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Regional inequalities and convergence clubs in the European Union new member-states  [PDF]
Eastern Journal of European Studies , 2010,
Abstract: The paper assesses on empirical grounds the level and the evolution of regional inequalities in each European Union new member-state (EU NMS) and examines the possibility for the emergence of regional convergence clubs. The experience of the EU NMS is a unique situation, where relatively closed economic systems opened, almost at once, to the world economy and, at the same time, market mechanisms replaced central planning. Thus, understanding the spatial pattern of regional growth in the EU NMS may provide valuable insight for theory and policy. The application of non linear econometric models, which transcend the “all or nothing” logic behind conventional convergence analysis, has shown the existence of regional convergence clubs in many EU NMS. The identification of regional convergence clubs, irrespective of the pattern that emerges in each EU NMS, highlights the heterogeneous spatial impact of the EU economic integration process.
Education, Catch-up and Growth in Spain  [PDF]
Fabio Manca
Investigaciones Regionales , 2011,
Abstract: The debate over the impact of education on economic growth has recentlyled to disagreement when, at the empirical level, the effect of average humancapital on economic growth has been found to be weak. With this paper we revisitthese results by arguing how different educational attainment levels (rather than theaverage human capital stock) impact heterogenously different regions’ economicperformance. We build and test a catch-up model where technology adoption takesplace as a function of each region’s human capital composition. We show for 50NUTS3 Spanish provinces in between 1965 and 1997, how convergence to thefrontier is driven by higher education and, to a lesser extent, by vocational training.Both theoretical and empirical results are alternative to the well known formalizationproposed by Vandenbussche, Aghion and Meghir (2006). Severe endogeneityissues, as well as small sample biases, are tackled by using system GMM estimatorsand the correction proposed by Windmeijer (2005).
An Empirical Work on Catch up by the Diffusion of Technology  [PDF]
Kahraman Kalyoncu,Huseyin Kalyoncu
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2002,
Abstract: The main idea of catch up hypothesis is how rapidly follower economies tend to catch the leader since imitation and implantation of discoveries are cheaper than innovation. Therefore limitation and implementation of discoveries tends to generate convergence even though diminishing returns to capital or to R&D do not apply. If the diffusion of technology occurs gradually, then we get another reason to predict a pattern of convergence across economics, which we estimate in this study. The estimation indicates that follower economics tend to catch up the leader. Hence, we could say imitation and implementation of discoveries generate convergence in an empirically.
Nutritionally-Induced Catch-Up Growth  [PDF]
Galia Gat-Yablonski,Moshe Phillip
Nutrients , 2015, DOI: 10.3390/nu7010517
Abstract: Malnutrition is considered a leading cause of growth attenuation in children. When food is replenished, spontaneous catch-up (CU) growth usually occurs, bringing the child back to its original growth trajectory. However, in some cases, the CU growth is not complete, leading to a permanent growth deficit. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding the mechanism regulating nutrition and growth, including systemic factors, such as insulin, growth hormone, insulin- like growth factor-1, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-21, etc., and local mechanisms, including autophagy, as well as regulators of transcription, protein synthesis, miRNAs and epigenetics. Studying the molecular mechanisms regulating CU growth may lead to the establishment of better nutritional and therapeutic regimens for more effective CU growth in children with malnutrition and growth abnormalities. It will be fascinating to follow this research in the coming years and to translate the knowledge gained to clinical benefit.
