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Rethinking e. P. Thompson′s the Poverty of Theory  [cached]
Ricardo Gaspar Muller
Diálogos , 2010, DOI: 10.4025/dialogos.v11i1 e 2.72
Abstract: The article rethinks and scrutinizes some of the most important arguments of E. P. Thompson’s The Poverty of Theory, perhaps his most seminal contribution to Marxist theory. In his essay Thompson states his usual defense of reason, the centrality of history and human agency, and argues against structuralism and structural analyses. Thompson claims that they are a political and theoretical assault against Marxism – ironically from the Left itself –, especially because of their conception of an epistemologically null and inert realism, and their negation of intelligibility of history, class and ideology as historical categories. El artículo busca rever y analizar los principales argumentos de E. P. Thompson en su ensayo The Poverty of Theory, una de las principales contribuciones a la teoría marxista. En este ensayo, Thompson retoma su habitual defensa de la razón, de la centralidad de la historia y de la acción humana, a la vez que denuncia a los análisis estructuralistas como una agresión política y teórica al marxismo (que, irónicamente, surgieron del propio campo de la izquierda), sobretodo por su concepción de un real epistemológicamente inerte y su negación de la inteligibilidad de la historia y de los conceptos de clase e ideología como categorías históricas. O artigo objetiva rever e analisar os principais argumentos de E. P. Thompson em seu ensaio The Poverty of Theory, uma de suas mais importantes contribui es para a teoria marxiana. No ensaio, Thompson retoma sua habitual defesa da raz o, da centralidade da história e do agir humano e denuncia as análises estruturalistas como uma agress o política e teórica ao marxismo – ironicamente advinda do próprio campo da esquerda –, sobretudo por sua concep o de um real epistemologicamente inerte e sua nega o da inteligibilidade da história e dos conceitos de classe e de ideologia como categorias históricas.
Rethinking poverty, power and privilege: A feminist post-structuralist research exploration  [cached]
Thérèse Hulme
HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies , 2012,
Abstract: In this article, I described how the use of feminist methodology and post-structuralist analyses of the experiences of women in a poor ‘Coloured’ community in my research led to new understandings of the experiences of poverty and privilege. I discovered the relevance of Foucault’s historical analysis of the operation of ‘pastoral power’ through the narratives of women from the Scottsville community. Historical and current accounts of so-called ‘Coloured’ women’s subjugation and categorisation are reminders of how it came about that ‘being Coloured’ became associated in South Africa with shame and with ‘knowing one’s place’. Feminist post-structuralist analyses made visible the conditions that created practices of injustice in poor women’s lives whilst, at the same time, creating conditions of privilege for me. Justice-making in Scottsville therefore started with a radical rethinking of the terms by which people’s marginalisation took place and, consequently also of the terms of ‘just’ cross-cultural engagements.
A multilevel analysis on the relationship between neighbourhood poverty and public hospital utilization: is the high Indigenous morbidity avoidable?
Yuejen Zhao, Jiqiong You, Steven L Guthridge, Andy H Lee
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-737
Abstract: We utilised a cross-sectional and ecological design using the Northern Territory public hospitalisation data from 1 July 2004 to 30 June 2008 and socio-economic indexes for areas (SEIFA) from the 2006 census. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and confidence intervals. Both total and potentially avoidable hospitalisations were investigated.This study indicated that lifting SEIFA scores for family income and education/occupation by two quintile categories for low socio-economic Indigenous groups was sufficient to overcome the excess hospital utilisation among the Indigenous population compared with the non-Indigenous population. The results support a reframing of the Indigenous health gap as being a consequence of poverty and not simplistically of ethnicity.Socio-economic disadvantage is a likely explanation for a substantial proportion of the hospital morbidity gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. Efforts to improve Indigenous health outcomes should recognise poverty as an underlying determinant of the health gap.Poverty is an unacceptable human condition characterised by sustained deprivation of resources, capabilities, choices, security and power, which denies people an adequate standard of living and other human rights [1,2]. Poverty is multi-faceted, encompassing not only income and consumption, but also economic well-being and social inclusion. Socio-economic status (SES) links poverty with social, economic, occupational and educational aspects of the equation [1]. Globally one in four people live in absolute poverty and one in three people live in relative poverty [3]. In relation to health, the empirical evidence is overwhelming that the poor tend to die earlier and have higher levels of morbidity than the better-off [4]. Low SES affects health adversely throughout the life course and between generations [5,6]. Low SES is often compounded by ill-health conditions, for example, infectious diseases, perinat
Rethinking Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: An Advocacy for the Buttom-Top Paradigm  [cached]
