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Analysis of genomic sequences from peanut (Arachis hypogaea)
B,Jayashree; Ferguson,Morag; Ilut,Dan; Doyle,Jeff; Crouch,Jonathan H;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2005,
Abstract: peanut is an important legume crop across the world. however, in contrast to most legume crops, groundnut lacks taxonomic proximity to any major model genome. a relatively large number of genomic sequences were generated from groundnut as part of a microsatellite marker development project. in the current study, a total of 1312 sequences were analyzed of which 448 contained microsatellite motifs. all sequences (genbank accessions: bz999351-cc000573) were analyzed after clustering for possible similarity with publicly available sequences from arabidopsis, lotus, soybean and medicago. at least 39% of the sequences analyzed had significant blast similarities with sequences from the four databases searched, of which nearly half (47%) found significant similarity with lotus japonicus sequences. over one quarter (26.7%) of sequences found similarity with arabidopsis thaliana, while the remainder aligned with publicly available sequences from the legumes soybean and medicago truncatula. at least 17% of microsatellite containing sequences could be assigned an identity. the codon usage pattern for arachis hypogaea most closely resembles that of l. japonicus reflecting the similarly high sequence similarity observed in blast searches at the protein level. the implications of these findings for the taxonomy, and comparative genomics of groundnut and its legume family relatives are discussed
Characterization and transferability of microsatellite markers of the cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea)
Marcos A Gimenes, Andrea A Hoshino, Andrea VG Barbosa, Dario A Palmieri, Catalina R Lopes
BMC Plant Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-7-9
Abstract: Thirteen loci were isolated and characterized using 16 accessions of A. hypogaea. The level of variation found in A. hypogaea using microsatellites was higher than with other markers. Cross-transferability of the markers was also high. Sequencing of the fragments amplified using the primer pair Ah11 from 17 wild Arachis species showed that almost all wild species had similar repeated sequence to the one observed in A. hypogaea. Sequence data suggested that there is no correlation between taxonomic relationship of a wild species to A. hypogaea and the number of repeats found in its microsatellite loci.These results show that microsatellite primer pairs from A. hypogaea have multiple uses. A higher level of variation among A. hypogaea accessions can be detected using microsatellite markers in comparison to other markers, such as RFLP, RAPD and AFLP. The microsatellite primers of A. hypogaea showed a very high rate of transferability to other species of the genus. These primer pairs provide important tools to evaluate the genetic variability and to assess the mating system in Arachis species.The origin and the diversity center of the genus Arachis are in South America [1]. This genus comprises 69 species, most of which are diploid and wild. The cultivated species include A. hypogaea L., the cultivated peanut, A. glabrata and A. pintoi, which have been used in forage production [2,3]. This genus is divided into nine sections (Arachis, Erectoides, Heteranthae, Caulorrhizae, Rhizomatosae, Extranervosae, Triseminatae, Procumbentes and Trierectoides) according to their morphology, geographic distribution and sexual compatibility [1].The extensive morphological variation in A. hypogaea has led to the identification of subspecies, although studies using molecular markers have found little polymorphism in the germplasm of this species [4-6]. The observed restriction in genetic variation limits the use of several approaches, such as molecular marker-assisted selection and the c
Development of trinucleotide (GGC)n SSR markers in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
Yuan,Mei; Gong,Limin; Meng,Ronghua; Li,Shuangling; Dang,Phat; Guo,Baozhu; He,Guohao;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2010,
Abstract: cultivated peanut (arachis hypogaea l.) is an oilseed crop of economic importance. it is native to south america, and it is grown extensively in the semi-arid tropics of asia, africa, and latin america. given an extremely narrow genetic base, efforts are being made to develop simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers to provide useful genetic and genomic tools for the peanut research community. a ssr-enriched library to isolate trinucleotide (ggc)n ssrs in peanut was constructed. a total of 143 unique sequences containing (ggc)n repeats were identified. one hundred thirty eight primer pairs were successfully designed at the flanking regions of ssrs. a suitable polymerase was chosen to amplify these gc-rich sequences. although a low level of polymorphism was observed in cultivated peanut by these new developed ssrs, a high level of transferability to wild species would be beneficial to increasing the number of ssrs in wild species.
