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Heritability and Repeatability Estimation in Iranian Brown Swiss Crossbred Dairy Cattle Population
A. Gorbani,R. Salamatdoust Nobar,U. Mehman Navaz,J. Gyasi
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this study was genetic parameter estimation in Iranian Brown Swiss crossbred dairy population. The performance of Brown Swiss crossbred cattle in Iran was considered across years 1991-2003. Variance component were estimated using animal model (single trait) and Derivative-free restricted Maximum Likelihood method for different traits. The estimation of the heritability for milk yield, fat yield, and fat percentage and milk days were 0.24, 0.163, 0.175 and 0.334, respectively for single models. Repeatability estimation for mentioned traits was 0.41, 0.31, 0.18 and 0.334. The result showed that the additive genetic variance share in milk yield and milk day’s traits and permanent environmental variance in milk and fat yield are high.
The Heritability of Glaucoma-Related Traits Corneal Hysteresis, Central Corneal Thickness, Intraocular Pressure, and Choroidal Blood Flow Pulsatility  [PDF]
Ellen E. Freeman, Marie-Hélène Roy-Gagnon, Denise Descovich, Hugues Massé, Mark R. Lesk
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055573
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this work was to investigate the heritability of potential glaucoma endophenotypes. We estimated for the first time the heritability of the pulsatility of choroidal blood flow. We also sought to confirm the heritability of corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, and 3 ways of measuring intraocular pressure. Methods Measurements were performed on 96 first-degree relatives recruited from Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal. Corneal hysteresis was determined using the Reichert Ocular Response Analyser. Central corneal thickness was measured with an ultrasound pachymeter. Three measures of intraocular pressure were obtained: Goldmann-correlated and corneal compensated intraocular pressure using the Ocular Response Analyser, and Pascal intraocular pressure using the Pascal Dynamic Contour Tonometer. The pulsatility of choroidal blood velocity and flow were measured in the sub-foveolar choroid using single-point laser Doppler flowmetry (Oculix). We estimated heritability using maximum-likelihood variance components methods implemented in the SOLAR software. Results No significant heritability was detected for the pulsatility of choroidal blood flow or velocity. The Goldman-correlated, corneal compensated, and Pascal measures of intraocular pressure measures were all significantly heritable at 0.94, 0.79, and 0.53 after age and sex adjustment (p = 0.0003, p = 0.0023, p = 0.0239). Central corneal thickness was significantly heritable at 0.68 (p = 0.0078). Corneal hysteresis was highly heritable but the estimate was at the upper boundary of 1.00 preventing us from giving a precise estimate. Conclusion Corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure are all heritable and may be suitable as glaucoma endophenotypes. The pulsatility of choroidal blood flow and blood velocity were not significantly heritable in this sample.
The relationship of hyperuricemia and blood pressure in the Thai army population  [cached]
Ouppatham S,Bancha S,Choovichian P
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Background: Previous studies have demonstrated a strong association of hypertension and renal disease with gout. Nevertheless, controversy remains concerning serum uric acid concentration as an independent factor of hypertension. Aim: To explore the relationship between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with serum uric acid levels. Settings and Design: An observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 5,564 subjects from the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences were included in the study. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA tests, Chi-square test, correlation coefficients, and multiple regression analysis were performed. Results: Of the total subjects, 4,099 (73.7%) were male. Mean SBP and DBP were 128.73±17.06 and 81.62 ± 11.58 mm Hg, respectively. The mean serum uric acid level was 6.54 ± 1.71 mg/dL. A significant and positive correlation was found both between serum uric acid and SBP (r=0.186, P < 0.001) and between serum uric acid and DBP (r=0.255, P < 0.001). After multiple regression analysis of various clinical variables, serum uric acid levels were correlated with the severity of both SBP and DBP, increased age, increased body mass index, decreased glomerular filtration rate, increased serum cholesterol, and male gender. Conclusions: In this study, we suggest that serum uric acid be used to correlate with levels of blood pressure in the general population. Further investigation is required to establish the treatment for hyperuricemia in hypertensive patients.
