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Urban Vulnerabilities in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Visualizations of Human/Hazard Interactions  [PDF]
Keshav Bhattarai, Dennis Conway
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2010.22012
Abstract: Excessive unplanned urban growth leads to many vulnerabilities and impacts on urban environments to varying degrees. However, the majority of the extant literature focuses on the problems related to location and socioeconomic conditions, rather than vulnerability processes and related environmental degradation. This paper analyzes the scope of urban vulnerabilities for five rapidly urbanizing and highly-congested cities in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. First, the historic context of the Valley’s uncontrolled urbanization sets the scene. Second, the optic is narrowed to focus upon the geographical features of the resultant urbanized Valley landscape that includes spatial arrangements and of houses, population densities, road networks, vehicular densities, garbage problems, and available open spaces. Additionally, seismic vulnerabilities in the urban areas are also considering in this examination. Third, three-dimensional visualizations of selected urban locations are presented to differentiate between vulnerable and relatively safe locations. The intent of this research is to contribute to the methodological understanding of human/hazards interactions in rapidly urbanizing cities of the Third World, which share similar socioeconomic conditions and environmental con-texts.
Monitoring and conservation of bats in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal  [PDF]
Sanjan Thapa,Suchita Shrestha,Sagar Dahal,B. A. Daniel
Asian Journal of Conservation Biology , 2012,
Abstract: The Kathmandu Valley has been a centre for bat study since the 19th century. Twenty five species of bats have been documented from Kathmandu Valley including two species of fruit bats until 1997. Opportunistic and sporadic survey was continued then after. There was a gap of more than a decade for monitoring. A recent preliminary survey in 2008 re-recorded only three species which revealed the need for detailed monitoring. Bats conservation is a rare practice in Nepal which lags behind neighboring countries. The negative perception of the bats and lack of awareness is the primary factor for the lack of conservation. This project is designed to redress this at twenty sites within the Kathmandu Valley where mist and scoop nettings together with roost survey were carried out. Lectures to schoolchildren were the primary conservation action along with radio-awareness programmes. Twelve species was re-recorded excluding fruit bats and two unidentified species (Pipistrellus sp. and Myotis sp.). Specific roost sites and foraging habitats were discovered and documented in the study area. A new site of occurrence of vulnerable species Mandelli’s Mouse-eared Myotis Myotis sicarius was identified. A special trend of seasonal variation in species at few study sites was observed while in few the species were found resident. Thirteen half hour radio programmes about bats were successfully broadcast throughout Nepal from Radio Kantipur. Lectures of 45 minutes were delivered to in an average 75 schoolchildren per school at twenty schools in fifteen project sites. Post project effectiveness evaluation should be carried out.
Urban Unemployment in Nepal with Reference to Engineering Graduates of Kathmandu  [PDF]
Punneshori Shakya
Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/jie.v8i1-2.5126
Abstract: The greater percentage of the graduates living in and outside Nepal is employed but they are not satisfied with the employment due to less salary scale. The respondents were from 23-50 age groups who graduated in between 1989 to 2000. Eighty one percentages of the respondents are currently living in Kathmandu valley, fourteen percentages are outside the valley in Nepal and five percentages are currently outside Nepal. The origin of the graduates is almost equally from both Kathmandu valley and outside the valley. The graduates are from various engineering backgrounds such as mainly from civil engineering followed by electrical and electronics engineering, architecture engineering, computer engineering and mechanical engineering. The survey shows that seventy seven percentages are not satisfied with their salary as the income range is not sufficient. This underemployment has led to economic, social and psychological problems. The survey reveals that political instability in the country is the main cause for current unemployment or underemployment followed by lack of opportunities and corruption. The respondents expressed that with political stability in the country organizational development can be enhanced which plays significant role in the employment process. Better education with proper educational policies also leads to skilled graduates that can meet the demand of the global market. According to the survey government is mainly responsible for the unemployment problem in the country and government should play an important role in formulating better economic policies, political stability with secured opportunities for investors and organizational development through international links for better employment opportunities establishing new job areas. Key words : Urban Unemployment; Engineering Graduates DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jie.v8i1-2.5126 Journal of the Institute of Engineering Vol. 8, No. 1&2, 2010/2011 Page: 301-310 Uploaded Date : 20 July, 2011
State of Environment in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: A Special Review  [PDF]
Ashutosh Mohanty
Journal of the Institute of Engineering , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/jie.v8i1-2.5103