Factors Associated with Height Catch-Up and Catch-Down Growth Among Schoolchildren  [PDF]
Rosangela F. L. Batista, Ant?nio A. M. Silva, Marco A. Barbieri, Vanda M. F. Sim?es, Heloisa Bettiol
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032903
Abstract: In developed countries, children with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) or born preterm (PT) tend to achieve catch-up growth. There is little information about height catch-up in developing countries and about height catch-down in both developed and developing countries. We studied the effect of IUGR and PT birth on height catch-up and catch-down growth of children from two cohorts of liveborn singletons. Data from 1,463 children was collected at birth and at school age in Ribeir?o Preto (RP), a more developed city, and in S?o Luís (SL), a less developed city. A change in z-score between schoolchild height z-score and birth length z-score≥0.67 was considered catch-up; a change in z-score≤?0.67 indicated catch-down growth. The explanatory variables were: appropriate weight for gestational age/PT birth in four categories: term children without IUGR (normal), IUGR only (term with IUGR), PT only (preterm without IUGR) and preterm with IUGR; infant's sex; maternal parity, age, schooling and marital status; occupation of family head; family income and neonatal ponderal index (PI). The risk ratio for catch-up and catch-down was estimated by multinomial logistic regression for each city. In RP, preterms without IUGR (RR = 4.13) and thin children (PI<10th percentile, RR = 14.39) had a higher risk of catch-down; catch-up was higher among terms with IUGR (RR = 5.53), preterms with IUGR (RR = 5.36) and children born to primiparous mothers (RR = 1.83). In SL, catch-down was higher among preterms without IUGR (RR = 5.19), girls (RR = 1.52) and children from low-income families (RR = 2.74); the lowest risk of catch-down (RR = 0.27) and the highest risk of catch-up (RR = 3.77) were observed among terms with IUGR. In both cities, terms with IUGR presented height catch-up growth whereas preterms with IUGR only had height catch-up growth in the more affluent setting. Preterms without IUGR presented height catch-down growth, suggesting that a better socioeconomic situation facilitates height catch-up and prevents height catch-down growth.
Is Early Puberty Triggered by Catch-Up Growth Following Undernutrition?  [PDF]
Lemm Proos,Jan Gustafsson
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9051791
Abstract: Undernutrition during fetal and postnatal life is still a major problem in many low- and middle-income countries. Even in high-income countries malnutrition may exist in cases of intrauterine growth retardation, as well as in chronic conditions such as anorexia nervosa and inflammatory bowel disease. Children adopted from developing countries are often chronically malnourished. Nutritional rehabilitation, resulting in catch-up growth, is often complicated by influences originating in fetal life as well as during postnatal growth. This may result in hormonal and metabolic changes as well as alterations in pubertal development. The present review focuses on fetal, postnatal and fetal-postnatal undernutrition and subsequent catch-up growth as well as catch-up growth in relation to pubertal development. Catch-up growth in children can be associated with early puberty following fetal or combined fetal-postnatal undernutrition. However, early puberty does not seem to occur following catch-up growth after isolated postnatal undernutrition. Gonadotropins have been reported to be elevated in prepubertal adopted girls as well as during catch-up growth in animals. Even if other factors may contribute, linear catch-up growth seems to be associated with the timing of pubertal development. The mechanisms behind this are still unknown. Future research may elucidate how to carry out nutritional rehabilitation without risk for early pubertal development.
Can an observer really catch up with light  [PDF]
Guihua Tian,Zhao Zheng
Physics , 2002, DOI: 10.1088/0264-9381/20/18/306
Abstract: Given a null geodesic $\gamma_0(\lambda)$ with a point $r$ in $(p,q)$ conjugate to $p$ along $\gamma_0(\lambda)$, there will be a variation of $\gamma_0(\lambda)$ which will give a time-like curve from $p$ to $q$. This is a well-known theory proved in the famous book\cite{2}. In the paper we prove that the time-like curves coming from the above-mentioned variation have a proper acceleration which approaches infinity as the time-like curve approaches the null geodesic. This means no observer can be infinitesimally near the light and begin at the same point with the light and finally catch the light. Only separated from the light path finitely, does the observer can begin at the same point with the light and finally catch the light.