Heritability of cardiovascular risk factors in a Brazilian population: Baependi Heart Study
Camila M de Oliveira, Alexandre C Pereira, Mariza de Andrade, Júlia M Soler, José E Krieger
BMC Medical Genetics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-9-32
Abstract: The purpose of this analysis was to evaluate genetic and environmental influences on cardiovascular risk factor traits, using a variance component approach, by estimating the heritability of these traits in a sample of 1,666 individuals in 81 families ascertained randomly from a highly admixed population of a city in a rural area in Brazil.Before adjustment for sex, age, age2, and age × sex interaction, polygenic heritability of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were 15.0% and 16.4%, waist circumference 26.1%, triglycerides 25.7%, fasting glucose 32.8%, HDL-c 31.2%, total cholesterol 28.6%, LDL-c 26.3%, BMI 39.1%. Adjustment for covariates increased polygenic heritability estimates for all traits mainly systolic and diastolic blood pressure (25.9 and 26.2%, respectively), waist circumference (40.1%), and BMI (51.0%).Heritability estimates for cardiovascular traits in the Brazilian population are high and not significantly different from other studied worldwide populations. Mapping efforts to identify genetic loci associated with variability of these traits are warranted.The etiology of cardiovascular disease is complex and it is thought to involve metabolic, neuro-endocrine and genetic interactions [1-4]. Prospective twin studies [5], familial aggregation [6] and intercorrelation analyses [7] have supported the existence of significant genetic influence modulating inter-individual variability for cardiovascular related traits. However, results of genetic epidemiological studies have been inconsistent, and it is unknown whether the genetic effect occurs through a major locus [4,8] or multiple [2,4] distinct loci acting in concert, but with relatively small effects.The heritability of cardiovascular risk factors is expected to differ between populations because of the different distribution of environmental risk factors, as well as the particular genetic make-up of different human populations. Because of the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease an
Moderate and Severe Blood Pressure Elevation Associated with Stroke in the Mexican Hispanic Population  [PDF]
Derek Senior, Michael F. Osborn, Katherene Tajnert, Ahmed Badr, Alok Kumar Dwivedi, Jun Zhang
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.96068
Abstract:
Background: Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in US. Amongst other factors such as age, sex, race, genetics, obesity, diabetes etc., hypertension continues to be the leading contributing factor towards stroke. Studies regarding stroke in Hispanics are sparse and inconclusive. Objectives: The objective of the present study is to investigate the potential association between blood pressure elevation and risk of ischemic stroke among the Mexican Hispanic population. Methods: A retrospective data analysis was carried out for a planned case-control study with case-control ratios of 1:2. Mexican Hispanic cases were from the ElPasoStroke database with diagnosed hypertension that had sustained an ischemic stroke (n = 505) and Mexican Hispanics diagnosed with hypertension who were stroke-free as controls from the 2005-2010 NHANES databases (n = 1010). In this analysis, we included subjects who had data on systolic, diastolic or mean arterial blood pressures for cases (327) and controls (772). In cases, blood pressure was determined by the initial admission measurement, and in controls, the first measured blood pressure was used. The unadjusted and adjusted effects of continuous measurements of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure on stroke were determined using logistic regression analyses. Subjects were further classified into groups based on prehypertension and hypertension ranges, as established by the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC7). Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were also used to determine the effect of categorized blood pressures. Results: Our data indicate that per unit increase in systolic, diastolic or mean arterial blood pressure elevates the odds of stroke among the Mexican Hispanic population. Adjusted analysis of categorized blood pressures showed that mild or moderate/severe high blood pressure significantly associated with odds of stroke. Maintaining and controlling blood pressure at more stringent and lower levels, specifically lowering mean arterial pressure may effectively reduce the odds of ischemic stroke among the Mexican Hispanic population. Conclusion: Elevation of blood pressure increases the odds of stroke among the Mexican Hispanic population. Our results provide new strategies to manage the stroke prevention and health disparity issues among the Mexican Hispanic population.
