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Political Institutions and Their Historical Dynamics  [PDF]
Mikael Sandberg, Per Lundberg
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045838
Abstract: Traditionally, political scientists define political institutions deductively. This approach may prevent from discovery of existing institutions beyond the definitions. Here, a principal component analysis was used for an inductive extraction of dimensions in Polity IV data on the political institutions of all nations in the world the last two centuries. Three dimensions of institutions were revealed: core institutions of democracy, oligarchy, and despotism. We show that, historically and on a world scale, the dominance of the core institutions of despotism has first been replaced by a dominance of the core institutions of oligarchy, which in turn is now being followed by an increasing dominance by the core institutions of democracy. Nations do not take steps from despotic, to oligarchic and then to democratic institutions, however. Rather, nations hosting the core democracy institutions have succeeded in historically avoiding both the core institutions of despotism and those of oligarchy. On the other hand, some nations have not been influenced by any of these dimensions, while new institutional combinations are increasingly influencing others. We show that the extracted institutional dimensions do not correspond to the Polity scores for autocracy, “anocracy” and democracy, suggesting that changes in regime types occur at one level, while institutional dynamics work on another. Political regime types in that sense seem “canalized”, i.e., underlying institutional architectures can and do vary, but to a considerable extent independently of regime types and their transitions. The inductive approach adds to the deductive regime type studies in that it produces results in line with modern studies of cultural evolution and memetic institutionalism in which institutions are the units of observation, not the nations that acts as host for them.
Universitas Psychologica , 2007,
Abstract: The document describes the creation of new tools that have changed (or trivialized) the relationship of the humanbeing with the modernity dimensions he built, with the presentation of different organizational tensions analyzedwith a cultural analysis of two institutions related with transport policy, from a standpoint of critical psychology. Basedon the results from an investigation of the psychosociology of transport project, this work analyzes the discourse ofstaff of both organizations that work in transport policy, to achieve a closer look of the way in which they understandspace, time and speed within their everyday processes. The document sets forth questions to deepen this topic infurther research, especially space as a need for development, and speed as a characteristic that should be understood ina critical manner, before accepting it as a positive aspect of progress. The latter is the sense that the authors want to giveto the title of the document.
Cultural Foundations for Ecological Restoration on the White Mountain Apache Reservation  [cached]
Jonathan Long,Aregai Tecle,Benrita Burnette
Ecology and Society , 2003,
Abstract: Myths, metaphors, and social norms that facilitate collective action and understanding of restoration dynamics serve as foundations for ecological restoration. The experience of the White Mountain Apache Tribe demonstrates how such cultural foundations can permeate and motivate ecological restoration efforts. Through interviews with tribal cultural advisors and restoration practitioners, we examined how various traditions inform their understanding of restoration processes. Creation stories reveal the time-honored importance and functions of water bodies within the landscape, while place names yield insights into their historical and present conditions. Traditional healing principles and agricultural traditions help guide modern restoration techniques. A metaphor of stability illustrates how restoration practitioners see links among ecological, social, and personal dimensions of health. These views inspire reciprocal relationships focused on caretaking of sites, learning from elders, and passing knowledge on to youths. Woven together, these cultural traditions uphold a system of adaptive management that has withstood the imposition of non-indigenous management schemes in the 20th century, and now provides hope for restoring health and productivity of ecosystems through individual and collective efforts. Although these traditions are adapted to the particular ecosystems of the Tribe, they demonstrate the value of understanding and promoting the diverse cultural foundations of restoration.
Qader Vazifeh Damirchi,Gholamreza Rahimi,Mir Hossein Seyyedi
Australian Journal of Business and Management Research , 2011,
Abstract: The main focus of this study is Cultural Institutions of Moghan region in Iran. The theory of multiple intelligences was developed in 1983 by Howard Gardner. He suggests that the traditional notion of intelligence, based on I.Q. testing, is far too limited. Instead, Dr. Gardner proposes eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults. These intelligences are linguistic intelligence, logical intelligence, spatial intelligence, bodily intelligence, musical intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence and Naturalist intelligence. The purpose of this research is surveying of relationship between multiple intelligences and productivity of Cultural Institutions workers in Moghan. The methodology of study is descriptive and analytical study. Data collection instrument was a questionnaire that its reliability was confirmed by Crohn Bach’s alpha and library studies. The results show that, there is a relationship between multiple intelligences and productivity of Cultural Institutions workers in Moghan.
Monuj Boruah
International Journal for Basic Sciences and Social Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: People’s participation in PRI devotes to direct involvement of grass root level people in administration. The involvement is not only in policy formation or planning but also in implementation of the policies in the rural and remotes areas. In a predominantly agrarian country like India, any attempt aiming at a radical change in the socio-economic condition of the masses must be directed towards rural masses because they are the backbone of our existence. People’s participation in PRIs is very necessary for the survival of a democracy like India, where the rural peoples forms the base of our existence.This paper tries to examine the question of people’s participation in PRIs specially in Gaon Panchayat and how far the objectives of the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act; 1992 has executed in Assam with special reference to two Gaon Panchayats, viz., Tamulisiga and Bamunpukhuri Gaon Panchayat under East Jorhat Development Block, Kaliapani in Jorhat District.
