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Silver nanowire-based transparent, flexible, and conductive thin film  [cached]
Liu Cai-Hong,Yu Xun
Nanoscale Research Letters , 2011,
Abstract: The fabrication of transparent, conductive, and uniform silver nanowire films using the scalable rod-coating technique is described in this study. Properties of the transparent conductive thin films are investigated, as well as the approaches to improve the performance of transparent silver nanowire electrodes. It is found that silver nanowires are oxidized during the coating process. Incubation in hydrogen chloride (HCl) vapor can eliminate oxidized surface, and consequently, reduce largely the resistivity of silver nanowire thin films. After HCl treatment, 175 Ω/sq and approximately 75% transmittance are achieved. The sheet resistivity drops remarkably with the rise of the film thickness or with the decrease of transparency. The thin film electrodes also demonstrated excellent flexible stability, showing < 2% resistance change after over 100 bending cycles.
Figures of Merit for High-Performance Transparent Electrodes Using Dip-Coated Silver Nanowire Networks
Sergio B. Sepulveda-Mora,Sylvain G. Cloutier
Journal of Nanomaterials , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/286104
Abstract: Homogeneous, highly conductive, and transparent silver nanowire thin films were fabricated using a simple dip-coating technique and a subsequent annealing step. Silver nanowires with two different average lengths (11 μm and 19 μm) were used in the sample preparation to analyze the dependence of the sheet resistance on the length of the one-dimensional nanostructures. The best sample had a sheet resistance of 10.2  with optical transmittance of 89.9%. Two figures of merit, the electrical to optical conductivity ratio and , were obtained for all the samples in order to measure their performance as transparent conductive materials.
Transparent conducting silver nanowire networks  [PDF]
Jorik van de Groep,Pierpaolo Spinelli,Albert Polman
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1021/nl301045a
Abstract: We present a transparent conducting electrode composed of a periodic two-dimensional network of silver nanowires. Networks of Ag nanowires are made with wire diameters of 45-110 nm and pitch of 500, 700 and 1000 nm. Anomalous optical transmission is observed, with an averaged transmission up to 91% for the best transmitting network and sheet resistances as low as 6.5 {\Omega}/sq for the best conducting network. Our most dilute networks show lower sheet resistance and higher optical transmittance than an 80 nm thick layer of ITO sputtered on glass. By comparing measurements and simulations we identify four distinct physical phenomena that govern the transmission of light through the networks: all related to the excitation of localized surface plasmons and surface plasmon polaritons on the wires. The insights given in this paper provide the key guidelines for designing high-transmittance and low-resistance nanowire electrodes for optoelectronic devices, including thin-film solar cells. For these latter, we discuss the general design principles to use the nanowire electrodes also as a light trapping scheme.
Local electric conductive property of Si nanowire models
Yuji Ikeda,Masato Senami,Akitomo Tachibana
AIP Advances , 2012, DOI: 10.1063/1.4769887
Abstract: Local electric conductive properties of Si nanowire models are investigated by using two local electric conductivity tensors, σ ext ( r ) and σ int ( r ) , defined in Rigged QED. It is emphasized that σ int ( r ) is defined as the response of electric current to the actual electric field at a specific point and does not have corresponding macroscopic physical quantity. For the Si nanowire models, there are regions which show complicated response of electric current density to electric field, in particular, opposite and rotational ones. Local conductivities are considered to be available for the study of a negative differential resistance (NDR), which may be related to this opposite response. It is found that σ int ( r ) shows quite different pattern from σ ext ( r ) , local electric conductivity defined for the external electric field. The effects of impurities are also studied by using the model including a Ge atom, in terms of the local response to electric field. It is found that the difference from the pristine model is found mainly around the Ge atom.
