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A Generalization of Euler's Theorem on Congruencies  [PDF]
Florentin Smarandache
Mathematics , 2006,
Abstract: We present a theorem which generalizes the classical Euler's theorem on congruencies: if $(a,m)=1$ then $a^ \phi(m) \equiv 1 (mod m)$ for the case when $a$ and $m$ are not relatively primes.
Comparisons of hadronic shower packages  [PDF]
G. Mavromanolakis,D. Ward
Physics , 2004,
Abstract: We report on simulation studies comparing various hadronic shower packages. Results show that predictions from different models vary significantly, illustrating the necessity of testbeam data to resolve the situation.
CYPROS - Cybernetic Program Packages
Arne Tyss?
Modeling, Identification and Control , 1980, DOI: 10.4173/mic.1980.4.2
Abstract: CYPROS is an interactive program system consisting of a number of special purpose packages for simulation, identification, parameter estimation and control system design. The programming language is standard FORTRAN IV and the system is implemented on a medium size computer system (Nord-10). The system is interactive and program control is obtained by the use of numeric terminals. Output is rapidly examined by extensive use of video colour graphics. The subroutines included in the packages are designed and documented according to standardization rules given by the SCL (Scandinavian Control Library) organization. This simplifies the exchange of subroutines throughout the SCL system. Also, this makes the packages attractive for implementation by industrial users. In the simulation package, different integration methods are available and it can be easily used for off-line, as well as real time, simulation problems. The identification package consists of programs for single-input/single-output and multivariablc problems. Both transfer function models and state space models can be handled. Optimal test signals can be designed. The control package consists of programs based on multivariable time domain and frequency domain methods for analysis and design. In addition, there is a package for matrix and time series manipulation. CYPROS has been applied successfully to industrial problems of various kinds, and parts of the system have already been implemented on different computers in industry. This paper will, in some detail, describe the use and the contents of the packages and some examples of application will be discussed.
Surgical packages for laparoscopic surgery  [cached]
Bhattacharya K
Journal of Minimal Access Surgery , 2005,
Abstract: ′Packages′ are in fashion today for most surgical procedures in various corporate hospitals and this has included laparoscopic procedures too. A package system enables the hospitals to get cost settlements done more easily. Also, it is more convenient for the patients who are aware upfront of the charges. The principal disadvantages seems to be for the surgeon, who may face displeasure of the patient, hospital or insurance agencies apart from forfeiting his personal charges if (a) he is a novice in laparoscopic surgery and takes extra time to complete a procedure, (b) unforeseen problems occur during surgery, or (c) new pathologies are discovered on exploration.
The GITEWS ocean bottom sensor packages  [PDF]
O. Boebel,M. Busack,E. R. Flueh,V. Gouretski
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences (NHESS) & Discussions (NHESSD) , 2010, DOI: 10.5194/nhess-10-1759-2010
Abstract: The German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) aims at reducing the risks posed by events such as the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. To minimize the lead time for tsunami alerts, to avoid false alarms, and to accurately predict tsunami wave heights, real-time observations of ocean bottom pressure from the deep ocean are required. As part of the GITEWS infrastructure, the parallel development of two ocean bottom sensor packages, PACT (Pressure based Acoustically Coupled Tsunameter) and OBU (Ocean Bottom Unit), was initiated. The sensor package requirements included bidirectional acoustic links between the bottom sensor packages and the hosting surface buoys, which are moored nearby. Furthermore, compatibility between these sensor systems and the overall GITEWS data-flow structure and command hierarchy was mandatory. While PACT aims at providing highly reliable, long term bottom pressure data only, OBU is based on ocean bottom seismometers to concurrently record sea-floor motion, necessitating highest data rates. This paper presents the technical design of PACT, OBU and the HydroAcoustic Modem (HAM.node) which is used by both systems, along with first results from instrument deployments off Indonesia.
降解PVA共生菌的分离及PVA降解性能  [PDF]
环境科学 , 2005,
Abstract: 对降解PVA的共生菌B1、B2在PVA降解过程中的作用及其B1+B2混合菌的PVA降解性能进行研究.结果表明,B1+B2混合菌在PVA降解过程中,B1为B2提供生长因子,B2产生PVA降解酶,是降解者.在摇瓶试验中,B1+B2混合菌在PVA浓度为0.1、0.5、1g/L时,PVA降解效率均达到80%以上.用生产废水进行试验,当温度为30℃,处理12h后,CODCr去除率达到70%左右.