Diallel Anaysis of Oil Production Components in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)  [PDF]
Jeffrey N. Wilson,Michael R. Baring,Mark D. Burow,William L. Rooney,Charles E. Simpson
International Journal of Agronomy , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/975701
Abstract: Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) has the potential to become a major source of biodiesel, but for market viability, peanut oil yields must increase. Oil yield in peanut is influenced by many different components, including oil concentration, seed mass, and mean oil produced per seed. All of these traits can potentially be improved through selection as long as there is sufficient genetic variation. To assess the variation for these traits, a diallel mating design was used to estimate general combining ability, specific combining ability, and heritability. General combining ability estimates were significant for oil concentration, weight of 50 sound mature kernels (50?SMK), and mean milligrams oil produced per SMK (OPS). Specific combining ability was significant for oil concentration. Reciprocal effects were detected for OPS. Narrow-sense heritability estimates were very high for oil concentration and 50?SMK and low for OPS. The low OPS heritability estimate was caused by the negative correlation between oil concentration and seed size. Consequently, oil concentration and seed mass alone can be improved through early generation selection, but large segregating populations from high oil crosses will be needed to identify progeny with elevated oil concentrations that maintain acceptable seed sizes. 1. Introduction The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important annual oilseed crop planted as a food group throughout the world. In the USA, over one million acres of peanut were planted in 2012 [1]. Peanut has potential as a source of biofuel, but because it must compete for food use, increases in oil production on a per acre basis are essential if the crop is to be used as a source of oil for biofuel conversion. Previous studies conducted with peanut indicate that selectable genetic variation exists for oil content. Additive effects (general combining ability (GCA)) were more important than nonadditive effects (specific combining ability (SCA)) for determining oil content in studies measuring populations [2, 3] and an population [4]. The performance of parental lines was generally a good predictor of hybrid oil content [3, 4]. Cytoplasmic (maternal) effects were significant in the generation in a study by Isleib et al. [3] but were much less pronounced in a study using s [4]. Layrisse et al. [4] observed a significant positive correlation between oil content and yield based on GCA effects. Correlations between oil content and seed mass, pod weight, and pod length were not significant. Dwivedi et al. [5] determined that high oil content can be
Characteristic attributes of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) for its separation
El-Sayed A.S.,Yahaya R.,Wacker P.,Kutzbach H.D.
International Agrophysics , 2001,
Abstract: Physical and aerodynamic peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) properties have been investigated and defined. The geometric diameter, mass, and standard deviation values of three peanut varieties (American, Chinese, and Egyptian) had no significant differences. The terminal velocity for different varieties of pods ranged between 7.7 to 12.9 m s-1. Experimental measurements of shelled components of the Egyptian variety (Gisa-5) indicated that the terminal velocity value of 7.4 m s-1 was optimal for airflow velocity to separate shelled peanut components from the shells with only 1.8% loss of intactness and split seeds on a sieved surface of 6.3 and 8.0 mm. Also importantly, air velocity values of 10.2 and 9.8 m s-1 were found adequate to separate the intact seeds from the split seeds when they are sieved on surfaces with meshes of 8.0 and 6.3 mm, respectively.
TILLING for allergen reduction and improvement of quality traits in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
Joseph E Knoll, M Laura Ramos, Yajuan Zeng, C Corley Holbrook, Marjorie Chow, Sixue Chen, Soheila Maleki, Anjanabha Bhattacharya, Peggy Ozias-Akins
BMC Plant Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-11-81
Abstract: Two similar copies of a major allergen gene, Ara h 1, have been identified in tetraploid peanut, one in each subgenome. The same situation has been shown for major allergen Ara h 2. Due to the challenge of discriminating between homeologous genes in allotetraploid peanut, nested PCR was employed, in which both gene copies were amplified using unlabeled primers. This was followed by a second PCR using gene-specific labeled primers, heteroduplex formation, CEL1 nuclease digestion, and electrophoretic detection of labeled fragments. Using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as a mutagen, a mutation frequency of 1 SNP/967 kb (3,420 M2 individuals screened) was observed. The most significant mutations identified were a disrupted start codon in Ara h 2.02 and a premature stop codon in Ara h 1.02. Homozygous individuals were recovered in succeeding generations for each of these mutations, and elimination of Ara h 2.02 protein was confirmed. Several Ara h 1 protein isoforms were eliminated or reduced according to 2D gel analyses. TILLING also was used to identify mutations in fatty acid desaturase AhFAD2 (also present in two copies), a gene which controls the ratio of oleic to linoleic acid in the seed. A frameshift mutation was identified, resulting in truncation and inactivation of AhFAD2B protein. A mutation in AhFAD2A was predicted to restore function to the normally inactive enzyme.This work represents the first steps toward the goal of creating a peanut cultivar with reduced allergenicity. TILLING in peanut can be extended to virtually any gene, and could be used to modify other traits such as nutritional properties of the seed, as shown in this study.Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important source of oil and protein, and because of their nutritional benefits and versatility, peanuts and peanut-derived products are used extensively in processed foods. Unfortunately, reports of allergic reactions to peanuts are becoming increasingly common, and severe allergic reactions t
