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Hygiene yesterday, today, tomorrow
M?se, Josef R.
GMS Krankenhaushygiene Interdisziplin?r , 2007,
Abstract: I began my career in 1945 by tracing the footsteps of the legendary Max von Pettenkofer and Robert Koch. At that time their influence was still discernible, and continues to be. The first major innovation was the introduction of antibiotics, which some people believed would now dispense with the need for disinfection and sterilization. The next major development was the introduction of hospital hygiene as a discipline in its own right, aimed at highlighting the growing risk of nosocomial infections, albeit also against the background of the, admittedly, brilliant but unceasingly innovative armamentarium of medical paraphernalia and fittings. As regards the pathogens, viruses were seen to play an increasingly more prominent role as nosocomial pathogens, giving rise to completely novel challenges and problems in the field of disinfection and sterilization. In 1956 at Prof. Pette’s institute in Hamburg it generally took weeks to produce the results to diagnose poliomyelitis. Their value was immensely important for science – but their value to the doctor and patients was questionable. The introduction of inexpensive sterile disposable syringes and other disposable equipment represented, in my opinion, the next milestone. In the meantime, there was a dramatic increase in the overall constellation of problems caused by the continuing upsurge in antibiotic bacterial resistance. And with growing awareness of environmental issues, the late 60s set in motion a new avalanche where one had to strive not only to keep abreast of matters, but also to ensure that science continued to prevail as the highest instance.Today we are facing completely different, but in principle still similar problems in consolidating the status of disinfection and sterilization, e.g. when it comes to the ultra delicate devices that in some cases are heavily contaminated after routine clinical use. Hence we elderly infection control experts still have a task to accomplish: to issue warnings again and again against accepting as “fate” the unresolved problems, but instead to highlight the very core of the problem. Disinfection and sterilization is a topical issue and will always continue to be just that: to protect the population and patients, and to protect ourselves as well as personnel in hospitals, medical practice and research.
Eugene Levin
Physics , 1995,
Abstract: These lectures are the review of the main ideas and approaches to the structure of the Pomeron. They are divided in three natural parts: (i) the brief review of the Reggeon Calculus, which was the first attempt to build the effective theory of the strong interaction at high energy. In spite of the fact that this approach turns out to be inconsistent and in lectures we show why, the Reggeon approach was and is the main source of the terminology and phenomenology for high energy ``soft" interactions. (ii) the detail description of the QCD approach to high energy interaction. We try to combine the rigorous approach in perturbative QCD with more simple, intuitive guess based on general properties of QCD to clarify our expectations and predictions. (iii) the outline of my personal opinion what problems will be important in the future. The main reason for the lectures was just the last part to agitate you to think about this difficult but because of that interesting problem. The motto of my lectures is {\it `` there is nothing more exciting than to solve a difficult problem. Pomeron is the one.''}

