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Breastmilk Cell and Fat Contents Respond Similarly to Removal of Breastmilk by the Infant  [PDF]
Foteini Hassiotou, Anna R. Hepworth, Tracey M. Williams, Alecia-Jane Twigger, Sharon Perrella, Ching Tat Lai, Luis Filgueira, Donna T. Geddes, Peter E. Hartmann
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078232
Abstract: Large inter- and intra-individual variations exist in breastmilk composition, yet factors associated with these variations in the short-term are not well understood. In this study, the effects of breastfeeding on breastmilk cellular and biochemical content were examined. Serial breastmilk samples (~5 mL) were collected from both breasts of breastfeeding women before and immediately after the first morning breastfeed, and then at 30-minute intervals for up to 3 hours post-feed on 2–4 mornings per participant. The infant fed from one breast only at each feed. Effects of pump versus hand expression for samples were evaluated. A consistent response pattern of breastmilk cell and fat contents to breastmilk removal was observed. Maximum fat and cell levels were obtained 30 minutes post-feed (P<0.01), with up to 8-fold increase in fat and 12-fold increase in cell content compared to the pre-feed values, and then they gradually decreased. Breastmilk cell viability and protein concentration did not change with feeding (P>0.05), although large intra-individual variability was noted for protein. Expression mode for samples did not influence breastmilk composition (P>0.05). It is concluded that breastmilk fat content, and thus breast fullness, is closely associated with breastmilk cell content. This will now form the basis for standardization of sampling protocols in lactation studies and investigation of the mechanisms of milk synthesis and cell movement into breastmilk. Moreover, these findings generate new avenues for clinical interventions exploring growth and survival benefits conferred to preterm infants by providing the highest in fat and cells milk obtained at 30 min post-expression.
Evaluation of three methods for hemoglobin measurement in a blood donor setting
Rosenblit, Jacob;Abreu, Cláudia Regina;Szterling, Leonel Nulman;Kutner, José Mauro;Hamerschlak, Nelson;Frutuoso, Paula;Paiva, Thelma Regina Silva Stracieri de;Ferreira Júnior, Orlando da Costa;
Sao Paulo Medical Journal , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-31801999000300003
Abstract: context: the hemoglobin (hb) level is the most-used parameter for screening blood donors for the presence of anemia, one of the most-used methods for measuring hb levels is based on photometric detection of cyanmetahemoglobin, as an alternative to this technology, hemocue has developed a photometric method based on the determination of azide metahemoglobin. objective: to evaluate the performance of three methods for hemoglobin (hb) determination in a blood bank setting. design: prospective study utilizing blood samples to compare methods for hb determination. setting: hemotherapy service of the hospital israelita albert einstein, a private institution in the tertiary health care system. sample: serial blood samples were collected from 259 individuals during the period from march to june 1996. main measurements: test performances and their comparisons were assessed by the analysis of coefficients of variation (cv), linear regression and mean differences. results: the cv for the three methods were: coulter 0.68%, cobas 0.82% and hemocue 0.69%. there was no difference between the mean hb determination for the three methods (p>0.05). the coulter and cobas methods showed the best agreement and the hemocue method gave a lower hb determination when compared to both the coulter and cobas methods. however, pairs of methods involving the hemocue seem to have narrower limits of agreement (± 0.78 and ± 1.02) than the coulter and cobas combination (± 1.13). conclusion: the three methods provide good agreement for hemoglobin determination.
Quality evaluation of four hemoglobin screening methods in a blood donor setting along with their comparative cost analysis in an Indian scenario  [cached]
Tondon Rashmi,Verma Anupam,Pandey Prashant,Chaudhary Rajendra
Asian Journal of Transfusion Science , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Despite the wide range of methods available for measurement of hemoglobin, no single technique has emerged as the most appropriate and ideal for a blood donation setup. Materials and Methods: A prospective study utilizing 1014 blood samples was carried out in a blood donation setting for quality evaluation of four methods of hemoglobin estimation along with cost analysis: Hematology cell analyzer (reference), HCS, CuSO4 method and HemoCue. Results: Mean value of HemoCue (mean ± SD = 14.7 ± 1.49 g/dl) was higher by 0.24 compared to reference (mean ± SD = 13.8 ± 1.52 g/dl) but not statistically significant ( P > 0.05). HemoCue proved to be the best technique (sensitivity 99.4% and specificity 84.4%) whereas HCS was most subjective with 25.2% incorrect estimations. CuSO4 proved to be good with 7.9% false results. Comparative cost analysis of each method was calculated to be 35 INR/test for HemoCue, 0.76 INR /test for HCS and 0.06-0.08 INR /test for CuSO4. Conclusion: CuSO4 method gives accurate results, if strict quality control is applied. HemoCue is too expensive to be used as a primary screening method in an economically restricted country like India.