Cloning and expression analysis of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) CHI gene
Zhang,Yue; Xia,Han; Yuan,Mei; Zhao,Chuanzhi; Li,Aiqin; Wang,Xingjun;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2012,
Abstract: chalcone isomerase (chi) is the key enzyme that catalyzes chalcone into (2s)-flavanol or (2s)-5-desoxidation flavanol. the full length cdna (1050 bp) of ahchi (arachis hypogaea chi gene) was cloned by large scale est sequencing using a peanut immature seed cdna library. sequence analysis results indicated that it was a type i chi gene (with the accession number jn660794). the orf of ahchi was 768 bp, encoding a peptide of 255 amino acids with a pi of 5.189. sequence alignment showed that the coding region of ahchi gene is highly conserved to compare with chi genes from other plant species. peanut cdna microarray and semi-quantitative rt-pcr analysis indicated that ahchi was highly expressed in pegs. the expression level in flower and root was higher than the expression level in stem and leaf. ahchi was expressed in a high level in seeds with a purple seed coat, while its expression was low in seed with white seed coat.
Effect of Sulphur Application on Growth Indices and Yield of Peanut(Arachis hypogaea L.)  [cached]
A Esfahani,A Hoseyn zade,J Asghari,M Naghizadeh
Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources , 2009,
Abstract: In order to evaluate the effects of sulphur fertilizer sources and amounts on growth indices and yield of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. CV. NC2), a field experiment was conducted in Bandar Kiaashahr, Guilan province, Iran in 2004. The experiment was laid out in a factorial arrangement with two factors including sulphur sources (gypsum and single super phosphate) and sulphur rates (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg.h-1) in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Results showed that sulphur application greatly enhanced peanut growth and yield. The application of 90 kg.h-1 sulphur (in both forms) performed significantly better than the rest. The highest pod yield and grain yield were obtained in 90 kg.h-1 sulphur in gypsum form (6400 and 5200 kg.h-1, respectively). The highest LAI (6.6), CGR (20.2 g.m-2.12GDD-1) and PGR (16 g.m-2.12GDD-1) were obtained in 90 kg sulphur in the form of gypsum after 1142, 1142 and 1289 of accumulation, respectively. According to the results of the present experiment, it could be concluded that sulphur may considerably increase peanut grain yield and yield components. Thus, it could be expected that the application of 90 kg sulphur per hectare in the form of gypsum may result in better growth indices and higher grain yield of peanut.
Resveratrol production in hairy root culture of peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. transformed with different Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains
JS Kim, SY Lee, SU Park
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: Five different strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes differed in their ability to induce peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) hairy roots and also showed varying effects on the growth and resveratrol production in hairy root cultures. A. rhizogenes R1601 is the most effective strain for the induction (75.8%), growth (7.6 g/l) and resveratrol production (1.5 mg/g) in hairy root of peanut. Our results demonstrate that the use of suitable strains of A. rhizogenes may allow study of the regulation of resveratrol biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of A. hypogaea.
Identification of drought-responsive transcripts in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
Jain,Ashok K.; Basha,Sheikh Mehboob; Holbrook,C. Corley;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2001,
Abstract: we have used a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction procedure (differential display) to identify cdnas corresponding to transcripts affected by water stress in peanuts (arachis hypogaea l.). using this method, we have identified several mrna transcripts that are up- or down-regulated following water stress. with 21 primer combinations, a total of 1235 differential display products were observed in irrigated samples, compared to 950 differential display products in stressed samples. these products demonstrated qualitative and quantitative differences in the gene expression. the differentially expressed transcripts were collectively named ptrd (peanut transcripts responsive to drought). we have identified a total of 43 ptrd, which were significantly altered due to water stress. slot blot analysis of 16 ptrd indicated that 12 were completely suppressed due to prolonged drought, two were down-regulated, and two were up-regulated under drought stress conditions. the 12 completely suppressed transcripts were studied further by rna dot-blot analysis to compare their expression in drought tolerant and susceptible lines, which underwent three weeks of water stress. ptrd-1, -10, and -16 expressed for longer period in tolerant line compared to the susceptible line and can be used as molecular markers for screening peanut lines for drought tolerance
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