Fu Bojie,

生态学报 , 1985,
Abstract: Agro-ecological regionalization is a kind of ecological-economic regionalization. In the article taking the Weibei Dry Plain as an example,analysed the characters of agro-ecological regionalization: 1. comprehensive nature; 2. whole nature; 3. nature of more grade; and 4. no overlap or repetition of ecological units. The principles of agro-ecological regionalization in the Weibei Dry Plain is discussed. The principle of zonal division is basic. The principle of structural identity of physical Landscape, the...
D. Tarau,D. Dicu,R. Bertici,D. Dologa
Soil Forming Factors and Processes from the Temperate Zone , 2012,
Abstract: The research goal is the accumulation of scientific data on the chemical, physical and hydrophysical soils characteristics, necessary to support a methodology for monitoring their quality through a complex firm approach of climatic, edaphic, physical and geographical conditions of Banat low plain. The importance of this paper stands in existence in the area of an old tradition of cultivation of cereals and their utilization, especially for raising pigs, the natural conditions of space is considered favorable for the development of agro-food sector in all aspects. The coverage refers to an area of 81336 ha of which 74489 ha agricultural land belonging to a number of eight local government units (UAT) in the Timis county, where the farms of SC SMITHFIELD FERME SRL are located. The research of ecopedological conditions, data ordering and processing was done according to the Methodology of pedological studies elaboration; (vol I, II, III), developed by ICPA Bucharest in 1987 and the Romanian System of Soil Taxonomy (SRTS-2003). It offers basic knowledge and methodological elements for evaluation and characterization of natural and anthropogenic resources, in the hope that the information presented will arouse interest so that the decision maker, so in the near future agricultural research and practice with environmental protection, to strive for development interdisciplinary studies, not being able to talk about a healthy environment without a healthy soil.
The fuel cell yesterday, today and tomorrow  [PDF]
Stanojevi? Du?an D.,Tomi? Milorad V.
Hemijska Industrija , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/hemind0506109s
Abstract: The fuel cell has some characteristics of a battery carrying out direct chemical conversion into electric energy. In relation to classical systems used for chemical energy conversion into electric power, through heat energy and mechanical operation, the fuel cell has considerably higher efficiency. The thermo-mechanical conversion of chemical into electric energy, in thermal power plants is carried out with 30% efficiency, while the efficiency of chemical conversion into electric energy, using a fuel cell is up to 60%. With the exception of the space programme, the commercial usage of the fuel cell did not exist up to 1990, when the most developed countries started extensive financial support of this source of energy. By 1995, more than a hundred fuel cells were installed in the process of electricity generation in Europe, USA and Japan, while nowadays there are thousands of installations, of efficient energetic capacity. Because of its superior characteristics, the fuel cell compared to other commercial electric energy producers, fulfills the most important condition - it does not pollute or if it does, the level is minimal. With such characteristics the fuel cell can help solve the growing conflict between the further economic development of mankind and the preservation of a clean and healthy natural environment.
Composites and Construction: Yesterday, today and tomorrow
Manso, J.
Materiales de Construccion , 1997,
Abstract: We will try to give a idea about the possibilities of the Composites Materials in the Construction area, examining their applications since along time. We will begin by the integral closing the building, based in the panel sandwich concept. Immediately we will comment a new material, the COMPOSTEEL, a hybrid product made of composites plus steel, indicated to the structural country. Next, we will study the "Continuous Frame" oriented also at the structural area. Finally, we will finish with two ideas: a) The composites solving the seism phenomenon. b) The composites as a ceiling to big areas. We will try to give a idea about the possibilities of the Composites Materials in the Construction area, examining their applications since along time. We will begin by the integral closing the building, based in the panel sandwich concept. Immediately we will comment a new material, the COMPOSTEEL, a hybrid product made of composites plus steel, indicated to the structural country. Next, we will study the "Continuous Frame" oriented also at the structural area. Finally, we will finish with two ideas: a) The composites solving the seism phenomenon. b) The composites as a ceiling to big areas.
Liver transplantation: Yesterday, today and tomorrow  [cached]
Osman Abbasoglu
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: With the advances in technical skills, management of postoperative complications and improvements in immunosuppressive drugs, liver transplantation is the standard treatment for many patients with chronic liver disease. Today, shortage of donor organs seems to be the major limiting factor for the application of liver transplantation. This review focuses on five issues that are challenging to clinical practice of liver transplantation and relevant to gastroenterologists. These include living donor liver transplantation, recurrent viral hepatitis, non-heart-beating donors, hepatocellular carcinoma, and ABO incompatible liver transplantation. Living donor and non-heart beating donor transplantations were initiated as a solution to increase the donor organ pool and it is expected that there will be an increase in the number of these donors. Recurrent hepatitis C and hepatocellular carcinoma following liver transplantation are among major problems and ongoing research in these diseases may lead to better outcomes in these recipients.
Translation Studies: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
Hosni M. El-dali
International Journal of Asian Social Science , 2012,
Abstract: For a long time the study of translation has been considered a second-rate activity. It was viewed for many decades either as simple linguistic transcoding, or as a literary practice. Now, it has azquired full academic recognition. However, two points must be emphasized: (1) although translation has existed for many centuries, it was not until the second half of this century that `Translation Studies' developed into a discipline in its own right, and (2) the past fifteen years or so have seen the focus of translation studies shift away from Linguistics and increasingly to forms of Cultural Studies. There has also been a shift towards studies that have incorporated models from functional linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis, locating the text within its sociocultural context. More recently, technological advances, which have transformed the working conditions of professional translators and researchers and have spawned new forms of translation, have also produced new areas of research, some linked to the effects of globalization and some to forms of intersemiotic translation.The present study, therefore, attempts to outline the scope of the discipline of Translation Studies (TS), to give some indication of the kind of work that has been done so far. More importantly, it is an attempt to demonstrate that (TS) is a vastly complex field with many far-reaching ramifications.
The laser, from yesterday (1960) to tomorrow  [cached]
Ducloy Martial
Europhysics News , 2011, DOI: 10.1051/epn/2011102
Yesterday and today: The task of the university  [cached]
J.J. Venter
Koers : Bulletin for Christian Scholarship , 1975, DOI: 10.4102/koers.v40i4-6.850
Abstract: The university has become a battlefield of the mentally violent as to the question of the part the university should play in modern industrialised society, in the communication between rich and poor, in the spiritual confusion that followed the lapse of Christianity. The old idea that the university is and should be the place where intelligent people withdraw for the purpose of autonomous, unengaged, religiously and politically unprejudiced, impartial theoretical thinking, is struggling for its life against the growing belief that the powers of theoretical thinking are no more than instruments for, and should not be used otherwise than, the purpose of changing society to one which is more just, more human, than the prevailing (capitalistic) structure. Rejecting the intimidative ways sometimes followed by both sides in defending their case, I do have sympathy with both sides: I still find enough reason(s) to believe that the university is somehow something different from a church or a political party or a pressure group, while knowing that the university never has been or could be, and firmly believing that it should not be, utterly aloof from human life in its fullness; and therefore I am prepared to advocate that the university ought to cultivate its relation to surrounding society, but in a way adapted to its own peculiarities, for the university may not outlive (as university) its being instrumentalized. The battlefield mentality ought to be exchanged by one of thoroughgoing philosophical reflexion by all people interested in the university’s affairs. Knowing that they fulfill their fallible work within the cadres of a meaningful history in which also the university came to be, they should ponder, in the light of the continuity and discontinuity of history, about the task of the university of yesterday, of today and of tomorrow, in a non-exclusive disjunction.

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