PREM:并行求解非线性演化方程行波解的软件包  [PDF]
张治安,柳银萍
- , 2017, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1000-5641.2017.04.002
Abstract: 摘要 本文提出了一种新的构造非线性演化方程行波解的并行算法.我们在Maple 18上实现了该算法.通过设计并行算法并使用负载均衡技术,其中的软件PREM的计算效率明显高于已有的串行软件.且基于因式分解算法和运行时间限制,PREM可以自动推导出一些串行程序算不动的复杂方程的部分精确解.相比于已有的其他程序,PREM可自动推导出更多类型的精确行波解.此外,PREM具有灵活的接口和输出.
Abstract:In this paper, a new parallel algorithm and its implementation called PREM for solving nonlinear evolution equations are presented. PREM is developed in Maple 18. By using parallel and load balancing techniques, PREM is more efficient than any previous serial programs. Furthermore, for some complicated equations that serial programs failed to solve, PREM may obtain some exact traveling wave solutions by factoring algorithm and time limit. In addition, the interface and output of PREM is flexible and diverse. More types of exact travelling wave solutions could be obtained by using this parallel program.
Participant experiences in a breastmilk biomonitoring study: A qualitative assessment
Nerissa Wu, Michael D McClean, Phil Brown, Ann Aschengrau, Thomas F Webster
Environmental Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-8-4
Abstract: Participants of the Greater Boston PBDE Breastmilk Biomonitoring Study were contacted and asked about their experiences in the study: the impact of study recruitment materials on attitudes towards breastfeeding; if participants had wanted individual biomonitoring results; if the protocol by which individual results were distributed met participants' needs; and the impact of individual results on attitudes towards breastfeeding.No participants reported reducing the duration of breastfeeding because of the biomonitoring study, but some responses suggested that breastmilk biomonitoring studies have the potential to raise anxieties about breastfeeding. Almost all participants wished to obtain individual results. Although several reported some concern about individual body burden, none reported reducing the duration of breastfeeding because of biomonitoring results. The study literature and report-back method were found to mitigate potential negative impacts.Biomonitoring study design, including clear communication about the benefits of breastfeeding and the manner in which individual results are distributed, can prevent negative impacts of biomonitoring on breastfeeding. Adoption of more specific standards for biomonitoring studies and continued study of risk communication issues related to biomonitoring will help protect participants from harm.Biomonitoring, or the measure of chemicals that have accumulated in the body ("body burden"), has long been used to monitor individual and population-wide exposures to chemicals such as lead and mercury [1,2]. Epidemiologists and exposure assessors trying to understand exposure pathways between the environment and the individual, as well as advocacy groups drawing attention to the ubiquitous nature of environmental contaminants, have used biomonitoring as an effective tool [2,3].Public interest in biomonitoring has increased; technology to measure chemicals in various media has also improved, resulting in more biomonitoring studi
Stable expression and potential use of West Nile virus envelope glycoproteins preM/E as antigen in diagnostic tests
Cargnelutti, Juliana Felipetto;Brum, Mário Celso Sperotto;Weiblen, Rudi;Flores, Eduardo Furtado;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822011000300040
Abstract: west nile virus (wnv) envelope glycoproteins prem/e were stably expressed in baby hamster kidney cells and tested as antigen in a fluorescent antibody assay for wnv antibodies. sera from horses, mice and chicken immunized with an inactivated wnv vaccine and, less consistently, sera from horses acutely infected with wnv, reacted specifically with viral antigens present in prem/e-expressing cells.
Evaluation of Oxidative Stress, Antioxidant Power, and Antioxidant Potential of Breastmilk of Breast-Feeding Mothers  [PDF]
Naoko Kuramoto, Mariko Kitagawa
Health (Health) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/health.2017.98083
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress, antioxidant power, and antioxidant potential of breastmilk of breast-feeding mothers from the early postpartum period to the first 3 months postpartum, and to examine the dynamics and the relationships among them. Method: For 47 pu-erperant women who gave vaginal birth without any pregnancy complications, the oxidative stress levels (d-ROMs levels) and antioxidant power (BAP levels) in the maternal plasma as well as antioxidant potential of breastmilk (BAP levels in breastmilk) were measured 3 times, i.e., in the early puerperium (4 or 5 days after giving birth), one month after giving birth, and 3 months after giving birth. Results: The d-ROMs levels in the maternal plasma were significantly high in the early puerperium (p < 0.001), and decreased gradually in the post-partum period (p < 0.001). On the other hand, BAP levels were significantly low in the early puerperium (p < 0.001), and increased to the almost normal level during one month after giving birth. BAP levels in breastmilk were significantly high in the early puerperium compared with the other periods (p < 0.001), and decreased gradually until 3 months after giving birth (p < 0.001). BAP levels in breastmilk in the early puerperium were higher compared with the maternal BAP levels, and there was a positive correlation between BAP levels in breast-milk and those in the maternal plasma (p < 0.05). Discussion: Regarding the oxidative stress and the antioxidant defense system of breast-feeding mothers, the d-ROMs level was highest and the BAP level was lowest in the early puerperium. The BAP level then showed a clear tendency to recover in the first 3 months after giving birth. Conclusion: When the maternal antioxidant potential remains at a low level after giving birth, careful consideration should be given to the mother’s health and wellbeing because there is a possibility that it might affect the antioxidant potential of breastmilk.
