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A Clinico- Epidemiological Study Of Filarial Related Orthopaedic Manifestations  [cached]
Patond K.R,Tandon V,Harinath B.C,Narang P
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 1992,
Abstract: An epidemiological study was undertaken to study the incidence and distribution of orthopaedic manifestations of filariasis in an endemic area. A total of 207 cases were clinically examined and investigated. Patients were divided into three groups , viz., Group A: Orthopaedic manifestations with no history of filariasis . Group B: Orthopaedic manifestations with history of filariasis such as microfilaraemia or filarial fevers etc., Group C: Orthopaedic manifestations with chronic manifestations such as elephantiasis, hydrocele etc. To confirm filarial etiology, all the cases were examined for the presence of filarial antibody by indirect ELISA using wuchereda bancrofti microfilarial excretory- secretary antigen (wd Mf ESAg) . A total of 61 of 102 patients of Group A, 14 of 21 patients of group B, and 73 of 84 patients of Group C were positive for filarial antibody. This study showed the prevalence of filarial antibody in about 71.4% of various orthopaedic manifestations.
Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Kaduna State, Nigeria: first evidence of the potential for elimination in the operational area of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control
Afework Tekle, Elizabeth Elhassan, Sunday Isiyaku, Uche V Amazigo, Simon Bush, Mounkaila Noma, Simon Cousens, Adenike Abiose, Jan H Remme
Parasites & Vectors , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-28
Abstract: In 2008, an epidemiological evaluation using skin snip parasitological diagnostic method was carried out in two onchocerciasis foci, in Birnin Gwari Local Government Area (LGA), and in the Kauru and Lere LGAs of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The survey was undertaken in 26 villages and examined 3,703 people above the age of one year. The result was compared with the baseline survey undertaken in 1987.The communities had received 15 to 17 years of ivermectin treatment with more than 75% reported coverage. For each surveyed community, comparable baseline data were available. Before treatment, the community prevalence of O. volvulus microfilaria in the skin ranged from 23.1% to 84.9%, with a median prevalence of 52.0%. After 15 to 17 years of treatment, the prevalence had fallen to 0% in all communities and all 3,703 examined individuals were skin snip negative.The results of the surveys confirm the finding in Senegal and Mali that ivermectin treatment alone can eliminate onchocerciasis infection and probably disease transmission in endemic foci in Africa. It is the first of such evidence for the APOC operational area.Onchocerciasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by the filarial worm Onchocerca volvulus. The disease is endemic in Central and South America and the Yemen but 99% of the disease occurs in sub Saharan Africa, where it causes blindness and skin disease [1]. It is a disabling disease that causes significant morbidity, psychosocial problems and reduced work, especially reduced agricultural productivity in populations affected by the disease. About 37 million people in tropical Africa and 140,000 others in Latin America are infected with O. volvulus [1,2]. In many endemic countries including Nigeria, onchocerciasis constitutes a major public health and socio-economic problem because of its dermal and ocular manifestations. The main strategy for control in endemic countries is by mass ivermectin (Mectizan?) distribution. Following the availability of iverme
Macrofilaricides and onchocerciasis control, mathematical modelling of the prospects for elimination
William Alley, Gerrit J van Oortmarssen, Boakye A Boatin, Nico JD Nagelkerke, Anton P Plaisier, Jan HF Remme, Janis Lazdins, Gerard JJM Borsboom, J Dik F Habbema
BMC Public Health , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-1-12
Abstract: We used ONCHOSIM, a microsimulation mathematical model of the dynamics of onchocerciasis transmission, to explore the potentials of a hypothetical macrofilaricidal drug for the elimination of onchocerciasis under different epidemiological conditions, as characterized by previous intervention strategies, vectorial capacity and levels of coverage.With a high vector biting rate and poor coverage, a very effective macrofilaricide would appear to have a substantially higher potential for achieving elimination of the parasite than does ivermectin.Macrofilaricides have a substantially higher potential for achieving onchocerciasis elimination than ivermectin, but high coverage levels are still key. When these drugs become available, onchocerciasis elimination strategies should be reconsidered. In view of the impact of control efforts preceding the introduction of macrofilaricides on the success of elimination, it is important to sustain current control efforts.Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. The parasite is transmitted by Simulium species (blackflies) that breed in fast flowing streams [1,2]. Until recently the blindness and skin pathology caused by heavy infections, constituted a major public health problem in many parts of tropical Africa, Yemen, and Latin America. This consideration led to the establishment of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) [3] in West Africa, the Onchocerciasis Elimination Program in the Americas (OEPA) [4], and the African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) [5,6]. All three programmes have come to rely on the regular (OEPA semi-annually, OCP both annually and semi-annually, and APOC annually) distribution of ivermectin (Mectizan?) to lower the microfilarial load in affected individuals and thereby reduce transmission and mitigate the clinical manifestations of the infection [7]. In addition, since 1975, OCP has made intensive use of vector control by means of
Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and sporadic onchocerciasis  [PDF]
Emmanuel Uttah & Dominic C. Ibeh
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases , 2011,
Abstract: Background & objectives: The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species ofmicrofilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations.Methods: From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 μl of day and night blood samples werecollected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one eachfrom the waist and the shoulder) were also taken from these individuals and processed.Results: Results showed single species microfilaraemia (86.4 and 82.3%), double species microfilaraemia (12.2and 16.9%) and triple species microfilaraemia (1.4 and 0.7%) for endemic and sporadic populations respectively.All the species had single species microfilaraemia mostly, but Mansonella perstans and Loa loa showed greatestt endency towa rds doubl e and t r ipl e spe c i e s mi c rof i l a r a emi a . The pr eva l enc e of Wuche re r ia banc rof t imicrofilaraemia among those positive for Onchocerca volvulus was significantly lower than the overall prevalenceof Wuchereria bancrofti. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was most common among those who had L. loamicrofilaraemia. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial intensity was higher among those with M. perstansmicrofilaraemia than among those positive for any of the other filarial species. Similarly, the intensity of M.perstans microfilaraemia among those positive for W. bancrofti exceeded the overall intensity of M. perstans.Conclusion: It is concluded that there was no definite pattern in mf densities discernible from co-occurrenceinfections either in the onchocerciasis endemic or sporadic population. There could be varied outcomes ofonchocerciasis infection attributable to positive or negative regulatory effects of other pathogens harbored bythe victims.
Evaluation of Onchocerciasis: A Decade of Post Treatment with Ivermectin in Zainabi and Ririwai Doguwa Local Government Area of Kano State  [PDF]
D. A. Sufi, Tukur Zainab
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2015.31001
Abstract: Rapid Assessment Method (RAM) were carried out to assess the current situation of Onchocerciasis after repetition of annual community directed distribution of Ivermectin in Zainabi and Ririwai of Doguwa Local Government area of Kano State. Certain manifestations, like nodules, leopard skin and blindness, were used to measure the endemicity level in the community. The subjects of 30 - 50 years who are engaged in rural occupation, resident in that community, were examined for the presence of nodules, skin lesion and blindness. The common manifestation in both communities is nodules with 3 (3.40%) and 2 (3.44%). Leopard skin and blindness were found in Zainabi with 2 (2.27%) and 2 (2.27%). The manifestation of Onchocerciasis was found in older age groups of 49 - 70 and 50 - 69 respectively, which give an indication that the disease was eliminated in the community due to mass distribution of Ivermectin in the previously known endemic community. We recommend mass distribution of Mectizan in other identified endemic foci.
Simuliidae and the transmission and control of human Onchocerciasis in Latin America
Shelley, A. J.;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 1991, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X1991000300003
Abstract: factors that affect the propensity of a simuliid species to act as a host to onchocerca volvulus and to naturally transmit this filarial worm in nature are discussed. presence or absence of a cibarial armature is believed to be a major factor that has been previously overlooked and this is considered in relation to the choice of control methods currently advocated for onchocerciasis. the current epidemiological studies, transmission dynamics and relevant control measures are discussed for each onchocerciasis focus in latin america.
