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An Algorithm of Intelligent Search Dealing with Uncertainty
Ashit Kumar Dutta,Sahar Idwan,Ranjit Biswas
Asian Journal of Information Technology , 2012,
Abstract: In this study, the authors propose an algorithm of intelligent search using vague theory of Gau and Buehrer. The objective of such research is to deal with the imprecise data involved in different kinds of existing searching techniques in a more efficient ways and thus to suggest a new improved version of searching technique under uncertainty which will be helpful in many real life problems of computer science, specially in AI, in Data Mining, in fuzzy DBMS, etc. to list a few only.
Intelligent Life in Cosmology  [PDF]
Frank J. Tipler
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1017/S1473550403001526
Abstract: I shall present three arguments for the proposition that intelligent life is very rare in the universe. First, I shall summarize the consensus opinion of the founders of the Modern Synthesis (Simpson, Dobzhanski, and Mayr) that the evolution of intelligent life is exceedingly improbable. Second, I shall develop the Fermi Paradox: if they existed they'd be here. Third, I shall show that if intelligent life were too common, it would use up all available resources and die out. But I shall show that the quantum mechanical principle of unitarity (actually a form of teleology!) requires intelligent life to survive to the end of time. Finally, I shall argue that, if the universe is indeed accelerating, then survival to the end of time requires that intelligent life, though rare, to have evolved several times in the visible universe. I shall argue that the acceleration is a consequence of the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe. I shall suggest experiments to test these claims.
Approaches to the Intelligent Subject Search  [PDF]
V. K. Ivanov,B. V. Palyukh,A. N. Sotnikov
Computer Science , 2015, DOI: 10.15439/978-83-60810-57-6
Abstract: This article presents main results of the pilot study of approaches to the subject information search based on automated semantic processing of mass scientific and technical data. The authors focus on technology of building and qualification of search queries with the following filtering and ranking of search data. Software architecture, specific features of subject search and research results application are considered.
Enhancing a Search Algorithm to Perform Intelligent Backtracking  [PDF]
Maurice Bruynooghe
Computer Science , 2003,
Abstract: This paper illustrates how a Prolog program, using chronological backtracking to find a solution in some search space, can be enhanced to perform intelligent backtracking. The enhancement crucially relies on the impurity of Prolog that allows a program to store information when a dead end is reached. To illustrate the technique, a simple search program is enhanced. To appear in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming. Keywords: intelligent backtracking, dependency-directed backtracking, backjumping, conflict-directed backjumping, nogood sets, look-back.
PhyloFinder: An intelligent search engine for phylogenetic tree databases
Duhong Chen, J Gordon Burleigh, Mukul S Bansal, David Fernández-Baca
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-8-90
Abstract: PhyloFinder is an intelligent search engine for phylogenetic databases that we have implemented using trees from TreeBASE. It enables taxonomic queries, in which it identifies trees in the database containing the exact name of the query taxon and/or any synonymous taxon names, and it provides spelling suggestions for the query when there is no match. Additionally, PhyloFinder can identify trees containing descendants or direct ancestors of the query taxon. PhyloFinder also performs phylogenetic queries, in which it identifies trees that contain the query tree or topologies that are similar to the query tree.PhyloFinder can enhance the utility of any tree database by providing tools for both taxonomic and phylogenetic queries as well as visualization tools that highlight the query results and provide links to NCBI and TBMap. An implementation of PhyloFinder using trees from TreeBASE is available from the web client application found in the availability and requirements section.The rapidly expanding wealth of phylogenetic information from across the tree of life offers unprecedented opportunities for large-scale evolutionary studies and for examining an array of biological questions in a phylogenetic context [1]. However, much of the published phylogenetic data is not easily accessible. Therefore, the storage and efficient retrieval of phylogenetic data are important challenges for bioinformatics [1-5]. TreeBASE is the largest relational database of published phylogenetic information. It stores more than 4,400 trees that contain over 75,000 taxa, the data matrices used to infer the trees, and additional meta-data, such as bibliographic information and details of the phylogenetic analyses [6,7]. Though TreeBASE is a valuable repository for phylogenetic data, it is often difficult to identify and access relevant phylogenetic data from within TreeBASE. In this paper, we present PhyloFinder, a new phylogenetic tree search engine that greatly expands upon the current searc
Intelligent Search Heuristics for Cost Based Scheduling  [PDF]
Murphy Choy,Michelle Cheong
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: Nurse scheduling is a difficult optimization problem with multiple constraints. There is extensive research in the literature solving the problem using meta-heuristics approaches. In this paper, we will investigate an intelligent search heuristics that handles cost based scheduling problem. The heuristics demonstrated superior performances compared to the original algorithms used to solve the problems described in Li et. Al. (2003) and Ozkarahan (1989) in terms of time needed to establish a feasible solution. Both problems can be formulated as a cost problem. The search heuristic consists of several phrases of search and input based on the cost of each assignment and how the assignment will interact with the cost of the resources.
Strategies for the search of life in the universe  [PDF]
Jean Schneider
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: The discovery of an increasing number of Jupiter-like planets in orbit around other stars (or extra-solar planets) is a promising first step toward the search for Life in the Universe. We review all aspects of the question: - definition of Life - definition and characterization of the `habitable zone' around a star - overview of detection methods of planets, with special attention to habitable planets - present fingings - future projects.
