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Joy without demands: Hospital clowns in the world of ailing children  [cached]
Lotta Linge
International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health & Well-Being , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/qhw.v6i1.5899
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to achieve, using an affect theory approach (Tomkins, 1962; 1963; 1991), a deeper theoretical understanding of the psychological significance of hospital clowns’ work in caring for ailing children viewed from a care-giver perspective. The methodological approach was qualitative and based on 20 interviews with healthcare staff: 3 men and 17 women. The result showed how the staff emphasized a psychological quality of care alongside the physical quality of care. The hospital clowns’ “unexpected possibility” provided a safe area for recovery, for both the children and the staff. The theoretical interpretation showed the presence of the affects surprise/startle, interest/excitement, and enjoyment/joy as well as specifically how “joy without demands” often had a lingering effect in the form of vitality. Joy without demands is discussed in relation to psychological theory with emphasis on: a confirmation of the body's possibilities, a magical attachment, a chance to transcend boundaries, and a non-demanding situation.
A realist evaluation of the management of a well- performing regional hospital in Ghana
Bruno Marchal, McDamien Dedzo, Guy Kegels
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-24
Abstract: We developed a realist evaluation framework for hypothesis formulation, data collection, data analysis and synthesis of the findings. Focusing on the role of human resource management in hospital performance, we formulated our hypothesis around the high commitment management concept. Mixed methods were used in data collection, including individual and group interviews, observations and document reviews.We found that the human resource management approach (the actual intervention) included induction of new staff, training and personal development, good communication and information sharing, and decentralised decision-making. We identified 3 additional practices: ensuring optimal physical working conditions, access to top managers and managers' involvement on the work floor. Teamwork, recognition and trust emerged as key elements of the organisational climate. Interviewees reported high levels of organisational commitment. The analysis unearthed perceived organisational support and reciprocity as underlying mechanisms that link the management practices with commitment.Methodologically, we found that realist evaluation can be fruitfully used to develop detailed case studies that analyse how management interventions work and in which conditions. Analysing the links between intervention, mechanism and outcome increases the explaining power, while identification of essential context elements improves the usefulness of the findings for decision-makers in other settings (external validity). We also identified a number of practical difficulties and priorities for further methodological development.This case suggests that a well-balanced HRM bundle can stimulate organisational commitment of health workers. Such practices can be implemented even with narrow decision spaces. Realist evaluation provides an appropriate approach to increase the usefulness of case studies to managers and policymakers.In the wake of the numerous global health initiatives, the health workforce of low
Kuhn: Realist or Antirealist?
Michel Ghins
Principia : an International Journal of Epistemology , 1998,
Abstract: Although Kuhn is much more an antirealist than a realist, the earlier and later articulations of realist and antirealist ingredients in his views merit close scrutiny. What are the constituents of the real invariant World posited by Kuhn and its relation to the mutable paradigm-related worlds? Various proposed solutions to this problem (dubbed the "new-world problem" by Ian Hacking) are examined and shown to be unsatisfactory. In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, the stable World can reasonably be taken to be made up of ordinary perceived objects, whereas in Kuhn's later works the transparadigmatic World is identified with something akin to the Kantian world-in-itself. It is argued that both proposals are beset with insuperable difficulties which render Kuhn's earlier and later versions of antirealism implausible.
