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Early Childhood Caries  [PDF]
Yumiko Kawashita,Masayasu Kitamura,Toshiyuki Saito
International Journal of Dentistry , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/725320
Abstract: Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries. 1. Introduction The term “dental caries” is used to describe the results, signs, and symptoms of a localized chemical dissolution of the tooth surface caused by metabolic events taking place in the biofilms (dental plaque) that cover the affected area [1]. Children in the age range of 12–30 months have a special caries pattern that differs from that in older children. Caries affects the maxillary primary incisors and first primary molars in a way that reflects the pattern of eruption. The longer the tooth has been present and exposed to the caries challenge, the more it is affected. The upper incisors are most vulnerable, while the mandibular incisors are protected by the tongue and by saliva from submandibular and sublingual glands [1]. This pattern of dental caries has been labeled variously as “bottle caries,” “nursing caries,” “baby bottle tooth decay,” or “night bottle mouth.” These terms suggest that the prime cause of dental caries in early childhood is inappropriate bottle feeding. Current evidence suggests that use of a sugar-containing liquid in a bottle at night may be an important etiological factor, although it is not necessarily the only etiological factor. Therefore, it is recommended that the term “early childhood caries (ECC)” be used when describing any form of caries in infants and preschool children [2, 3]. ECC begins with white-spot lesions in the upper primary incisors along the margin of the gingiva. If the disease continues, caries can progress, leading to complete destruction of the crown [4, 5]. Children experiencing caries as infants or toddlers have a much greater
Feeding Practices and Early Childhood Caries: A Cross-Sectional Study of Preschool Children in Kanpur District, India  [PDF]
Santhebachalli Prakasha Shrutha,Grandim Balarama Gupta Vinit,Kolli Yada Giri,Sarwar Alam
ISRN Dentistry , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/275193
Abstract: Background. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a public health problem due to its impact on children’s health, development, and wellbeing. The objective of this study was to assess the caries experience in 3–5-year-old children and to evaluate the relationship with their mothers’ practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene habits in Kanpur. Method. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 2000 (974 boys and 1026 girls) children aged 3–5 years from a random sample of preschools in Kanpur district, India. Dental caries experience was recorded using WHO criteria. A pretested questionnaire with 9 questions was used for collecting information regarding mothers’ practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene practices. Chi-square test ( ) and Student’s -test were used for statistical analysis. Results. The prevalence of ECC was 48% with mean dmft of 2.03 ± 2.99. Boys (57%) were affected more than girls (43%) which was found to be statistically significant ( ). Caries prevalence was high and statistically significant ( ) among those who were breast fed for longer duration, during nighttime, those falling asleep with bottle, and those fed with additional sugar in milk. Conclusion. Determining the role of feeding practices on early childhood caries can help in the development of appropriate oral health promotion strategies. 1. Introduction Dental caries is still a major oral health problem in most industrialized countries, affecting 60–90% of schoolchildren and the vast majority of adults. It is also a most prevalent oral disease in several Asian and Latin-American countries, while it appears to be less common and less severe in most African countries [1]. Within-country disparities are also common, with preschool children from disadvantaged communities generally experiencing higher levels of disease than the general population [2, 3]. Despite credible scientific advances and the fact that caries is preventable, dental decay in the primary dentition of young children continues to pose a serious threat to child welfare. Early childhood caries (ECC) has been defined as “the presence of one or more decayed, missing due to caries, or filled tooth surfaces in any primary teeth in children under 6 years of age” [4, 5]. Due to its high prevalence, impact on quality of life, potential for increasing risk of caries in the permanent dentition, and role in oral health inequalities, ECC is recognised as a serious public health problem [3]. Socioeconomic, sociocultural, and sociobehavioural determinants are believed to influence specific risk factors for ECC such as dietary
Early childhood caries in preschool children of Kosovo - a serious public health problem
Agim Begzati, Merita Berisha, Kastriot Meqa
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-788
