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Medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives: a comparative study in Australia and Malaysia
Noordin Othman, Agnes I Vitry, Elizabeth E Roughead, Shaiful B Ismail, Khairani Omar
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-743
Abstract: Following a pharmaceutical representative's visit, general practitioners in Australia and Malaysia who had agreed to participate, were asked to fill out a questionnaire on the main product and claims discussed during the encounter. The questionnaire focused on provision of product information including indications, adverse effects, precautions, contraindications and the provision of information on the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS) listings and restrictions (in Australia only). Descriptive statistics were produced. Chi-square analysis and clustered linear regression were used to assess differences in Australia and Malaysia.Significantly more approved product information sheets were provided in Malaysia (78%) than in Australia (53%) (P < 0.001). In both countries, general practitioners reported that indications (Australia, 90%, Malaysia, 93%) and dosages (Australia, 76%, Malaysia, 82%) were frequently provided by pharmaceutical representatives. Contraindications, precautions, drug interactions and adverse effects were often omitted in the presentations (range 25% - 41%). General practitioners in Australia and Malaysia indicated that in more than 90% of presentations, pharmaceutical representatives partly or fully answered their questions on contraindications, precautions, drug interactions and adverse effects. More general practitioners in Malaysia (85%) than in Australia (60%) reported that pharmaceutical representatives should have mentioned contraindications, precautions for use, drug interaction or adverse effects spontaneously (P < 0.001). In 48% of the Australian presentations, general practitioners reported the pharmaceutical representatives failed to mention information on PBS listings to general practitioners.Information on indications and dosages were usually provided by pharmaceutical representatives in Australia and Malaysia. However, risk and harmful effects of medicines were often missing in their presentations. Effective control of medicines infor
STRATEGIES FOR THE MARKETING OF HIGHER EDUCATION WITH COMPARATIVE CONTEXTUAL REFERENCES BETWEEN AUSTRALIA AND TURKEY  [PDF]
Ugur DEMIRAY,Judy NAGY,R. Ayhan YILMAZ
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2007,
Abstract: Dr. Ugur DEMIRAYAnadolu University andEditor-in-Chief of TOJDEEskisehir, TURKEYEducation is now a global product with institutions worldwide competing for students and finding ever more creative ways to satisfy student needs and preferences. With the continuing rise in the preference for flexible distance learning, educational institutions are finding that when students and faculty have significantly different cultural backgrounds and learning styles that the expectations of the learning experience can be unfulfilled. In Australia, international students have made education Australia’s third largest service export, earning $5.8 billion. This means that student populations have moved from being homogenous and captive to domestic constraints and expectations, to being multi-cultural, dispersed and subject to a plethora of constraints and expectations. Today in Turkey, education is the responsibility of government however, in recent years, the private sector has entered the market providing educational services at all levels. In particular, after the 1990s, private higher education institutions (HEIs) with a commercial focus have mushroomed. In 2007, there are 25 private universities in Turkey with more than 2.000.000 students enrolled in these universities. Of these students, more than 1.000.000 are registered in distance education faculties. With such large student numbers competition between private universities for students has intensified particularly over the last 15 years. As a consequence the need to develop strategies for attracting students has become more important. Marketing strategies in Turkey have tended to concentrate on three distinct categories: strategies between governmental HEIs, private HEIs and distance education HEIs. The contribution of technologies to education processes has been immense with students and faculty each learning to adapt to an environment of continuous change and opportunities. This paper seeks to explore the notion that a competitive advantage in marketing of higher education can be attained by customizing learning experiences for particular student cohorts in a pro-active and constructive way.
Quality of pharmaceutical advertising and gender bias in medical journals (1998-2008): a review of the scientific literature
Cambronero Saiz,Belén; Ruiz Cantero,María Teresa; Papí Gálvez,Natalia;
Gaceta Sanitaria , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.gaceta.2011.11.002
Abstract: objective: to review the scientific literature on pharmaceutical advertising aimed at health professionals in order to determine whether gender bias has decreased and the quality of information in pharmaceutical advertising has improved over time. methods: we performed a content analysis of original articles dealing with medical drug promotion (1998-2008), according to quality criteria such as (a) the number, validity and accessibility of bibliographic references provided in pharmaceutical advertising and (b) the extent to which gender representations were consistent with the prevalence of the diseases. databases: pubmed, medline, scopus, sociological abstract, eric and lilacs. results: we reviewed 31 articles that analyzed advertising in medical journals from 1975-2005 and were published between 1998 and 2008. we found that the number of references used to support pharmaceutical advertising claims increased from 1975 but that 50% of these references were not valid. there was a tendency to depict men in paid productive roles, while women appeared inside the home or in non-occupational social contexts. advertisements for psychotropic and cardiovascular drugs overrepresented women and men respectively. conclusions: the use of bibliographic references increased between 1998 and 2008. however, representation of traditional male-female roles was similar in 1975 and 2005. pharmaceutical advertisements may contribute to reinforcing the perception that certain diseases are associated with the most frequently portrayed sex.
