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Theoretical Models and Operational Frameworks in Public Health Ethics  [PDF]
Carlo Petrini
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7010189
Abstract: The article is divided into three sections: (i) an overview of the main ethical models in public health (theoretical foundations); (ii) a summary of several published frameworks for public health ethics (practical frameworks); and (iii) a few general remarks. Rather than maintaining the superiority of one position over the others, the main aim of the article is to summarize the basic approaches proposed thus far concerning the development of public health ethics by describing and comparing the various ideas in the literature. With this in mind, an extensive list of references is provided.
A randomised controlled trial for overweight and obese parents to prevent childhood obesity - Early STOPP (STockholm Obesity Prevention Program)
Tanja Sobko, Viktoria Svensson, Anna Ek, Mirjam Ekstedt, H?kan Karlsson, Elin Johansson, Yingting Cao, Maria Hagstr?mer, Claude Marcus
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-336
Abstract: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) targets overweight and/or obese parents with infants, recruited from the Child Health Care Centers (CHCC) within the Stockholm area. The intervention starts when infants are one year of age and continues until they are six and is regularly delivered by a trained coach (dietitian, physiotherapist or a nurse). The key aspects of Early STOPP family intervention are based on Swedish recommendations for CHCC, which include advices on healthy food choices and eating patterns, increasing physical activity/reducing sedentary behavior and regulating sleeping patterns.The Early STOPP trial design addresses weaknesses of previous research by recruiting from a well-characterized population, defining a feasible, theory-based intervention and assessing multiple measurements to validate and interpret the program effectiveness. The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge, this longitudinal RCT is the first attempt to demonstrate whether an early, long-term, targeted health promotion program focusing on healthy eating, physical activity/reduced sedentary behaviors and normalizing sleeping patterns could be effective. If proven so, Early STOPP may protect children from the development of overweight and obesity.The protocol for this study is registered with the clinical trials registry clinicaltrials.gov, ID: ES-2010)Overweight is considered to be a global epidemic and the marked increase in childhood obesity is alarming. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority [1]. Childhood obesity is multi-factorial and has been recognized as heritable [2]. The odds for a child to become obese as an adult increase about threefold if one of the parents is obese and rise tenfold with two obese parents [3]. To which extent this hereditariness is socio-cultural, genetic or epigenetic is unclear [4].Gain in body weight and fat mass is a consequence of
Participant recruitment and retention in a pilot program to prevent weight gain in low-income overweight and obese mothers
Mei-Wei Chang, Roger Brown, Susan Nitzke
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-424
Abstract: Low-income overweight and obese African American and white mothers ages 18 to 34 were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in southern Michigan. Participants (n = 129) were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 64) or control (n = 65) group according to a stratification procedure to equalize representation in two racial groups (African American and white) and three body mass index categories (25.0-29.9 kg/m2, 30.0-34.9 kg/m2, and 35.0-39.9 kg/m2). The 10-week theory-based culturally sensitive intervention focused on healthy eating, physical activity, and stress management messages that were delivered via an interactive DVD and reinforced by five peer-support group teleconferences. Forward stepwise multiple logistic regression was performed to examine whether dietary fat, fruit and vegetable intake behaviors, physical activity, perceived stress, positive and negative affect, depression, and race predicted dropout as data were collected two-month and eight-month after the active intervention phase.Trained personnel were successful in recruiting subjects. Increased level of depression was a predictor of early dropout (odds ratio = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.00, 1.08; p = 0.03). Greater stress predicted late dropout (odds ratio = 0.20; 95% CI = 0.00, 0.37; p = 0.01). Dietary fat, fruit, and vegetable intake behaviors, physical activity, positive and negative affect, and race were not associated with either early or late dropout. Less negative affect was a marginal predictor of participant retention (odds ratio = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.31, 1.03; p = 0.06).Dropout rates in this study were higher for participants who reported higher levels of depression and stress.Current Controlled Trials NCT00944060Recruitment and retention are important determinants of success for programs to improve nutrition and lifestyle behaviors, especially when participants are from low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations [1,2]. Recently, weight
Ethical issues in epidemiologic research and public health practice
Steven S Coughlin
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-7622-3-16
Abstract: A rich and growing body of literature has emerged on ethics in epidemiologic research and public health practice [1-11]. Recent articles have included conceptual frameworks of public health ethics and overviews of historical developments in the field [7,8,11]. Several important topics in public health ethics have also been highlighted [7,11,12].This article provides an overview of ethical issues in epidemiologic research and public health practice for readers who do not necessarily have an in-depth knowledge of public health ethics. In the discussion that follows, a summary is provided of current definitions and conceptualizations of public health ethics and key ethical concerns in the field.The starting point for conceptualizations of public health ethics has often been general definitions of public health, such as the definition provided by the Institute of Medicine in 1988: "Public health is what we, as a society, do collectively to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy." As noted by Childress et al. [8], "Public health is primarily concerned with the health of the entire population, rather than the health of individuals. Its features include an emphasis on the promotion of health and the prevention of disease and disability; the collection and use of epidemiological data, population surveillance, and other forms of empirical quantitative assessment; a recognition of the multidimensional nature of the determinants of health; and a focus on the complex interactions of many factors – biological, behavioral, social, and environmental – in developing effective interventions." Public health activities also include community collaborations and partnerships for health and the identification of priorities for public health action.Previous authors have identified ethical issues and core values in public health, and highlighted differences and similarities between public health ethics and other areas of bioethics [5,7]. Public health ethics, which can be def
International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.