Achimugu Hassan,Abubakar Y. Idu,Agboni Joy Uyo,Orokpo John Ogbole
Canadian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/j.css.1923669720120806.2741
Abstract: Giving Nigeria’s huge natural resource base for which it earned over US $ 300 billion (From crude oil alone) in the last three decades, as well as the promising options available in agriculture and solid minerals, Nigeria indeed should have no business with being poor. Moreso, its 148 million people (47% of the West-African Sub-Region’ Population) are known to be very hardworking, innovative and resilient. All major economic and social indicators however paint Nigeria in the picture of one of the world’s greatest paradoxes – unimaginable poverty amidst so much. Nigeria is today embarrassingly considered the 25 poorest nations on earth with 70% of its population (As against 15% in 1960), classified as poor and 54.4% vegetating below the bread line of a dollar per day. Life expectancy is barely 50 years (Below those of Egypt, Ghana, Kenya and South-Africa). The government (Federal, State and Local) in the last three decades has reeled out a plethora of policies and programmes aimed at consigning poverty (at least in its alarming dimensions) to history. Though systematic and comprehensive impact evaluation of these efforts is not available, the worsened poverty incidence, depth and severity are evidence that the policies failed. Using secondary data from dependable sources, this paper employs a desk analysis to show that a great deal of poverty policies and programmes in Nigeria tend to undermine the critical input of its primary beneficiaries or targets at the policy formulation and implementation stages, and so they continue to fail. The consequent failure of these efforts to successfully combat poverty, have tended to deepen its manifestations, overwhelm the best of structures, confound policy formulators and frustrate policy implementers. Hence, the unrivalled need for a dispassionate rethink of the traditional but “lame” Top-Down approach. The paper therefore recommends that the primary beneficiaries of poverty reduction initiatives should not just be involved in the bid to tackle their poverty challenge, but should actively participate at all stages of the policy cycle, with the government and professionals playing a catalyzing role. Similarly, since women and children bear a significant portion of Nigeria’s poverty burden, poverty policies and programmes should not just be inclusive it should be significantly gender sensitive and particularly pro-women. The paper also recommends that poverty reduction should be institutionalized, thereby removing it from the list of the “charities” of government. It should be enshrined in very carefully thought out
Paniya Voices: A Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment among a marginalized South Indian tribal population
KS Mohindra, D Narayana, CK Harikrishnadas, SS Anushreedha, Slim Haddad
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-149
Abstract: We implemented a Participatory Poverty and Health Assessment (PPHA). We adopted guiding principles and an ethical code that promote respect for Paniya culture and values. The PPHA, informed by a vulnerability framework, addressed five key themes (health and illness, well-being, institutions, education, gender) using participatory approaches and qualitative methods. We implemented the PPHA in five Paniya colonies (clusters of houses in a small geographical area) in a gram panchayat (lowest level decentralized territorial unit) to generate data that can be quickly disseminated to decision-makers through interactive workshops and public forums.Findings indicated that the Paniyas are caught in multiple 'vulnerability traps', that is, they view their situation as vicious cycles from which it is difficult to break free.The PPHA is a potentially useful approach for global health researchers working with marginalized communities to implement research initiatives that will address those communities' health needs in an ethical and culturally appropriate manner.A key public health challenge is to determine the health needs of indigenous populations using approaches that appropriately reflect their conditions and concerns while respecting their culture and identity. Indigenous researchers have challenged approaches that are rooted in scientific objectivity, calling for the use of indigenous theoretical frameworks, perspectives, and 'ways of knowing' [1,2]. Furthermore, they argue that research initiatives should focus on indigenous research priorities that promote self-determination, mobilization and transformation. Previous health research with indigenous populations has been criticized for lacking cultural sensitivity, inadequately addressing indigenous views of health and illness, using unethical practices, not sufficiently engaging the participation of indigenous communities, and having limited impact on policy and action, among others [3-6]. While researchers in wealthier
Sunanada Das
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Jalpaiguri is one of the most backward districts of west Bengal where poverty is a barrier to development. Generally poverty is measured by BPL Indices in rural areas. Below poverty line is an economic bench mark and poverty threshold used by the government of India to indicate economic disadvantage and to identify individuals and households in need of government assistance and aid. Poverty refers to the condition of not having the means to afford basic human need such as clean water, nutrition care, clothing and shelter. This paper is attempted to study the poverty status with some remedial measures.