An Overview of the Cross-Cultural Business Negotiation between Malaysia and Australia  [cached]
Jumiati Ismail,Michael Azariadis,Kamaruzaman Jusoff
Canadian Social Science , 2009,
Abstract: This paper aims to explore communication deviances and strategies in the negotiation discourse of Malaysian-Australian business encounters, from both a linguistic and non-linguistic perspective. Specifically, it sees miscommunications/deviances as factors that may hinder the business communication process and prevent the negotiators from achieving their objectives. The study also focuses on strategies, or those discourse skills which promote successful business Malaysia-Australia negotiation. Key words:Cross-cultural; intercultural; intercultural competence; deviations; strategies; miscommunication; negotiation Résumé: Cet article vise à examiner les déviances et les stratégies de communication dans le discours de la négociation entre la Malaisie et l’Australie lors des rencontres d’affaires, d’un point de vue linguisitique et non linguistique. Plus précisément, les malentendus/déviances pourraient devenir des facteurs qui entravent le processus de communication et empêchent les négociateurs de parvenir à leurs objectifs. L’étude met également accent sur les stratégies, ou les compétences de négociation qui favorisent la réussite de négociation d’affaires entre la Malaisie et l’Australie. Mots-Clés: transculturel; intercultural; compétence interculturelle; deviations; strategies; malentendu; la négociation
Non-surgical spinal decompression therapy: does the scientific literature support efficacy claims made in the advertising media?
Dwain M Daniel
Chiropractic & Manual Therapies , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1746-1340-15-7
Abstract: Only one small randomized controlled trial and several lower level efficacy studies have been performed on spinal decompression therapy. In general the quality of these studies is questionable. Many of the studies were performed using the VAX-D? unit which places the patient in a prone position. Often companies utilize this research for their marketing although their units place the patient in the supine position.Only limited evidence is available to warrant the routine use of non-surgical spinal decompression, particularly when many other well investigated, less expensive alternatives are available.Traction as a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of low back pain has existed for many years. Its use has progressed from simple static traction to intermittent motorized traction. A recent systematic review found only seven randomized controlled trials for intermittent motorized traction and six reported no difference in outcomes between the traction groups and the control groups [1]. The most recent incarnation of traction has been a form of intermittent motorized traction commonly referred to as spinal decompression therapy. Developers and manufacturers of the equipment along with clinicians often consider it to be a unique form of traction.A perusal of any trade publication aimed at manual therapy professions will demonstrate intense marketing programs extolling the virtues of this new technology. An 86% success rate is claimed by many manufacturers and passed on to the consumer through individual practitioner's advertising. A recent limited online poll published in a chiropractic trade magazine stated that 38% of doctors of chiropractic are using the technology in their offices [2]. According to the Job Analysis of Chiropractic the presence of traction in the chiropractor's office has risen from 73.2% in 1991 to 80.6% in 2003 [3], which represents as many as 5,000 new traction units among chiropractors. With units priced from $9,000 to well over $100,000 each
A review of online trust branding strategies of financial services industries in Malaysia and Australia  [PDF]
Teck Ming Tan,Devinaga Rasiah
Advances in Management and Applied Economics , 2011,
Abstract: This study spotlighted on the financial services industry specifically in the creation of brand trust across online channel, which constructs a significant contribution to the under-researched area of online branding. Content analysis was performed on the web sites of top ten bank retailers in Malaysia and Australia. An analysis of the extent to which the retailers were using their web sites to provide online financial services and brand information provided a context for a more detailed analysis of online trust branding strategies, including communicating brand trust and value, and building brand experience relationships via online financial services. Bank retailers in Australia provided guarantee statements and variety of financial services across online channel, offering comprehensive online strategy for brand trust and brand experience. There was indication of some innovative practice, but also scope for substantial further improvement of the concept of online trust branding. Conversely the bank retailers in Malaysia only provided basic online financial services and no guarantee of refund for any financial fraud cases. Their use of the online channel to communicate brand trust, brand value, and to endorse brand relationships was underdeveloped.