Turning the tide: Registered nurses' job withdrawal intentions in a Finnish university hospital  [cached]
Hanna M. Salminen
South African Journal of Human Resource Management , 2012, DOI: 10.4102/sajhrm.v10i2.410
Abstract: Orientation: Given the global shortage of registered nurses, it is important to investigate the intentions for job withdrawal of nurses, and resolve these, in order to retain nurses in the field. Research purpose: The objective was to examine the intentions for job withdrawal of ageing and younger nurses, and the antecedents of these intentions, with special reference to job control and perceived development opportunities. The age of 45 was adopted as a starting point when referring to ageing employees. Motivation for the study: Different forms of job withdrawal have rarely been studied together and associated. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative study was applied with logistic regression analyses. Respondents were registered nurses working in a university hospital in Finland. The response rate was 46.1% (N = 343). Main findings: A quarter (25%) of the nurses had frequently thought about leaving the profession and 19% of the nurses had thought about taking early retirement. Factors that increased the likelihood of intentions for occupational turnover were young age, low job satisfaction, low organisational commitment, low work ability and skills in balance with or above present work demands. The intention to take early retirement was increased with older age, being male, working shifts, low work ability, low job satisfaction and poor job control. Practical/managerial implications: A nurse’s job satisfaction and work ability should be regularly monitored and opportunities should be offered them, to apply their skills and to control their work, in order to retain them. Contribution/value–added: The article added information about the factors that contribute to a nurse’s intentions for job withdrawal. How to cite this article: Salminen, H.M. (2012). Turning the tide: Registered nurses’ job withdrawal intentions in a Finnish university hospital. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 10(2), Art. #410, 11 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v10i2.410
RAMESES publication standards: realist syntheses  [cached]
Wong Geoff,Greenhalgh Trish,Westhorp Gill,Buckingham Jeanette
BMC Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-21
Abstract: Background There is growing interest in realist synthesis as an alternative systematic review method. This approach offers the potential to expand the knowledge base in policy-relevant areas - for example, by explaining the success, failure or mixed fortunes of complex interventions. No previous publication standards exist for reporting realist syntheses. This standard was developed as part of the RAMESES (Realist And MEta-narrative Evidence Syntheses: Evolving Standards) project. The project's aim is to produce preliminary publication standards for realist systematic reviews. Methods We (a) collated and summarized existing literature on the principles of good practice in realist syntheses; (b) considered the extent to which these principles had been followed by published syntheses, thereby identifying how rigor may be lost and how existing methods could be improved; (c) used a three-round online Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of national and international experts in evidence synthesis, realist research, policy and/or publishing to produce and iteratively refine a draft set of methodological steps and publication standards; (d) provided real-time support to ongoing realist syntheses and the open-access RAMESES online discussion list so as to capture problems and questions as they arose; and (e) synthesized expert input, evidence syntheses and real-time problem analysis into a definitive set of standards. Results We identified 35 published realist syntheses, provided real-time support to 9 on-going syntheses and captured questions raised in the RAMESES discussion list. Through analysis and discussion within the project team, we summarized the published literature and common questions and challenges into briefing materials for the Delphi panel, comprising 37 members. Within three rounds this panel had reached consensus on 19 key publication standards, with an overall response rate of 91%. Conclusion This project used multiple sources to develop and draw together evidence and expertise in realist synthesis. For each item we have included an explanation for why it is important and guidance on how it might be reported. Realist synthesis is a relatively new method for evidence synthesis and as experience and methodological developments occur, we anticipate that these standards will evolve to reflect further methodological developments. We hope that these standards will act as a resource that will contribute to improving the reporting of realist syntheses. To encourage dissemination of the RAMESES publication standards, this article is
Comparative Study of Dickinson’s Life and Zhang Ailing’s Life  [PDF]
Yanyu Gao
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/als.2017.52004
Abstract: Although Dickinson and the Chinese writer Zhang Ailing live in different times and space, there are many similarities between them. Both of them have surprising language talent and created many literary classics. Their attitudes to politics and war are similar. In their early life they have an active social life, but later both turn to the inner world and choose the introspective and seclusive way of life. On the basis of My Wars Are Laid Away in Books: The Life of Emily Dickinson by Alfred Habegger and Biography of Zhang Ailing by Yu Bin, the comparative method is used to analyze the similarities and dissimilarities between them. Both were born in famous families and well educated. Both have bumpy love and marriages. They have similar opinions in family, character, religion and politics, etc. Their seclusion is caused by many factors, such as family, character, politics, religion, love and marriage. There are two main differences between them: one difference is that Dickinson is much influenced by religion while Zhang Ailing is much influenced by politics; the other difference is that Dickinson stays at home and never worries about money all her life while Zhang Ailing wanders from place to place and struggles for life. Nobody is born a hermit. Their seclusion is made gradually.