Prediction of community prevalence of human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus: Bayesian approach
Carabin,Hélène; Escalona,Marisela; Marshall,Clare; Vivas-Martínez,Sarai; Botto,Carlos; Joseph,Lawrence; Basá?ez,María-Gloria;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862003000700006
Abstract: objective: to develop a bayesian hierarchical model for human onchocerciasis with which to explore the factors that influence prevalence of microfilariae in the amazonian focus of onchocerciasis and predict the probability of any community being at least mesoendemic (>20% prevalence of microfilariae), and thus in need of priority ivermectin treatment. methods: models were developed with data from 732 individuals aged >15 years who lived in 29 yanomami communities along four rivers of the south venezuelan orinoco basin. the models' abilities to predict prevalences of microfilariae in communities were compared. the deviance information criterion, bayesian p-values, and residual values were used to select the best model with an approximate cross-validation procedure. findings: a three-level model that acknowledged clustering of infection within communities performed best, with host age and sex included at the individual level, a river-dependent altitude effect at the community level, and additional clustering of communities along rivers. this model correctly classified 25/29 (86%) villages with respect to their need for priority ivermectin treatment. conclusion: bayesian methods are a flexible and useful approach for public health research and control planning. our model acknowledges the clustering of infection within communities, allows investigation of links between individual- or community-specific characteristics and infection, incorporates additional uncertainty due to missing covariate data, and informs policy decisions by predicting the probability that a new community is at least mesoendemic.
Prediction of community prevalence of human onchocerciasis in the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus: Bayesian approach  [cached]
Carabin Hélène,Escalona Marisela,Marshall Clare,Vivas-Martínez Sarai
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To develop a Bayesian hierarchical model for human onchocerciasis with which to explore the factors that influence prevalence of microfilariae in the Amazonian focus of onchocerciasis and predict the probability of any community being at least mesoendemic (>20% prevalence of microfilariae), and thus in need of priority ivermectin treatment. METHODS: Models were developed with data from 732 individuals aged >15 years who lived in 29 Yanomami communities along four rivers of the south Venezuelan Orinoco basin. The models' abilities to predict prevalences of microfilariae in communities were compared. The deviance information criterion, Bayesian P-values, and residual values were used to select the best model with an approximate cross-validation procedure. FINDINGS: A three-level model that acknowledged clustering of infection within communities performed best, with host age and sex included at the individual level, a river-dependent altitude effect at the community level, and additional clustering of communities along rivers. This model correctly classified 25/29 (86%) villages with respect to their need for priority ivermectin treatment. CONCLUSION: Bayesian methods are a flexible and useful approach for public health research and control planning. Our model acknowledges the clustering of infection within communities, allows investigation of links between individual- or community-specific characteristics and infection, incorporates additional uncertainty due to missing covariate data, and informs policy decisions by predicting the probability that a new community is at least mesoendemic.
The Habitat and Behavioural Environment of Onchocerciasis in Patigi Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria
O Babatimehi
Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management , 2008,
Abstract: Although onchocerciasis constitutes a major public health problem in rural Nigeria, the physical and behavioural environment of the disease needs to be adequately studied. The paper examines the physical and socio-economic factors of vulnerability to onchocerciasis in Patigi LGA, Kwara State, Nigeria. Topographical maps and published epidemiological reports are used to analyse people's proximity to vector breeding sites and the disease prevalence respectively. Regression is the major analytical tool. Data show that, the physical environment particularly the water channels which on the average are 388 metres from the villages, as opposed to the vector's flight capacity of over 12 kilometres from the breeding point, provide the conducive breeding condition for the disease vector. Socio-economic characteristics of the people such as occupation (farming 85% and fishing 2%); isolated and dispersed settlement patterns; and dressing pattern expose them to the disease vector bite. Regression analysis shows that there is significant relationship between population size and incidence of onchocerciasis (P<.001). The number of people infected has a direct relationship with population (P<.001), while the intensity of the disease is inversely related to population (P<.05). In conclusion, the study shows that both physical and socio-economic factors determine vulnerability to onchocerciasis. Therefore, onchocerciasis control efforts and rural development planning programme should reflect spatial peculiarities accompanied by public enlightenment campaign on the vulnerability factors.
Circulating filarial antigen in serum and hydrocele fluid from individuals living in an endemic area for bancroftian filariasis
Shah A,Mulla S
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2007,
Abstract: This study examined circulating filarial antigen by monoclonal antibody Og4C3-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from 114 men with hydrocele, living in an endemic area. Nocturnal blood and hydrocele fluid were collected and examined for microfilaria. ELISA was performed on serum and hydrocele fluid for detection of antigen. Amongst 114 cases, 5(4.4%) showed microfilaria in blood but none in fluid. ELISA was positive in 13(11.40%) serum and 5 (4.4%) fluid samples. All five fluid antigen positive cases were positive for antibodies and showed microfilaria in blood. These findings emphasize the use of circulating filarial antigen detection and alternative usage of hydrocele fluid for diagnosis of filariasis.
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