Dissecting Behaviours Associated with Business Failure: A Qualitative Study of SME Owners in Malaysia and Australia  [cached]
Noor Hazlina Ahmad,Pi-shen Seet
Asian Social Science , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v5n9p98
Abstract: This paper presents the findings of the first phase of a larger research project on inter-country differences of business failure in entrepreneurial firms. This initial phase involves an exploratory comparative study into the perceptions of 20 Small and Medium Size Enterprise (SME) founder-owners in Australia and Malaysia on what they felt were ineffective behaviours and competencies that were strongly associated with their experiences of difficulties or failures in their own ventures. Drawing on real life lessons from the founder-owners on their actions or inactions, the research contributes to the understanding of behavioural differences in the context of business failure between founder-owners in two relatively different cultural settings.
Trends of Urban Climatology Changes in Ipoh City, Malaysia with Special References on the Temperature of Urban Areas
Mohd. Hairy Ibrahim,Jamaluddin Md. Jahi,Abd. Samad Hadi
The Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/sscience.2012.535.538
Abstract: Temperature changes in many urban areas in Malaysia due urban physical lanscape changes is known as a major contribution to the changes of quality urban life in many urban areas in Malaysia. Ipoh city is the third largest city of Malaysia where population, industrial and traffic density are relatively high increased. Therefore, it is expected that the temperature will significant increased very high. This study were analyzing the time series data of mean maximum temperature, mean minimum temperature and mean annual temperature from 1970-2000 (31 years). All raw data is collected from Malaysian Meteorology Department (MMD), Malaysia. Data is analyzed in two parts by running Linear Regression and taking anomalies of all times periods; whole period from 1970-2000, phase one 1970-1980 (11 years), 1981-1990 (10 years) and 1991-2000. Linear Regression analyzing of data used to find out the trends of temperature change of Ipoh city, Perak. It is expected that during 1970-2000 temperature will increased significantly due the changes in urban physical landscape to urban areas. Results, temperature having increased significantly for the whole period from 1970-2000.
The Determinants of Consumers’ Attitude Towards Advertising
Kwek Choon Ling,Tan Hoi Piew,Lau Teck Chai
Canadian Social Science , 2010,
Abstract: The advertising industry is a lucrative business in Malaysia. However, government intervention in the industry has to certain extent regulated the content of the advertisement messages. This in turn has impacted the formation of consumers’ attitude towards advertising. As such, it is crucial to identify the determinants of their attitude. The aim of this research is to investigate the determinants of consumers’ attitude towards advertising among tertiary students in a private higher education institution in Malaysia. A total of 263 undergraduate business students from a private university in Malaysia participated in this research. The outcome shows that credibility, informative, hedonic/ pleasure and good for economy positively relates to consumers’ attitude towards advertising. Keywords: attitude towards advertising; credibility; informative; hedonic/pleasure; good for economy.
THE ADVERTISING-VALUE-EQUIVALENT (AVE) METHOD IN QUANTIFYING ECONOMIC VALUES OF PUBLIC RELATIONS ACTIVITIES: EXPERIENCE OF A PUBLIC-LISTED COMPANY IN MALAYSIA  [PDF]
Chang Peng Kee,Musa Abu Hassan
Kajian Malaysia , 2006,
Abstract: Why should public relations (PR) not be evaluated for its economic value? Despite the point of its social or intangible values, the argument goes on and on in most management meetings where PR practitioners always face the challenges of justifying their worth – often in monetary terms. In an open dialogue with Grunig during his visit to Malaysia in 2004, this renowned PR guru also expressed the difficulty of quantifying the actual PR worth. It is best to qualify PR values by assessing its priceless relationships with the company’s stakeholders. However, in our routine business life, especially at the middle management level, the above question seems unavoidable. In enhancing excellence for PR and communication management, Ehling (1992) placed the logic underlying the economic values of PR on the relationship between benefits and costs associated with the implementation of a PR programme. The above question and problem serve as the main objective of this article. In exploring the solutions for the quantification of PR values in Malaysia, economic education is taken as a remedy for the absence of knowledge and skills in making intelligent decisions in the marketplace (Baskin et al., 1997; Lattimor et al., 2004). In this research context, the researchers (a combination of a practitioner and an academician respectively) confined the scope to the experience of a selected public-listed company for its PR campaign implemented in 2004. Quantification was attempted by evaluating the assessment in print media exposures. All earned media coverage for that particular PR campaign was measured for the media type, space, position, and the corresponding advertising rate. Monetary value was assigned to every single piece of PR news in the way disbursements are made to paid media for advertising activities. The explication of this advertising-value-equivalent (AVE) method in quantifying economic values for PR news with regard to the selected campaign was made possible with specially designed computer software. The report generated from the said software showed that the cumulative AVE was able to explain the return on expenditure (ROE) in order to carry out the said campaign. The propagation of the above AVE can be one of the many solutions to evaluate the economic worth of PR.
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