Analysis of trade packages in Chinese stock market  [PDF]
Fei Ren,Wei-Xing Zhou
Quantitative Finance , 2011, DOI: 10.1080/14697688.2013.765957
Abstract: This paper conducts an empirically study on the trade package composed of a sequence of consecutive purchases or sales of 23 stocks in Chinese stock market. We investigate the probability distributions of the execution time, the number of trades and the total trading volume of trade packages, and analyze the possible scaling relations between them. Quantitative differences are observed between the institutional and individual investors. The trading profile of trade packages is investigated to reveal the preference of large trades on trading volumes and transaction time of the day, and the different profiles of two types of investors imply that institutions may be more informed than individuals. We further analyze the price impacts of both the entire trade packages and the individual transactions inside trade packages. We find the price impact of trade packages is nonnegligible over the period of the execution time and it may have a power-law relation with the total trading volume. The price impact of the transactions inside trade packages displays a U-shaped profile with respect to the time $t$ of the day, and also shows a power-law dependence on their trading volumes. The trading volumes of the transactions inside trade packages made by institutions have a stronger impact on current returns, but the following price reversals persist over a relatively shorter horizon in comparison with those by individuals.
Properties of nanoclay PVA composites materials
Mohamed H. M. Ali,Mohamoud M. Kahder,Khalid A. Al-Saad,Saeed Al-Meer
QScience Connect , 2012, DOI: 10.5339/connect.2013.1
Abstract: Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/ Na-rich Montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites were prepared using solution method to create polymer-clay nanocomposite (PCN) material. The PCN material was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), demonstrating polymer-clay intercalation that has a high d-spacing (lower diffraction angles) in the PCN XRD pattern, compared to the pure MMT clay XRD pattern, which has a low d-spacing (high diffraction angles). The nano-scanning electron microscope (NSEM) was used to study the morphological image of the PVA, MMT and PCN materials. The results showed that intercalation that took place between the PVA and MMT produced the PCN material. The mechanical properties of the pure PVA and the intercalated polymer material were studied. It was found that the small amount of MMT clay made the tensile modulus and percentage of the total elongation of the nano-composite significantly higher than the pure PVA polymer value, due to polymer-clay intercalation. The thermal stability of the intercalated polymer has been studied using thermal analytical techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the PCN material is more thermally stable than the pure PVA polymer.
Measurements of True Leak Rates of MEMS Packages  [PDF]
Bongtae Han
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s120303082
Abstract: : Gas transport mechanisms that characterize the hermetic behavior of MEMS packages are fundamentally different depending upon which sealing materials are used in the packages. In metallic seals, gas transport occurs through a few nanoscale leak channels (gas conduction) that are produced randomly during the solder reflow process, while gas transport in polymeric seals occurs through the bulk material (gas diffusion). In this review article, the techniques to measure true leak rates of MEMS packages with the two sealing materials are described and discussed: a Helium mass spectrometer based technique for metallic sealing and a gas diffusion based model for polymeric sealing.
The Extinction of the Conulariids  [PDF]
Spencer G. Lucas
Geosciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/geosciences2010001
Abstract: Conulariids are unusual extinct metazoans most often considered to be a group of scyphozoan cnidarians or close relatives. Generally, the temporal range of conulariid fossils is perceived to be late Precambrian or Cambrian to Triassic, though a supposed Cretaceous conulariid from Peru was published 46 years ago. A re-evaluation of this fossil indicates it is not a conulariid, but instead a pinnacean bivalve (Pinna sp.), confirming that the geologically youngest conulariids are of Late Triassic age. However, a review of the Triassic conulariid fossil record indicates it is very sparse, with only eight published records. It does not provide a reliable basis for analyzing the structure of conulariid extinction. Nevertheless, conulariid extinction still appears to have taken place very close to the end of the Triassic. The cause of conulariid extinction may have been the onset of the Mesozoic marine revolution, in which durivorous predators developed new mechanisms for preying on the epifaunal benthos, including the conulariids.
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