Abstract: The subjects were 1,008 preschool children, selected by stratified random cluster sampling, in the municipality of Prishtina, capital of Kosovo. Data were collected through clinical examination and interviews. Dmft data were recorded according to WHO criteria. Bacterial examination (CRT bacteria test) and plaque test of Greene-Vermillion were used.The mean dmft of preschool children was found to be 5.8. The prevalence of ECC was 17.36%, with a mean dmft of 11 ± 3.6. Streptococcus mutans prevalence in ECC children was 98%. A significant correlation between dmft and S mutans counts (≥105 CFU/mL saliva) was demonstrated. A correlation was also found between daily sweets consumption and dmft in children with ECC (P < 0.001). Comparing the dmft of ECC children and duration of bottle feeding showed a statistical correlation (P < 0.001). The mean plaque test was 1.52. None of the examined children had ever used fluoride.The prevalence of ECC was high among preschool children in the municipality of Kosovo. We recommend increasing parents' knowledge of proper feeding habits and oral health practices, and increasing preschool children's accessibility to dental services.Kosovo, the youngest European country, lies in the Balkan Peninsula in Southeastern Europe. The population of Kosovo in 2000 was estimated at 2 million [1], with 32.8% of the population being age 14 or younger [2]. The health care system is facing difficult organizational issues, with many problems and challenges ahead. There are no concrete activities in preventive dentistry organized by Kosovo's Ministry of Health. Some preventive activities are accomplished by the Group for Public Oral Health Promotion, established in 2000 and supported by nongovernmental organizations.During the promotion of oral public health in urban kindergartens, the presence of extensive dental disease in children, known as early childhood caries (ECC), was recorded.ECC is an acute, rapidly developing dental disease occurring initially
The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods
Andrea M de Silva-Sanigorski, Hanny Calache, Mark Gussy, Stuart Dashper, Jane Gibson, Elizabeth Waters
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-97
Abstract: This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to:1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months), tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine.2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver.3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva), environmental (fluoride exposure) and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions).4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and progression of early childhood caries from age 1-18 months.There is currently a lack of research describing the natural history of early childhood caries in very young children, or exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors that extend to include contemporary measures of socio-behavioural factors. This study will generate knowledge about pathways, prevalence and preventive opportunities for early childhood caries, the most prevalent child health inequality.Dental caries (decay) during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood [1]. Caries in children aged less tha
Prevalence of Early Childhood Caries and its Risk Factors in 6-60 months old Children in Quchan
Fatemeh Mazhari,Maryam Talebi,Musa Zoghi
Dental Research Journal , 2007,
Abstract: Introduction: Despite advances in the oral health of children in recent decades, early childhood caries (ECC) continues to pose a serious threat to child welfare. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence and severity of ECC in 6-60 month old children in relation to socioeconomic factors, feeding practices and oral health behaviors in Quchan.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included almost all children enrolled in Quchans day care centers; 232 six to sixty months children were examined. Social and behavioral information were obtained from parents through a self-administered questionnaire. ECC and severe ECC (S-ECC) were diagnosed based on NIDCR and WHO recommendations.Results: The prevalence of ECC and S-ECC were 59% and 25%, respectively. The overall mean of d2mfs (with cavitated carious surface lesions) and d2psmfs (with cavitated and non-cavitated carious surface lesions) were 2.1 ± 4.45 and 3.80 ± 5.34, respectively. The variables significantly associated with ECC or SECC were socioeconomic status, frequency of bottle-feeding, snacking frequency, probable age of starting tooth brushing, person responsible for child’s oral health care and eruption age of the first tooth.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the prevalence of ECC was high among of preschool children in the city of Quchan. It is recommended to increase knowledge of parents about proper feeding habits and oral health practices, and also preschool children accessibility to dental services.
Parental influences on dental caries development in preschool children. An overview with emphasis on recent Norwegian research  [cached]
Tove I. Wigen,Nina J. Wang
Norsk Epidemiologi , 2012,
Abstract: The proportion of Norwegian preschool children with dental caries experience has decreased during the last decades and the caries distribution has become skewed. Some children develop caries in early life, and caries may affect body weight, growth and quality of life in children. The social environment influences child development, including the risk for developing dental caries. The purpose of this paper was to summarize knowledge from the literature regarding parental influence on caries development in preschool children with focus on recent Norwegian research based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. The results from the literature review showed that characteristics of the family and parental oral health behaviours and lifestyle may be associated with caries development in preschool children. These associations were recently confirmed in the Norwegian setting with low caries prevalence in children, high educational level in the population, and comprehensive dental service free of charge for children. In conclusion, the literature establishes associations between parental factors that are known during pregnancy and early parenthood and caries development in early childhood. These risk indicators may be used by health care personnel to identify risk children and target preventive care at children before dental caries has developed.