Correlates of Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Antenatal Clinic Attendees of Volta Regional Hospital, Ho, Volta Region, Ghana  [PDF]
Joseph Otoo, Paschal Kofi Dah, Ernest Yeboah Boateng, Daniel A. Abaye
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2019.97045
Abstract: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a global health problem. With about 380 million chronic carriers of the HBV virus, there are over two million global deaths annually. Ghana is among the high endemic countries in Africa, with HBV prevalence ranging from 4.8% to 12.3% in the general population, 10.8% to 12.7% in blood donors and about 10.6% in antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees. The main objectives of this study were to test how socioeconomic factors, risky behaviors, knowledge and awareness of HBV infection correlate with actual HBV status among antenatal clinic attendees and to determine the predictors of HBV testing among ANC attendees. The study employed random sampling technique to sample 500 pregnant women, at mothers’ clinic of Volta Regional Hospital, Ho, Ghana. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, Hepatitis B status, possible risk factors, awareness and knowledge levels of HBV infection. Cross tabulation and the chi-square (χ2) statistic were used to determine statistical independence or association of study variables. Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to test for the differences in HBV knowledge scores across HBV status and levels of HBV awareness; and the binomial regression model was used to determine the predictors of HBV testing among ANC attendees. It is evident that age, religion, ethnicity, educational level, blood transfusion, number of blood transfusions, gravidity, parity, awareness of HBV and monthly income were associated with HBV status. Results of the Binomial Logistic Regression model indicate that Age (p = 0.03), Education level (p = 0.04), Religion (
Review of Alston, W. P. A Realist Conception of Truth
Celso Reni Braida
Principia : an International Journal of Epistemology , 1997,
Abstract: Review of Alston, W. P. A Realist Conception of Truth
The Market Orientation and 4P Strategies of Ailing River Drifting Scenic Spot  [cached]
Jin Zhang
International Business Research , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ibr.v1n4p100
Abstract: Based on a feasibility analysis on the product and source market orientation of the Ailing River Drifting Scenic Spot, this article explores its product quality as well as market strategies in four aspects including product, price, promotion and place.
A Pragmatic Realist Philosophy of Religion  [cached]
Herrmann, Eberhard
Ars Disputandi : the Online Journal for Philosophy of Religion , 2003,
Abstract: This article deals with the philosophical problem of how to conceive reality. The difficulty consists in finding a middle way between the claim that reality is unconceptualised reality and the claim that there is no difference between what is real and what we experience as real. In this regard, the pragmatic tradition in philosophy promises to provide us with some fruitful ideas for steering a path between the two. The author applies some of these ideas in developing a pragmatic realist philosophy of religion which is not reductionist and therefore acceptable for religious as well as non-religious philosophers of religion. First, he gives a very short summary of pragmatism as background to his proposal. Second, in contrast to the notion of realism in the pragmatic tradition he sketches the presuppositions of what is labelled religious or theological realism in present analytic philosophy of religion. Third, he distinguishes between ontological commitments that are metaphysical in character and ontological commitments that are not, drawing on Rudolf Carnap ¢ € s idea of the difference between internal and external questions of existence. Fourth, he presents Hilary Putnam ¢ € s criticism of a metaphysically realist conception of existence and fifth, Putnam ¢ € s defence of what he calls internal realism. Sixth, he puts forward a pragmatic idea of the difference between observational experiences and existential ones in our lives. Finally, he applies this pragmatic philosophy of religion to the question of whether it is reasonable to claim that belief in God presupposes God ¢ € s existence.
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