Abstract: The purpose of the "State of Environment: Kathmandu Valley, Kathmandu Nepal: A Special Review", is to examine the current status of the environment of the Kathmandu Valley and the suburban areas of Kathmandu, Lalitpur, and Bhaktapur districts. The Articles analyses the emerging environmental problems and promotes specific recommendations for future action. The analysis also examines various problem and pressures due to population pressure and environmental changes happening with an alarming speed. This analysis presents an alarming picture of a rapidly deteriorating environment. The paper summarizes the policy gaps, analyses and identifies a number of measures for amelioration of existing problems and prevention of future environmental deterioration in the Kathmandu Valley. Key words: Environment; Kathmandu Valley; Suburban area DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jie.v8i1-2.5103 Journal of the Institute of Engineering Vol. 8, No. 1&2, 2010/2011 Page: 126-137 Uploaded Date: 20 July, 2011
Environmental status of Manahara River, Kathmandu, Nepal  [PDF]
Ramita Bajracharya,Naresh Kazi Tamrakar
Bulletin of the Department of Geology , 2007, DOI: 10.3126/bdg.v10i0.1417
Abstract: Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable{mso-style-name:"Table Normal";mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0;mso-tstyle-colband-size:0;mso-style-noshow:yes;mso-style-parent:"";mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;mso-para-margin:0cm;mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;mso-pagination:widow-orphan;font-size:10.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-ansi-language:#0400;mso-fareast-language:#0400;mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The Manahara River located in northeast part of the Kathmandu Valley has been disturbed for last one decade by several anthropogenic activities and natural causes thereby deteriorating its recreational functions and stream habitat. To obtain an existing environmental condition and disturbances of the river, the river was surveyed for its habitat, pollution level and surface water quality. Among the five representative segments of the river, the downstream segment (Sano Thimi) was scored into intermediate category showing more pollution and environmental deterioration compared to the upstream segments. Turbidity, electrical conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand and ammonia increase, whereas dissolved oxygen decreases from upstream to downstream with exponential functions. Aquatic lives like Garra sp. (Buduna), Schizothorax sp. (Asala), Channa sp. (Hiele) and Heteropneustes sp. (Singe) were observed except in downstream of the Jadibuti Bridge situated downstream from Sano Thimi stretch. Fish species were rare from the Jadibuti area most probably due to reduced dissoved oxygen (5 mg/l). Coliform bacteria ranged from 3000 to 4000 in the Manahara River showing high amount of bacterial contamination. Major disturbances, which affect river habitat and surface water quality of the Manahara River were destruction of riparian buffer zones, excavation excessive amount of sand from the river, encroachment of floodplains and bars, solid waste and sewer effluent, and tendency of landuse change. To retard environmental degradation of the Manahara River from the human-induced activities, local government needs to take immediate action. ? doi: 10.3126/bdg.v10i0.1417 Bulletin of the Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, Vol. 10, 2007, pp. 21-32
Prevalence of gastrointestinal zoonotic helminths in dogs of Kathmandu, Nepal  [PDF]
RC Satyal,S Manandhar,S Dhakal,BR Mahato,S Chaulagain,L Ghimire,YR Pandeya
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/ijim.v2i3.8211
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Considering the close association of dog and human beings and increasing trend of pet rearing, it is important to know the status of zoonotic helminths of pet and stray dogs and awareness of owners about this in Kathmandu, Nepal. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal zoonotic helminth parasites in dogs and to assess the awareness about canine helminth zoonoses in pet owners. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from September- 2012 to December- 2013. A total of 210 fecal samples (105 each from pet and stray dogs) were collected perrectally and examined by using Formalin-Ether Concentration method. Questionnaire survey was carried out among dog owners. RESULTS: The prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was 46.7% (98/210). Out of 98 positive samples five different parasite species observed were Ancylostoma spp. 52.0% (51/98), Toxocara canis 41.8% (41/98), Taenia/Echinococcus spp. 15/98 (15.3%), Dipylidium caninum, 9.2% (9/98), and Trichuris vulpis, 5.1% (5/98). Prevalence was higher in stray dogs (56.2% vs. 37.1%) (p<0.05); in females (51.6% vs. 39.8%) (p>0.05); in younger dogs up to 2 years of age (56.3% vs. 35.7%) (p<0.05); in non-dewormed dogs (72.7% vs. 33.0%) (p<0.05) and in dogs sharing rooms with owner (46.1% vs. 13.8%) (p<0.05). Only 11.4% of the owners surveyed were aware about canine helminth zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS: Due to potential risk of zoonotic helminths to human beings and low level of zoonoses awareness in pet owners, there is need of generating awareness to pet owners regarding periodic anthelminthic treatment of pet dogs and other prevention and control measures. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijim.v2i3.8211 Int J Infect Microbiol 2013;2(3):91-94
History of Problem Based Learning in Nepal and Experiences at Kathmandu Medical College  [PDF]
B Pradhan,E Ranjit,MR Ghimire,Y Dixit
Journal of Kathmandu Medical College , 2012, DOI: 10.3126/jkmc.v1i1.7255