Obesity and Dental Caries among Preschool Children in Brazil
Granville-Garcia,Ana F.; Menezes,Valdenice A. de; Lira,Pedro I. de; Ferreira,Jainara M; Leite-Cavalcanti,Alessandro;
Revista de Salud Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0124-00642008000500011
Abstract: aim this study was aimed at verifying the relationship between childhood obesity and dental caries. method a total of 2 651 preschool children were examined for this cross-sectional study in recife, pernambuco, brazil; 1 338 of them attended public schools and 1 313 private schools. the clinical data and anthropometric measurements were obtained in line with who criteria. pearson chi-square and mann-whitney tests were used, with a 5 % margin of error. results the prevalence of child obesity was 9 % (n=240). the highest prevalence was observed amongst children in private elementary schools (p<0.0001). the prevalence of dental caries was 19 % (n=504). the dmft index was smaller in non-obese individuals (p=0.0267). the average value of dental caries, lost teeth and dmft were significantly higher among children in public elementary schools than amongst those in private pre-schools (p<0.0001). conclusion no relationship was found between dental caries and obesity. suitable health policies should be adopted so as to minimise the high prevalence of dental caries among this population.
The prevalence of nursing caries in Davangere preschool children and its relationship with feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family  [cached]
Tyagi R
Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry , 2008,
Abstract: The aim of the present study was to find the prevalence of nursing caries in Davangere preschool children and its relationship with feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Materials and Methods: A total of 813 children aged 2-6 years were screened for the present study from randomly selected three kindergarten schools each from Government, Government aided, and private managements. Clinical examination was done inside the respective schools. At the time of examination, a proforma was filled for each child comprising of DFS index. The questionnaire by Winter et al. was modified and used in this study. The completed proformas were statistically analyzed to find if any correlation existed between the nursing caries to the feeding practices and socioeconomic status of the family. Results: Duration of breastfeeding increases the number of children with nursing caries and the mean DFS. There is a strong and significant relationship between the severity of nursing caries and the degree of feeding abuse. Children from low socioeconomic status have increased early childhood caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of nursing caries was 19.2% in Davangere preschool population. Nursing caries were more in children who were taking a feeding bottle to bed at night and were increasingly seen in large families and lower socioeconomic groups.
Relationship between parental locus of control and caries experience in preschool children – cross-sectional survey
Erika Len?ová, Hynek Pikhart, Zdeněk Broukal, Georgios Tsakos
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-208
Abstract: A representative sample of 285 preschool children and their parents was recruited. Study data included children's dental status recorded in nurseries and parental questionnaires with 13 attitudinal items regarding locus of control (LoC) in caries prevention. The association between parental locus of control and children's caries experience and level of untreated caries was analysed using logistic regression, adjusting for the effect of key sociodemographic variables.There was a statistically highly significant linear trend between increased parental LoC and higher probability of the children to be free from untreated caries, independent from the effect of sociodemographic variables of children and parents. A similar highly statistically significant trend, although not entirely linear, and independent from sociodemographic variables was observed with respect to the chance of the children to be free from caries experience with increasing strength of parental LoC. After full adjustment, children in the strongest parental LoC quintile were 2.81 (1.23–6.42, p< 0.05) times more likely to be free from untreated caries in comparison to the weakest parental LoC quintile and 2.32 (1.02–5.25, p< 0.05) times more likely to be free from caries experience in comparison to the weakest parental LoC quintile.The findings support the hypothesis that higher internal parental LoC is associated with better control of both untreated caries and caries experience in their preschool children and highlight that a more internal LoC within the family is advantageous in the prevention of dental caries.Childhood caries may result into severe impairment of both general and oral health [1,2]. Its prevalence in both developing and industrial countries is relatively high and ranges from 17% to 75% in different countries and populations [3-9], therefore it can be viewed as a relevant public health problem. Severe forms of childhood caries in primary dentition represent a symptom of other paediatric d
A literature review of the relationship between breastfeeding and early childhood caries
Narjes Amiri TehraniZadeh,Nahid Asgarizadeh,Vajihe Kamel
Journal of Dental Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Background and Aims: Improper feeding is one of the most important etiologic factors in early childhood caries (ECC). In some clinical trials, breast feeding (BF) is mentioned as a causing factor in ECC. Results in this topic are different or even controversial. It is vital that all general advices given out are consistent with general health education messages. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the relationship between breast feeding and early childhood caries. Materials and Methods: Articles, guidelines, related books, and specific databases such as SID, PubMed, Scirus, Elsevier, American Association of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD), American Association of Pediatrics (AAP) and American Dental Association (ADA) were searched for related topics cited since 1990. Early childhood caries definition, breast feeding and other variables such as sample size, study location and study design were analyzed.Results: According to data analysis, there was a lack of methodological consistency and inconsistent definitions of ECC and BF in the literature making it difficult to draw conclusions. Results about relationship between prolonged BF and ECC were inconclusive. There was a positive relationship between nocturnal BF and ECC. A history of BF did not have any effect on the caries incidence.Conclusion: Because of the role of breast feeding in children's health, it is important to inform the parents about the possibility of dental caries due to nocturnal breast feeding.
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