Allelic Prevalence of ABO Blood Group Genes in Iranian Azari Population  [cached]
Mohammad Nojavan,Karim Shamsasenjan,Ali Akbar Movassaghpour,Parvin Akbarzadehlaleh
BioImpacts , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: ABO blood group system is the most important blood group in transfusion and has been widely used in population studies. Several molecular techniques for ABO allele’s detection are widely used for distinguishing various alleles of glycosyl transferase locus on chromosome 9. Methods: 744 randomly selected samples from Azari donors of East Azerbaijan province (Iran) were examined using well-adjusted multiplex allele- specific PCR ABO genotyping technique. Results: The results were consistent for all individuals. The ABO blood group genotype of 744 healthy Azari blood donors was: 25.8% AA/AO (2), 7.6% AO (1), 1.6% BB, 11.3% B0 (1), 10% AB, 9.3% 0(1)0(1) and 15.3%0(1)0(2). The highest genotype frequency belonged to O01/O02 genotype (15.3%) and the lowest frequency belonged to A101/A102 genotype (0.4%). Conclusions: The frequencies of ABO alleles didn’t show significant differences between East Azerbaijan province population and that of other areas of the country. Meanwhile, statistical analysis of frequencies of A and B alleles between East Azerbaijan province population and neighbor countries showed significant differences whereas the frequency of allele O between them did not show significant difference (P>0.05).
Blood Pressure and Global Risk Assessment in a Swedish Population  [PDF]
Jenny Eckner,Charlotte A. Larsson,Lennart R?stam,Ulf Lindblad
International Journal of Hypertension , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/835812
Abstract: This study investigated the association between SCORE and the 2007 ESH-ESC blood pressure categories and explored achievements of blood pressure goals considering global risk. In 2001–2005, a random sample of inhabitants aged 30–74 years in southwestern Sweden was invited to a survey of cardiovascular risk factors. The study enrolled 2816 participants (participation rate 76%). Blood pressure was categorized according to the 2007 ESH-ESC guidelines. Global risk of 10-year CVD death was estimated using the Swedish SCORE chart also accounting for additional risk from diabetes (SCORE-DM). SCORE-DM increased in both sexes from optimal blood pressure to manifest hypertension but did not differ between the normal blood pressure categories. However, SCORE-DM became significantly higher among those with temporarily high blood pressure (men 3.3 SD (1.7), women 1.1 (1.8)) and hypertension (3.6 (2.0), 2.0 (2.0)), compared to optimal blood pressure (1.6 (2.9), 0.6 (1.9)). In the presence of both hypertension and diabetes, high-risk subjects dominated (men 76%, women 61%), and correspondingly a major proportion of patients with known hypertension were at high risk at a blood pressure ≥ 1 6 0 / 1 0 0 ?mm Hg. These findings have strong implications on blood pressure evaluation in clinical practice and support the use of SCORE to evaluate global risk. 1. Introduction Population studies in Sweden and many other countries show that hypertension is a common condition [1], which seriously affects future health and quality of life [1]. It is also evident that other diseases and cardiovascular risk factors interact with high blood pressure in determining the individual global risk [2]. Those with both hypertension and diabetes have been identified to be at a special high risk of complications [3, 4]. To help in correctly selecting the individuals in the highest need of treatment, special risk grading tools have been developed considering other cardiovascular risk factors to calculate a global risk score (SCORE) [2, 5], and also accounting for the risk added by diabetes [6]. When the 10-year mortality risk is at least 5%, pharmacological treatment is recommended [2]. Recent studies in Skaraborg, Sweden, show a prevalence of manifest hypertension at 20% among both men and women aged 30–75 [7]. Again only one half of those with manifest hypertension fulfilled recommended treatment goals [7]. However, neither the Skaraborg Study, nor other population based studies accounted for the global risk when evaluating blood pressure control in hypertension [8, 9]. The aim was to study the
Study on the Frequent Expression of Rodgers and Chido, Red Blood Cell Antigens, in Iranian Healthy Population  [PDF]
Fatemeh Yari,Fatemeh Sabaghi,Nadia Bagheri,Maryam Zaman Vaziri
Cell Journal , 2009,
Abstract: Rodgers (Rg) and Chido (Ch) are blood-group antigens and they determine the fourthcomponentof human complement C4. Rodgers and Chido are associated with two C4isotypes (C4A and C4B). In addition to genotype determination, study on expression ofRg and Chido could be useful in disease studies.DNA was extracted from the whole blood of 60 normal individuals. Then, PCR amplificationof C4d gene fragment was followed by restriction digestion. This studydemonstrated that the frequency of Ch and Rg in Iranian healthy population was98.3 and 93.4 percent, respectively. Additionally, 6.6 percent of the studied populationshowed Chido-positive, Rodger-negative and 1.7 percent showed Rodger-positive,Chido-negative genotype. It may be concluded that upon receiving blood transfusion,6.6 and 1.7 percent of individuals could produce anti-Rg and anti-Ch antibodies, respectively.