Communicating human biomonitoring results to ensure policy coherence with public health recommendations: analysing breastmilk whilst protecting, promoting and supporting breastfeeding  [PDF]
Arendt Maryse
Environmental Health , 2008,
Abstract: This article addresses the problem of how to ensure consistency in messages communicating public health recommendations on environmental health and on child health. The World Health Organization states that the protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding rank among the most effective interventions to improve child survival. International public health policy recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by continued breastfeeding with the addition of safe and adequate complementary foods for two years and beyond. Biomonitoring of breastmilk is used as an indicator of environmental pollution ending up in mankind. This article will therefore present the biomonitoring results of concentrations of residues in breastmilk in a wider context. These results are the mirror that reflects the chemical substances accumulated in the bodies of both men and women in the course of a lifetime. The accumulated substances in our bodies may have an effect on male or female reproductive cells; they are present in the womb, directly affecting the environment of the fragile developing foetus; they are also present in breastmilk. Evidence of man-made chemical residues in breastmilk can provide a shock tactic to push for stronger laws to protect the environment. However, messages about chemicals detected in breastmilk can become dramatized by the media and cause a backlash against breastfeeding, thus contradicting the public health messages issued by the World Health Organization. Analyses of breastmilk show the presence of important nutritional components and live protective factors active in building up the immune system, in gastro intestinal maturation, in immune defence and in providing antiviral, antiparasitic and antibacterial activity. Through cohort studies researchers in environmental health have concluded that long-term breastfeeding counterbalances the effect of prenatal exposure to chemicals causing delay in mental and psychomotor development. Therefore caution should be exercised when presenting the results of biomonitoring of breastmilk. The results should be a motivation to enact strong legislation on chemicals and review the use of chemical substances present in breastmilk, but the results should not be used to undermine the confidence in breastmilk as the optimal food for infants and young children.
Enquiry analysis and user opinion of the Drugs in Breastmilk Helpline: a prospective study
Paul M Rutter, Wendy Jones
International Breastfeeding Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-7-6
Abstract: All enquirers to the Helpline between December 2010 and January 2011 were asked if they could be contacted in 2 to 4 weeks to provide more information on their experience of using the service. A combination of telephone semi-structured interviews and email surveys were used depending on whether the enquiry originated via telephone or email.Information was gained from 101 participants; 77 women and 24 healthcare professionals. Women reported high levels of service satisfaction (94%, n = 72/77) and healthcare professionals found the information provided useful (92%, n = 22/24). Women used the service for reassurance or because they had received conflicting information or distrusted healthcare professional advice. Healthcare professionals often could not answer questions or took a cautious approach to recommendation (i.e. advised avoidance of medicines whilst breastfeeding); this was often at odds to advice given by staff from the Helpline. Healthcare professionals did not routinely access resources to answer questions, but when they did, showed a lack of confidence in data interpretation.The Breastfeeding Networks’ Drugs in Breastmilk Helpline provides an important service to breastfeeding women and healthcare staff to make informed decisions on medicine taking whilst breastfeeding. Healthcare professional uncertainty and incorrect advice given to breastfeeding women suggests that healthcare professional education needs improving and that greater use of specialist services should be encouraged.
A new analytical technique in capillary electrophoresis: Studying the levels of nucleotides in human breastmilk
Javier Cubero,Javier Sanchez,Cristina Sanchez,David Narciso
Journal of Applied Biomedicine , 2007,
Abstract: The effect of nucleotides in the newborn is a determinant in this first stage of life, and their correctlevel in breastmilk is vital. We have designed a new method for the assay of nucleotides in milk bycapillary electrophoresis (CE) after acid hydrolysis. Breastmilk samples were collected from healthymothers (ages, 25–35 years) of one month lactation, and stored at -20°C. The duplicated sampleswere dissociated by acidic hydrolysis (HClO4) and the CE assay was performed in an uncoatedfused-silica capillary using an alkaline (borate) electrophoretic separation system.The method gave good recoveries of 5′-mononucleotides. Under the conditions used, the actualCE analysis time was less than 20 minutes. The physiologically and nutritionally importantnucleotides were detected at concentrations of 387 μg/100ml for UMP-5P, 385.3 μg/100ml forAMP-5P, 67 μg/100ml for CMP-5P, 172 μg/100ml for TMP-5P and 315 μg/100ml for GMP-5P.Nucleotides are a significant nutrient in infant growth, and capillary electrophoresis is a sensitiveand efficient tool for the assay of nucleotides with a purine or pyrimidine base in breastmilk.
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