Poverty Relief or Poverty Eradication?
D Kritzinger
Acta Theologica , 2012,
Abstract: The author challenges the reader to make two mindshifts: from a focus on poverty relief to an emphasis on poverty eradication; and from viewing the poor as the objects of poverty alleviation to accepting them as the subjects of poverty eradication. The case is argued and a practical approach towards poverty eradication is proposed.
Resource Transaction and the Disadvantage of Vulnerable Youth  [PDF]
Weidong Wu
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2018.71008
Abstract: Under the background of social transition and globalization, vulnerable youth in China is quite disadvantaged in the public activities. Based on the ecological system perspective, this paper examines the situation of vulnerable youth in Tianjin, one of the five municipalities directly under the Central Government in China, by the qualitative-quantitative mixed method. Findings show that the disadvantage of vulnerable youth is caused by the shortage of economy resource, culture resource and information resource, which the groups can not obtain sufficiently from family system, school system, work system and community system by successful transaction. Some suggestions for social policies and further research are set forth accordingly.
Continuing mobility and poverty reduction in the resettlement Programs: rethinking of ecological resettlement in Nixia Hui Autonomous Region

- , 2017,
Abstract: 异地搬迁和生态移民都是为了缓解生态脆弱地区的人口压力,实现环境保护和减贫的双重目标而进行的大规模人口异地安置。与政策安置移民相伴生的是移民的流动,包括政策安置移民的二次流动和非政策移民的自发流动。宁夏的经验表明,移民为农村人口流动提供了机会,促进了人口流动。现有的移民社会治理机制主要服务于异地安置,很难应对移民社会的高度流动性,这在实施精准扶贫中表现尤其明显。移民是一个持续的移动过程,需要改变以户籍和居住地为载体的管理方式。
Both relocation programs for poverty reduction and conservation were aiming to reducing the population in the ecologically vulnerable area by resettling people. As the result of government-initiative relocation, there were large amount voluntary immigrants without government plan. The history of migration in Ningxia showed that, the relocation programs promoted provided the opportunities of migration and promoted the population mobility. The social governance in resettlement area which established on the relocation could not deal with the high population mobility, especially in the area of precise poverty reduction. It is needed to establish new social governance to satisfy the high mobility.
Poverty, Disease, and the Ecology of Complex Systems  [PDF]
Calistus N. Ngonghala equal contributor ,Mateusz M. Pluciński,Megan B. Murray,Paul E. Farmer,Christopher B. Barrett,Donald C. Keenan,Matthew H. Bonds equal contributor
PLOS Biology , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001827
Abstract: Understanding why some human populations remain persistently poor remains a significant challenge for both the social and natural sciences. The extremely poor are generally reliant on their immediate natural resource base for subsistence and suffer high rates of mortality due to parasitic and infectious diseases. Economists have developed a range of models to explain persistent poverty, often characterized as poverty traps, but these rarely account for complex biophysical processes. In this Essay, we argue that by coupling insights from ecology and economics, we can begin to model and understand the complex dynamics that underlie the generation and maintenance of poverty traps, which can then be used to inform analyses and possible intervention policies. To illustrate the utility of this approach, we present a simple coupled model of infectious diseases and economic growth, where poverty traps emerge from nonlinear relationships determined by the number of pathogens in the system. These nonlinearities are comparable to those often incorporated into poverty trap models in the economics literature, but, importantly, here the mechanism is anchored in core ecological principles. Coupled models of this sort could be usefully developed in many economically important biophysical systems—such as agriculture, fisheries, nutrition, and land use change—to serve as foundations for deeper explorations of how fundamental ecological processes influence structural poverty and economic development.
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