 3) grid side converter control. The AC control structure is based on PLL, current regulator and voltage booster converter with using of photovoltaic Voltage Source Converter (VSC) and inverters to connect to the grid. The DC control system is mainly based on Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) controller and boost converter connected to the PV array block and in order to control the system. The case study is used to analyze the performance of the proposed microgrid. The buses voltages, active power and reactive power responses are presented in both of grid-connected and islanded modes. In addition, the power factor, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) and modulation index are calculated.
Shunt Active Filter in Damping Harmonics Propagation
Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering , 2010, DOI: 10.4316/aece.2010.03018
Abstract: This paper deals with a hybrid shunt active power filter applied on 500 kV HVDC, after a description of the causes and effects harmonic pollution which may damage equipments and interrupt electric power customers service; in this paper we present the deferent solutions of this problem among one has to study the two most recent types of filtering: passive and hybrid filter. The hybrid filter consists of active filter connected in shunt with passive filter. The hybrid shunt active filter proposed is based on three levels PWM inverter and characterized by detecting the harmonic current flowing into the passive filter and controlled by notch algorithm. This structure has been applied on a test HVDC power system, is presented as a technical solution makes it possible to eliminate the disadvantages from passive filtering, and also economic price of active filtering part. The simulation results justified the effectiveness of this type of filter face of the classic passive filter.
Study of Photovoltaic Energy Storage by Supercapacitors through Both Experimental and Modelling Approaches  [PDF]
Pierre-Olivier Logerais,Olivier Riou,Mohamed Ansoumane Camara,Jean-Félix Durastanti
Journal of Solar Energy , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/659014
Abstract: The storage of photovoltaic energy by supercapacitors is studied by using two approaches. An overview on the integration of supercapacitors in solar energy conversion systems is previously provided. First, a realized experimental setup of charge/discharge of supercapacitors fed by a photovoltaic array has been operated with fine data acquisition. The second approach consists in simulating photovoltaic energy storage by supercapacitors with a faithful and accessible model composed of solar irradiance evaluation, equivalent electrical circuit for photovoltaic conversion, and a multibranch circuit for supercapacitor. Both the experimental and calculated results are confronted, and an error of 1% on the stored energy is found with a correction largely within % of the transmission line capacitance according to temperature. 1. Introduction Abundant and available sun radiation makes attractive systems which convert solar energy into electricity like photovoltaic modules or solar thermal power plants. To overcome the intermittency of the solar energy source, batteries have to be coupled with short-time storage devices like supercapacitors which enable charge/discharge cycles inferior to 10?s with kW/kg specific power [1]. In solar energy conversion systems, supercapacitors are operated when high power demand is requested or when supplied electrical power needs adjustment [2]. As examples, they furnish significant power to overcome the initial inertia at a solar pump start and allow quality power when operating with grid-connected photovoltaic inverters. Integration in microgeneration systems enables numerous applications [1]: road signs and lighting, display of bus schedules, parking fee-machines, remote weather stations, system commands, automatic distributors, emergency lights, and compressors. Nevertheless, other uses of supercapacitors fed by solar energy have been envisaged for the last decade as reviewed below. Different algorithms have been developed to regulate the power supplied by hybrid devices for a given load or utilization grid. Kelleher and Ringwood implemented a computer programme to estimate the savings with renewable electricity microgeneration from wind and solar energy sources for domestic use in which storage could be ensured by batteries and ultracapacitors [3]. Thounthong et al. put to use the fast dynamics of supercapacitors to compensate the slow response of fuel cells in the first instant of a stepped power demand in a source consisting of photovoltaic modules, fuel cells and supercapacitors [4]. Hybrid arrangements with more elements
Modeling and control of a three-phase isolated grid-connected converter for photovoltaic applications
Villalva, Marcelo Gradella;Espindola, Marcos Fernando;Siqueira, Thais Gama de;Ruppert, Ernesto;
Sba: Controle & Automa??o Sociedade Brasileira de Automatica , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-17592011000300001
Abstract: this paper describes the modeling and control of a three-phase grid-connected converter fed by a photovoltaic array. the converter is composed of an isolated dc-dc converter and a three-phase dc-ac voltage source inverter the converters are modeled in order to obtain small-signal transfer functions that are used in the design of three closed-loop controllers: for the output voltage of the pv array, the dc link voltage and the output currents. simulated and experimental results are presented.
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