Supportive care: alleviating fatigue and pain
Per Hartvig,Eva Honoré
European Journal of Oncology Pharmacy , 2007,
Abstract: Supportive care is fundamental for patients with cancer suffering from the consequences of tumour burden - pain, nausea and fatigue - and also from treatment. The changing face of supportive care today is reviewed.
Supportive Music and Imagery Method  [cached]
Sumi Paik-Maier
Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy , 2010,
Abstract: The Supportive Music and Imagery Method is derived from the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (BMGIM). It uses one piece of pre-recorded music that is short and simple in all musical elements and non-classical music is often used.It aims at enhancing one’s ego by supporting one’s positive resource rather than exploring problems and issues. It is containing and highly structured compared to BMGIM and it focuses on the here-and-now. I will introduce how the SMI method is conducted by illustrating a few case examples supervised by me and conducted by graduates and trainees of the Music and Imagery training in Korea.
The importance of spirituality in supportive care  [cached]
Messina Giuseppina,Anania Stefania,Bonomo Claudia,Veneroni Laura
International Journal of Yoga , 2011,
Abstract: Background: It has been shown that the pineal gland plays a fundamental role in mediating either the spiritual perception or the anticancer immunity by stimulating the endogenous production of anticancer cytokine interleukin (IL)-2. Objective: The present study was performed to evaluate the impact of a spiritual approach consisting of Kriya Yoga program alone or in association with melatonin (MLT) or low-dose IL-2 plus MLT on the survival time in a group of metastatic cancer patients with life expectancy less than 1 year. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in 240 patients (M/F: 146/94; median age: 62 years, range: 34-71, suffering from non-small-cell lung cancer or gastrointestinal tumors) who were subdivided into 6 groups of 40 patients, treated with supportive care alone as a control group, supportive care plus Yoga, MLT alone, MLT plus Yoga, inteleukin-2 plus MLT, or IL-2 plus MLT plus Yoga. Results: The best results in terms of increased survival time were obtained by the association between neuroimmunotherapy with MLT plus IL-2 and Yoga program (2 years), which was significantly longer with respect to that achieved by supportive care alone, Yoga alone, or IL-2 plus MLT alone (1 year). Conclusions: This study would suggest that a spiritual therapeutic approach may improve the survival time of untreatable metastatic solid tumor patients.
Deformations of crystal frameworks  [PDF]
Ciprian S. Borcea,Ileana Streinu
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We apply our deformation theory of periodic bar-and-joint frameworks to tetrahedral crystal structures. The deformation space is investigated in detail for frameworks modelled on quartz, cristobalite and tridymite.
Pushdown Systems for Monotone Frameworks  [PDF]
Michal Terepeta,Hanne Riis Nielson,Flemming Nielson
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Monotone frameworks is one of the most successful frameworks for intraprocedural data flow analysis extending the traditional class of bitvector frameworks (like live variables and available expressions). Weighted pushdown systems is similarly one of the most general frameworks for interprocedural analysis of programs. However, it makes use of idempotent semirings to represent the sets of properties and unfortunately they do not admit analyses whose transfer functions are not strict (e.g., classical bitvector frameworks). This motivates the development of algorithms for backward and forward reachability of pushdown systems using sets of properties forming so-called flow algebras that weaken some of the assumptions of idempotent semirings. In particular they do admit the bitvector frameworks, monotone frameworks, as well as idempotent semirings. We show that the algorithms are sound under mild assumptions on the flow algebras, mainly that the set of properties constitutes a join semi-lattice, and complete provided that the transfer functions are suitably distributive (but not necessarily strict).
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