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Differences in dietary pattern between obese and eutrophic children
Emilia A Balthazar, Maria RM de Oliveira
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-567
Abstract: The diet of 83 children (42 obese and 41 eutrophic), aged between 7 and 11 years of age, was assessed by two non-consecutive dietary recalls. After the software analysis of macro and micronutrients composition, the different types and amount of legumes, fruits and vegetables were analyzed to verify the dietary patterns.No differences were verified in energy consumption between the groups (eutrophic = 1934.2 ± 672.7 kcal, obese = 1835.8 ± 621.2 kcal). In general, children showed consumption within the recommended ranges of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The average consumption of fiber was higher in the eutrophic group (20.7 g) when compared to the obese group (14.8 g). The dietary fiber was strongly correlated with the number of servings of beans (r = 0.77), when compared to fruits (r = 0.44) and leafy vegetables (r = 0.13). It was also observed that the higher the consumption of fiber and beans, the lower the proportion of dietary fat (r = -0.22) in the diet. Generally, there was a low consumption of fiber (20.7 g = eutrophic group/14.8 g = obese group), beans (1.1 portions in the eutrophic and obese groups), fruits (0.7 portions eutrophic group and 0.6 obese group) and vegetables (1.3 eutrophic group and 1.1 obese group).It is concluded that the obesity was more related to a dietary pattern of low intake of dietary fiber than excessive energy consumption and macronutrients imbalance.Globally, children and adolescents are getting fatter and this situation seems irreversible [1-3]. A larger body size is not the main problem of obesity, but the numerous complications followed by it, such as, hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes [4].Genetic, physiological and metabolic factors can influence the outcome of obesity. However, the factors that could explain the growing number of obese children appear to be more related to changes in lifestyle and eating habits [5,6].An increased energy intake and changes in meal patterns, such as replacement of family meals
Adiponectin could be a comprehensive marker of metabolic syndrome in obese children
H Atwa, B Mesbah, A Sad
South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition , 2012,
Abstract: Objectives: The objectives were to investigate the relationship between the serum adiponectin level and the metabolic syndrome (MS) phenotype in children, and to examine the independent association between the serum adiponectin level and the individual components of MS. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Subjects: Fifty-six obese children with a body mass index ≥ 95th percentile for age and sex, and 50 normal-weight children matched for age and sex with the obese children, were used as controls. Outcome measures: The main outcome measure was the serum adiponectin level. Results: The serum adiponectin level was significantly lower in obese children, than in the normal-weight controls (7.35 ± 3.1 μg/dl vs. 10.64 ± 3.04 μg/dl). Obese children with MS have a significantly lower serum adiponectin level compared to obese children without MS (5.92 ± 1.9μg/dl vs. 8.57 ± 2.1 μg/dl). There was a significant negative correlation between the serum adiponectin level and waist circumference, triglyceride levels, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. The serum adiponectin level correlated positively with the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. After controlling for the confounding effect of age, sex and visceral fat, the adiponectin level remained a significant predictor of the MS [odds ratio (OR): 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63-0.91]. Conclusion: Adiponectin demonstrated a consistent relationship to each MS component. Adiponectin may be a comprehensive marker of the MS condition.
Metabolic Disease Risk in Children by Salivary Biomarker Analysis  [PDF]
J. Max Goodson, Alpdogan Kantarci, Mor-Li Hartman, Gerald V. Denis, Danielle Stephens, Hatice Hasturk, Tina Yaskell, Jorel Vargas, Xiaoshan Wang, Maryann Cugini, Roula Barake, Osama Alsmadi, Sabiha Al-Mutawa, Jitendra Ariga, Pramod Soparkar, Jawad Behbehani, Kazem Behbehani, Francine Welty
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098799
Abstract: Objective The study of obesity-related metabolic syndrome or Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in children is particularly difficult because of fear of needles. We tested a non-invasive approach to study inflammatory parameters in an at-risk population of children to provide proof-of-principle for future investigations of vulnerable subjects. Design and Methods We evaluated metabolic differences in 744, 11-year old children selected from underweight, normal healthy weight, overweight and obese categories by analyzing fasting saliva samples for 20 biomarkers. Saliva supernatants were obtained following centrifugation and used for analyses. Results Salivary C-reactive protein (CRP) was 6 times higher, salivary insulin and leptin were 3 times higher, and adiponectin was 30% lower in obese children compared to healthy normal weight children (all P<0.0001). Categorical analysis suggested that there might be three types of obesity in children. Distinctly inflammatory characteristics appeared in 76% of obese children while in 13%, salivary insulin was high but not associated with inflammatory mediators. The remaining 11% of obese children had high insulin and reduced adiponectin. Forty percent of the non-obese children were found in groups which, based on biomarker characteristics, may be at risk for becoming obese. Conclusions Significantly altered levels of salivary biomarkers in obese children from a high-risk population, suggest the potential for developing non-invasive screening procedures to identify T2D-vulnerable individuals and a means to test preventative strategies.