Heritability of Certain Anthropometric and Physiometric Phenotypes among Three Predominant Caste Population in Punjab, India
Badaruddoza,Anamika Patharia
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Genetic and environmental factors contribute a significant proportion of anthropometric and physiometric variance. However, very limited study have been done on the relative contributions of genetic and environmental components in the variability of anthropometric and physiometric traits in different regions and caste in India. The present study was carried out to examine the heritability patterns of different anthropometric and physiometric traits among three caste populations with two generation in Punjab. A total of 150 families were studied, 50 families each of the three caste such as Brahmin, Khatri and Bania populations which constituted a total of 517 individuals. The anthropometric measurements taken were height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, biceps skinfold, triceps skinfold, supra-iliac skinfold and subscapular skinfold. The physiometric variables included measurement of Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood pressure (DBP) and pulse rate. The estimation of heritability has been calculated from the degree of resemblance between relatives. Almost all heritabilities of anthropometric and physiometric phenotypes were found significant with caste populations. Although heritabilities for some phenotypes (WHR, supra-iliac skinfold and pulse rate) were relatively low as compared to other studies in literature. Khatri population has showed greater variability for both generations whereas, Brahmin population for both generations have showed minimum heritability. Since, caste effects were significant for most of the phenotypes in comparison, therefore, it is suggested that inter-caste differences among these castes are more prominent. However, heritabilities are different in magnitudes across the caste groups. Thus, heritability pattern of anthropometric and physiometric phenotypes observed in the present study exhibited significant variations among Punjabi Brahmin, Khatri and Bania populations.
Blood Pressure and Global Risk Assessment in a Swedish Population  [PDF]
Jenny Eckner,Charlotte A. Larsson,Lennart R stam,Ulf Lindblad
International Journal of Hypertension , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/835812
Abstract: This study investigated the association between SCORE and the 2007 ESH-ESC blood pressure categories and explored achievements of blood pressure goals considering global risk. In 2001–2005, a random sample of inhabitants aged 30–74 years in southwestern Sweden was invited to a survey of cardiovascular risk factors. The study enrolled 2816 participants (participation rate 76%). Blood pressure was categorized according to the 2007 ESH-ESC guidelines. Global risk of 10-year CVD death was estimated using the Swedish SCORE chart also accounting for additional risk from diabetes (SCORE-DM). SCORE-DM increased in both sexes from optimal blood pressure to manifest hypertension but did not differ between the normal blood pressure categories. However, SCORE-DM became significantly higher among those with temporarily high blood pressure (men 3.3 SD (1.7), women 1.1 (1.8)) and hypertension (3.6 (2.0), 2.0 (2.0)), compared to optimal blood pressure (1.6 (2.9), 0.6 (1.9)). In the presence of both hypertension and diabetes, high-risk subjects dominated (men 76%, women 61%), and correspondingly a major proportion of patients with known hypertension were at high risk at a blood pressure ≥160/100 mm Hg. These findings have strong implications on blood pressure evaluation in clinical practice and support the use of SCORE to evaluate global risk.
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