Processing and Performance of Polymeric Transparent Conductive Composites  [PDF]
Parul Jain,Ranjani Muralidharan,Jennifer Sedloff,Xiao Li,Norma A. Alcantar,Julie P. Harmon
International Journal of Polymer Science , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/845432
Abstract: Recent advances in microelectronic and optoelectronic industries have spurred interest in the development of reticulate doped polymer films containing “metallic” charge transfer complexes. In this study, such reticulate doped polymer films were prepared by exposing solid solutions of bis(ethylenedioxy) tetrathiafulvalene (BEDO-TTF) in polycarbonate (PC) to iodine, forming conductive charge transfer complexes. The resulting films exhibited room temperature conductivities ranging from 6.33 to ?S?? ??cm?1. The colored iodine complexes in the film were reduced by cyclic voltammetry yielding conductive, colorless, transparent films. We were intrigued to examine the dielectric properties of BEDO-TTF in solid solution in PC prior to formation of the charge transfer complex as no such studies appear in the literature. Dielectric analysis (DEA) was used to probe relaxations in neat PC and BEDO-TTF/PC. BEDO-TTF plasticized the PC and decreased the glass transition temperature. Two secondary relaxations appeared in PC films, whereas the transitions merged in the BEDO-TTF/PC film. DEA also evidenced conductivity relaxations above 180°C which are characterized via electric modulus formalism and revealed that BEDO-TTF increased AC conductivity in PC. 1. Introduction In the last few decades, there has been growing interest in conductive polymers and composites due to an array of potential applications in biological and chemical sensors, separations, microelectronics circuit boards, biomedical, coatings, and optical displays [1–5]. The ability to prepare thin, flexible, transparent films is an asset in applications requiring nanostructuring and miniaturization [6]. Conductivity is a general property of metals, but some polymers in combination with organic charge moieties exhibit metallic behavior [7]. After the discovery of the first organic superconductor, (TMTSeF)2PF6, a growing number of organic charge transfer complexes and conductive salts have been investigated [8]. These salts exhibit a charge transfer between a donors and acceptors in the solid state; the donors and acceptors molecules form segregated stacked sheets of cations and anions, respectively [9–11]. These materials also have low critical temperatures, Tcs (the temperature below which material is superconducting). (TMTSeF)2PF6 was subsequently replaced by another class of organic superconductors with BEDT-TTF (bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene) donors (Figure 1(a)) containing sulfur heterocycles [9]. The peripheral sulfur atoms allow better orbital overlap between donor stacks, forming a
Novel highly conductive and transparent graphene based conductors  [PDF]
Ivan Khrapach,Freddie Withers,Thomas H. Bointon,Dmitry K. Polyushkin,William L. Barnes,Saverio Russo,Monica F. Craciun
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1002/adma.201200489
Abstract: Future wearable electronics, displays and photovoltaic devices rely on highly conductive, transparent and yet mechanically flexible materials. Nowadays indium tin oxide (ITO) is the most wide spread transparent conductor in optoelectronic applications, however the mechanical rigidity of this material limits its use for future flexible devices. Here we report novel transparent conductors based on few layer graphene (FLG) intercalated with ferric chloride (FeCl3) with an outstandingly high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. We show that upon intercalation a record low sheet resistance of 8.8 Ohm/square is attained together with an optical transmittance higher than 84% in the visible range. These parameters outperform the best values of ITO and of other carbon-based materials, making these novel transparent conductors the best candidates for future flexible optoelectronics.
Controlled Synthesis of Monolayer Graphene Toward Transparent Flexible Conductive Film Application  [cached]
Lee Byeong-Joo,Yu Han-Young,Jeong Goo-Hwan
Nanoscale Research Letters , 2010,
Abstract: We demonstrate the synthesis of monolayer graphene using thermal chemical vapor deposition and successive transfer onto arbitrary substrates toward transparent flexible conductive film application. We used electron-beam-deposited Ni thin film as a synthetic catalyst and introduced a gas mixture consisting of methane and hydrogen. To optimize the synthesis condition, we investigated the effects of synthetic temperature and cooling rate in the ranges of 850–1,000°C and 2–8°C/min, respectively. It was found that a cooling rate of 4°C/min after 1,000°C synthesis is the most effective condition for monolayer graphene production. We also successfully transferred as-synthesized graphene films to arbitrary substrates such as silicon-dioxide-coated wafers, glass, and polyethylene terephthalate sheets to develop transparent, flexible, and conductive film application.
Electrical, Optical and Structural Properties of Improved Transparent Conductive Oxide TCO Films  [PDF]
Wahid Shams-Kolahi,Nazir P. Kherani
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: High Frequency (GW) Post Processing of Transparent Conductive Oxide, ITO, leads to a significant improvement of Optical Transmission and Electrical Conduction. This is also true in case of ITO films in multilayered structures. The improvements happen without any affecting the lower layers (other layers of the multilayered Device). This Method is extremely selective and can process only the targeted film (layer).
Facile fabrication of lateral nanowire wrap-gate devices with improved performance  [PDF]
Sajal Dhara,Shamashis Sengupta,Hari S. Solanki,Arvind Maurya,Arvind Pavan R.,M. R. Gokhale,Arnab Bhattacharya,Mandar M. Deshmukh
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1063/1.3634010
Abstract: We present a simple fabrication technique for lateral nanowire wrap-gate devices with high capacitive coupling and field-effect mobility. Our process uses e-beam lithography with a single resist-spinning step, and does not require chemical etching. We measure, in the temperature range 1.5-250 K, a subthreshold slope of 5-54 mV/decade and mobility of 2800-2500 $cm^2/Vs$ -- significantly larger than previously reported lateral wrap-gate devices. At depletion, the barrier height due to the gated region is proportional to applied wrap-gate voltage.
Continuous production of flexible carbon nanotube-based transparent conductive films  [cached]
I Stuart Fraser, Marcelo S Motta, Ron K Schmidt and Alan H Windle
Science and Technology of Advanced Materials , 2010,
Abstract: This work shows a simple, single-stage, scalable method for the continuous production of high-quality carbon nanotube-polymer transparent conductive films from carbon feedstock. Besides the ease of scalability, a particular advantage of this process is that the concentration of nanotubes in the films, and thus transparency and conductivity, can be adjusted by changing simple process parameters. Therefore, films can be readily prepared for any application desired, ranging from solar cells to flat panel displays. Our best results show a surface resistivity of the order of 300 Ω square-1 for a film with 80% transparency, which is promising at this early stage of process development.
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