Abstract: Problem Based Learning has been practised in Nepal for 30 years with some additional inputs every ten years as another medical institution of Nepal adopted it. The institution to introduce it in Nepal was the Institute of Medicine but its practise there is more as familiarisation about a method of learning medicine and making a diagnosis. As from 2012 the utilisation of Problem Based Learning in the MBBS medical education field is expected to increase as the two deemed and two full universities in Nepal are using this method to varying degrees. There are firm advocates for utilising PBL in the medical colleges of Nepal. There are many who would like to stick to the traditional methods saying that PBL is not in extensive use. The fact is that the traditional form of medical education and the PBL method have their positive and negative points and is the source of much debate. We in Nepal have not gone the full stretch with PBL. What we are practising here is mostly the hybrid form. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jkmc.v1i1.7255 Journal of Kathmandu Medical College, Vol. 1, No. 1, Issue 1, Jul.-Sep., 2012 pp.37-44
Estimating Vehicular Emission in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal  [PDF]
Krishna Prasad Ghimire,Shreejan Ram Shrestha
International Journal of Environment , 2014, DOI: 10.3126/ije.v3i4.11742
Abstract: The study estimate, the vehicular emission load for CO, CO2 , HCs, NOX, SO2, Dioxin/Furans, Particulate Matters (PM10, PM2.5, Black carbon and Organic Carbon) by using emission factors and Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) of the pollutants (CO2, NOX, BC and OC). For this purpose, data were collected through the video tape record (in 30 sites), questionnaire survey, field visit, and literatures review. The total estimated emission of Kathmandu Valley (KV) was 7231053.12 ton/year. Of the total emission, CO2 emission was highest i.e., 91.01% followed by CO 5.03%, HC 0.96%, NOX 0.60%, PM10 0.18% and SO2 0.10%. Annually 529353.36 μg Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) of Dioxin/Furan produced and directly disperse to the ambient environment. The total estimated PM2.5, BC and OC emission were 9649.40 ton/year, 1640.4 ton/year and 2894.82 ton/year. The total carbon equivalence of the combined emissions (CO2, NOX and BC) for 100-years standard time horizon is 10579763.6 ton CO2-eq i.e., 2885390.07 ton carbon.CO2 alone will be responsible, for about 62% of the impacts for the next century from current emissions of CO2, NOX and BC. Of the total emission Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDV) emits 50%, Light Duty Vehicles (LDV) emits, 27%, 2-Wheelers emits 22% and 3-Wheeler (Tempo) emits 1%. The total emission of all pollutants combined per vehicle together was estimated to be 5.46 ton/year which was estimated as 23.63, 10.35, 1.83 and 5.58 ton/year for HDV, LDV, 2-Wheelers and 3-Wheeler respectively.
Beetle on the battle: Defoliation of Parthenium hysterophorus by Zygogramma bicolorata in Kathmandu valley, Nepal  [PDF]
Bharat Babu Shrestha,Khum Bahadur Thapa-Magar,Ambika Paudel,Uttam Babu Shrestha
Botanica Orientalis: Journal of Plant Science , 2011, DOI: 10.3126/botor.v8i0.5559
Abstract: Zygogramma bicolorata , a Mexican beetle, is the most widely distributed biocontrol agent of the invasive weed Parthenium hysterophorus . The occurrence and distribution of this beetle in Nepal has been poorly documented. We monitored and mapped the occurrence of this beetle in Kathmandu valley for two years from August 2009 to September 2011. A small population of the beetle was first encountered in a wasteland at Sundarighat of Kirtipur Municipality in August 2010. By September 2011, the beetle has spread over half of the valley areas where P. hysterophorus was present, but damage to the weed was appreciable only at Sundarighat. The effectiveness of biocontrolling process is likely to be limited by shorter period of defoliating activity of the beetle, prolific seed production by Parthenium round the year, and environmental pollution. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/botor.v8i0.5559 Botanica Orientalis – Journal of Plant Science (2011) 8: 100-104
Premarital Sex Behaviors Among College Youths of Kathmandu, Nepal  [PDF]
GB BC,PL Basel
Kathmandu University Medical Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/kumj.v11i1.11019
Abstract: Backgroud Unhealthy premarital sex behavior leads to several health problems namely; sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), Human Immune Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), unwanted pregnancies, abortions and maternal deaths. Unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions are rampant in Nepal despite introduction of legal provision for safe abortion since 2003. Lately, unsafe sex and sex without condoms and drinking before sex is increasing in trend in youth population. The primary aim of this study was to explore the factors associated with premarital sex behaviors. Objectives The main objective of the study was to identify the premarital sex behaviors and related factors among college youths in Kathmandu, Nepal. Methods Descriptive and explorative study of size 230 college youths aged between 18- 24 years. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire from February 26 to March 15, 2012. The reliability of the questionnaire was ensured by using Cronbach’s alpha. Results Late youths of age 20-24 were more likely to experience premarital sex than early youths of age 18-19 years old. Urban youths were less involved in premarital sex behavior than rural youth. Youths having negative attitudes towards premarital sex were more likely to experience premarital sex than a positive attitude. Youths who had good relationship with their parents had less premarital sex experience than youths having poor relationship with their parents. Conclusion One fifth of college youth had premarital sex experience where alcohol drinker had higher premarital sex experience than non-drinker. Youths having good peer norms were significantly less likely to experience premarital sex behaviors than youths having poor peer norms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/kumj.v11i1.11019 Kathmandu University Medical Journal Vol.11(1) 2013: 27-31
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