Ways of Possible Cooperation between Surgut State Pedagogical University and Cultural Institutions of Surgut Region
Maria Ju. Lubenets
European Researcher , 2012,
Abstract: The article examines major ways of cooperation between Higher Educational Establishment and regional cultural institutions, considers university activities, concerning training of mangers of social and cultural sphere
Susana Lopez-Aparicio,Terje Gr?ntoft,Elin Dahlin
E-Preservation Science , 2010,
Abstract: Since its development, the Early Warning dosimeter forOrganic materials (EWO dosimeter) has been used as botha research and general measurement tool for the evaluationof indoor air quality for preser vation of cultural heritageartefacts. The EWO dosimeter measures the integrateddegradation impact of the environment, comparable to thatobserved on organic materials due to the synergisticeffects of gases (NO2 and O3) and climate (temperature /RH, UV-light).Measurements of impacts of air pollution on EWO dosimeterswere performed in different cultural heritage locationsas part of EU projects, other types of international projectsand as a service to individual institutions. In this study, theindoor air quality in different microenvironments or locationsis assessed based on the results obtained by EWOdosimetry. Correlation between the type of location and thedosimeter results has been obser ved. Indoor locations inhighly polluted cities showed higher dosimeter responsethan more rural locations probably due to more infiltrationof outdoor generated pollutants such as NO2 and O3. In contrast,measurements performed inside enclosures (e.g.showcases / microclimate frames) showed low response ofthe dosimeter and hence low photo-oxidizing effects.
Constitutional Amendment—The Proposal Stage  [PDF]
Dag Anckar
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2017.81004
Abstract: Studies of the rigidity of constitutional amendment often focus on formulas that are applied in the final stages of amendment, stating that amendments must be decided by a two-thirds parliamentary majority, by a three-fourths majority, by referendum, by a combination of several such prescriptions, and so forth. However, much can probably be added to our knowledge of rigidity causes and consequences by expanding research to cover other decision stages, like the proposal stage, which conveys the right of constitutional amendment initiative on specified actors and institutions. While several countries do not in their current constitutions regulate the constitutional amendment proposal stage, initiative prescriptions are in fact given in a majority of the constitutions of the countries of the world, the precise number being 111. The number is impressive and certainly suggests that the proposal stage merits comparative study and examination. Initiating such examination, a preliminary empirical investigation of initiative clauses in 40 selected countries suggests that accounting for initiative rigidity makes in many cases a difference that alters the rigidity profiles that emanate from more traditional approaches to rigidity; in consequence, measurements of constitutional rigidity should preferably observe not only the decisive amendment stage but also include methods that are used for proposing amendments.
Organizational Institutions and Their Responsible Behavioral-Cultural Gene Codes and A Measurement for Organizational Efficiency
Jason Jixuan
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2010,
Abstract: This essay has two goals. The first is to classify two different types of organizational institutions from the four-dimensional system-thinking perspective, and to identify the relationship between such organizational institutions and their relevant behavioral-cultural gene codes embedded within their (P-)individuals. Unlike the popular belief that authoritarian or totalitarian institutions are caused by ideologies or created/dominated by tyrannical leaders, the author defines a concept of behavioral-cultural gene code and extends the application of self-organization theory to suggest that behavioral-cultural gene codes carried by the members of the organization are responsible for the formation of, either democratic or authoritarian, institutions. Therefore, transformation of an authoritarian organization into a democratic one, no matter at the level of groups, of business enterprises, or of a government, must start from transforming behavioral-cultural gene codes. The second goal is to define Organizational Friction Coefficient for capturing the characteristics of these two types of organizational institutions, thus adding clarity to the widely used concept of organizational efficiency in the contexts of both business organizations and systems of government.
Eighteenth Amendment in the Constitution of Pakistan: Success and Controversies  [cached]
Mahboob Hussain,Rizwan Ullah Kokab
Asian Social Science , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v8n1p81
Abstract: The paper is a critical analysis of the 18th Amendment in the Constitution of Pakistan. The Amendment made after months of deliberations and consensus of a committee represented by all political parties in the parliament has, as claimed by its authors, cleaned the Constitution with the later undemocratic additions and deletions. The paper examines how the Amendment has undertaken different issues concerning to the strength of democracy, institutions and federation of Pakistan. The paper observes the concerns, purposes and impacts of not less than all changes made in the Constitution in the domains of democracy, civil rights, strength of parliament, provincial autonomy, decrease in the powers of President, political parties, and appointment of election commission and judiciary. Having observed its achievements an overview of the controversies, which arose in the result of the Amendment, has been taken.

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