From Cosmos to Intelligent Life: The Four Ages of Astrobiology  [PDF]
Marcelo Gleiser
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1017/S1473550412000237
Abstract: The history of life on Earth and in other potential life-bearing planetary platforms is deeply linked to the history of the universe. Since life as we know it relies on chemical elements forged in dying heavy stars, the universe needs to be old enough for stars to form and evolve. Current cosmological theory indicates that the universe is 13.7$\pm 0.13$ billion years old and that the first stars formed hundreds of millions of years after the big bang. At least some stars formed with stable planetary systems wherein a set of biochemical reactions leading to life could have taken place. In this lecture, I argue that we can divide cosmological history into four ages, from the big bang to intelligent life. The Physical Age describes the origin of the universe, of matter, of cosmic nucleosynthesis, as well as the formation of the first stars and galaxies. The Chemical Age begun when heavy stars provided the raw ingredients for life through stellar nucleosynthesis and describes how heavier chemical elements collected in nascent planets and moons to give rise to prebiotic biomolecules. The Biological Age describes the origin of early life, its evolution through Darwinian natural selection, and the emergence of complex multicellular life forms. Finally, the Cognitive Age describes how complex life evolved into intelligent life capable of self-awareness and of developing technology through the directed manipulation of energy and materials. We conclude discussing whether we are the rule or the exception.
Exoplanet Characterization and the Search for Life  [PDF]
J. Kasting,W. Traub,A. Roberge,A. Leger,A. Schwartz,A. Wooten,A. Vosteen,A. Lo,A. Brack,A. Tanner,A. Coustenis,B. Lane,B. Oppenheimer,B. Mennesson,B. Lopez,C. Grillmair,C. Beichman,C. Cockell,C. Hanot,C. McCarthy,C. Stark,C. Marois,C. Aime,D. Angerhausen,D. Montes,D. Wilner,D. Defrere,D. Mourard,D. Lin,E. Kite,E. Chassefiere,F. Malbet,F. Tian,F. Westall,G. Illingworth,G. Vasisht,G. Serabyn,G. Marcy,G. Bryden,G. White,G. Laughlin,G. Torres,H. Hammel,H. Ferguson,H. Shibai,H. Rottgering,J. Surdej,J. Wiseman,J. Ge,J. Bally,J. Krist,J. Monnier,J. Trauger,J. Horner,J. Catanzarite,J. Harrington,J. Nishikawa,K. Stapelfeldt,K. von Braun,K. Biazzo,K. Carpenter,K. Balasubramanian,L. Kaltenegger,M. Postman,M. Spaans,M. Turnbull,M. Levine,M. Burchell,M. Ealey,M. Kuchner,M. Marley,M. Dominik,M. Mountain,M. Kenworthy,M. Muterspaugh,M. Shao,M. Zhao,M. Tamura,N. Kasdin,N. Haghighipour,N. Kiang,N. Elias,N. Woolf,N. Mason,O. Absil,O. Guyon,O. Lay,P. Borde,P. Fouque,P. Kalas,P. Lowrance,P. Plavchan,P. Hinz,P. Kervella,P. Chen,R. Akeson,R. Soummer,R. Waters,R. Barry,R. Kendrick,R. Brown,R. Vanderbei,R. Woodruff,R. Danner,R. Allen,R. Polidan,S. Seager,S. MacPhee,S. Hosseini,S. Metchev,S. Kafka,S. Ridgway,S. Rinehart,S. Unwin,S. Shaklan,T. ten Brummelaar,T. Mazeh,V. Meadows,W. Weiss,W. Danchi,W. Ip,Y. Rabbia
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: Over 300 extrasolar planets (exoplanets) have been detected orbiting nearby stars. We now hope to conduct a census of all planets around nearby stars and to characterize their atmospheres and surfaces with spectroscopy. Rocky planets within their star's habitable zones have the highest priority, as these have the potential to harbor life. Our science goal is to find and characterize all nearby exoplanets; this requires that we measure the mass, orbit, and spectroscopic signature of each one at visible and infrared wavelengths. The techniques for doing this are at hand today. Within the decade we could answer long-standing questions about the evolution and nature of other planetary systems, and we could search for clues as to whether life exists elsewhere in our galactic neighborhood.
The Fine-Tuning of the Universe for Intelligent Life  [PDF]
Luke A. Barnes
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1071/AS12015
Abstract: The fine-tuning of the universe for intelligent life has received a great deal of attention in recent years, both in the philosophical and scientific literature. The claim is that in the space of possible physical laws, parameters and initial conditions, the set that permits the evolution of intelligent life is very small. I present here a review of the scientific literature, outlining cases of fine-tuning in the classic works of Carter, Carr and Rees, and Barrow and Tipler, as well as more recent work. To sharpen the discussion, the role of the antagonist will be played by Victor Stenger's recent book The Fallacy of Fine-Tuning: Why the Universe is Not Designed for Us. Stenger claims that all known fine-tuning cases can be explained without the need for a multiverse. Many of Stenger's claims will be found to be highly problematic. We will touch on such issues as the logical necessity of the laws of nature; objectivity, invariance and symmetry; theoretical physics and possible universes; entropy in cosmology; cosmic inflation and initial conditions; galaxy formation; the cosmological constant; stars and their formation; the properties of elementary particles and their effect on chemistry and the macroscopic world; the origin of mass; grand unified theories; and the dimensionality of space and time. I also provide an assessment of the multiverse, noting the significant challenges that it must face. I do not attempt to defend any conclusion based on the fine-tuning of the universe for intelligent life. This paper can be viewed as a critique of Stenger's book, or read independently.
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