The validity of testicular catch-up growth and serum FSH levels in the long-term postoperative assessment of laparoscopic varicocele correction in adolescents
Deshpande Aniruddh,Cohen Ralph,Tsang Irene,Ambler Geoff
Urology Annals , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Postoperative assessment after varicocele surgery in adolescence is commonly centred around catch-up growth of the testis. There is paucity of evidence on the correlation of catch-up growth with underlying testicular function in these patients. Aims: To assess the reliability of catch-up growth of the testis as an indicator of normalization of testicular function and the utility of serum FSH levels in the long-term postoperative assessment of varicocele surgery in adolescence. Materials and Methods: Prospective cohort study of young adults (18-27 years) who had laparoscopic varicocele correction in adolescence (11-16 years). Evaluation included serum FSH levels, scrotal ultrasonography and semen analysis. Analysis: Anatomical and functional parameters of participants with equal and normal testicular size were compared to those of participants with persistent testicular hypotrophy or hypertrophy. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of postoperative serum FSH levels were estimated and elevated levels of serum FSH were checked for association with suboptimal outcomes of varicocele correction. Results: The serum FSH levels of participants with unequal testicular sizes (n=6, median 6.65 IU/l), which included testicular hypertrophy (n=3, median 7.2 IU/l) and persistent testicular hypotrophy (n=3, median 6.1 IU/l), were significantly higher than the group with equal testicular sizes (n=8, median 3.5 IU/l; P=0.014, Mann-Whitney U test). Postoperative elevated serum FSH levels were significantly associated with suboptimal outcomes of varicocele surgery (P=0.015, Fisher′s exact test). The test also had a high positive predictive value. Conclusions: Testicular catch-up growth may not be a reliable postoperative assessment criterion by itself. Serum FSH levels may be of value in detecting suboptimal outcomes of varicocele surgery in adolescents.
Determinants of Catch-Up Growth in International Adoptees from Eastern Europe  [cached]
Miller BradleyS,Kroupina MariaG,Mason Patrick,Iverson SandraL
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1687-9856-2010-107252
Abstract: Children raised in orphanages frequently experience growth suppression due to multiple risk factors. Placing such children in more nurturing environments through adoption leads to significant catch-up growth (CUG), the determinants of which are not entirely understood. The goal of this study was to perform an auxological evaluation and examine the degree and correlates of CUG in international adoptees. Children adopted from Eastern Europe, (, 71 males), 7 to 59 months of age, were recruited within 3 weeks of their arrival to the US. At baseline, mean height SDS was and 22% were < 2 SDS for height. IGF-1 and/or IGFBP-3 levels < 2 SDS were present in 32%. CUG, defined as a gain of >+0.5 in height SDS, was seen in 62% of adoptees at 6 months after adoption; 7% of children remained < 2 SDS for height (two had growth hormone deficiency). Growth factors improved in the majority of children. Younger age, greater degree of initial growth failure, and higher caloric intake were significantly associated with improved linear growth in multiple regression models. In summary, most adoptees demonstrate excellent CUG within six months after adoption. If growth failure persists after 6 months of appropriate caloric intake, nutrition-independent causes should be considered.
Determinants of Catch-Up Growth in International Adoptees from Eastern Europe
Bradley S Miller, Maria G Kroupina, Patrick Mason, Sandra L Iverson, Christine Narad, John H Himes, Dana E Johnson, Anna Petryk
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/107252
Abstract: Since 2000, over 160,000 children have come to the United States as international adoptees [1]. More than 25% of these children have come from Eastern European countries having received primarily institutional care. Children in these orphanages frequently endure significant social deprivation that may impact their physical growth due to suppression of hypothalamic function with consequent low levels of growth factors [2]. We and others have previously documented significant physical growth delays in up to 34% of international adoptees from Eastern Europe, South America, and Asia [3–5]. Of the many hereditary, environmental, and hormonal factors that may contribute, we have previously shown that age, prenatal factors (birth weight and risk of fetal alcohol syndrome), and growth factors (Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3, IGFBP-3) are independently associated with the degree of growth delay in adoptees upon arrival into the US [4].A rapid period of catch-up growth (CUG) is seen following a variety of growth delays when the causative conditions improve. The Growth Hormone-(GH-)Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) system is known to be involved in CUG following many causes of growth delay, but limited data are available on the role of GH-IGF system in CUG following adoption [6]. The goal of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the determinants of CUG in 148 postinstitutionalized international adoptees during the first 6 months after arrival into their adoptive families. We aimed to identify baseline factors that would help predict subsequent CUG and therefore help counsel the families, the degree of CUG, the usefulness of obtaining IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels, and the impact of nutrition on CUG and the physiologic roles of nutrition and the growth hormone system on CUG.Participants were part of a longitudinal study of growth of institutionalized children adopted into the USA from Eastern Europe (Russia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine). The study was approved
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