Leptin, Adiponectin, and Obesity among Caucasian and Asian Women  [PDF]
Shannon M. Conroy,Weiwen Chai,Unhee Lim,Adrian A. Franke,Robert V. Cooney,Gertraud Maskarinec
Mediators of Inflammation , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/253580
Abstract: Ethnic differences in adipose tissue distribution may contribute to different chronic disease risks across ethnic groups, and adipokines may mediate the risk. In a cross-sectional study, we examined ethnic differences in adipokines and inflammatory markers as related to body mass index (BMI) among 183 premenopausal women with Caucasian and Asian ancestry. General linear models were used to estimate adjusted mean levels of leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Asian women had significantly lower serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, and CRP than Caucasian participants ( ) across all levels of BMI. Among overweight and obese women, Asians showed a stronger association of CRP with leptin ( versus ) and with adiponectin ( versus ) than Caucasians. Compared to Caucasians of similar BMI, Asians may experience a higher chronic disease risk due to lower levels of adiponectin despite their lower levels of leptin. 1. Introduction Accumulating epidemiologic evidence suggests that the effect of obesity on chronic disease risk differs by ethnicity [1]. Asians experience a higher risk for hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease at lower levels of body mass index (BMI) compared to Caucasians [1–3]. For example, Japanese Americans experience a 2-fold higher diabetes risk than Caucasians, with higher risk at all BMI levels [3]. Ethnic differences in body composition and adipose tissue distribution may explain the significant interaction of ethnicity and BMI on chronic disease risk. Particularly, a higher proportion of abdominal visceral relative to subcutaneous adiposity among Asians than Caucasians [4, 5] may be responsible for insulin resistance and other adverse metabolic health effects [6, 7]. Biomarkers linking adiposity, inflammation, and disease, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), have been investigated [8]; however, no biomarker has been identified that is associated with the ethnic heterogeneity in chronic disease risk. Adipocyte-derived hormones, leptin and adiponectin, are likely candidates for elucidating the biological mechanisms underlying ethnic differences in disease risk. Leptin and adiponectin respond to increasing adiposity in a reciprocal manner [9], and the plasma leptin to adiponectin ratio may be a potential measure of insulin resistance [10]. It is unclear whether leptin and adiponectin are specific biomarkers for adipose tissue distribution; however, it appears that adiponectin concentrations are predominantly determined by visceral and leptin by subcutaneous adipose tissue [11].
Adipokines, Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein, and C-Reactive Protein Levels in Lean, Overweight, and Obese Portuguese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  [PDF]
Maria Jo?o Neuparth,Jorge Brand?o Proen?a,Alice Santos-Silva,Susana Coimbra
ISRN Obesity , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/142097
Abstract: Aim. Our aim was to study how different BMI scores may influence the levels of inflammation, oxidative stress, adipogenesis, glucose, and lipid metabolism, in lean, overweight, and obese Portuguese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. We studied 28 lean, 38 overweight, and 17 obese patients with T2DM and 20 controls (gender and age matched). The circulating levels of oxLDL, CRP, and some adipokines—adiponectin, leptin, and chemerin—and the lipid profile were evaluated. Results. Obese patients presented significantly lower levels of adiponectin and higher leptin, oxLDL, and chemerin levels, as compared to the overweight, lean, and control groups. Overweight, compared to lean and control, subjects showed significantly lower adiponectin and higher leptin and chemerin levels; oxLDL values were significantly higher in overweight than in lean patients. Lean patients presented significantly higher chemerin values than the control. Obese patients presented significantly higher CRP values, as compared to lean patients and the control group. Obese and overweight patients presented significantly higher triglycerides values than lean patients. Except for CRP, all the observed significant changes between control and patients remained significant after statistical adjustment for the body mass index (BMI). Conclusion. The levels of leptin, adiponectin, oxLDL, CRP, and triglycerides in patients with T2DM seem to be more associated with obesity and less with diabetes. Chemerin levels were raised in lean, overweight, and obese patients, suggesting that, independently of BMI, an adipocyte dysfunction occurs. Moreover, chemerin may provide an important early biomarker of adipocyte dysfunction and a link between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 1. Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are independent global health problems, but an association between the two is known to exist. Patients with diabetes often present overweight and obesity [1]. Obesity prevalence is increasing significantly and obesity associates with the risk of T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events [2, 3]. The adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ, secreting numerous adipokines and proinflammatory cytokines, known to be important in the inflammatory and atherosclerotic processes [4]. Adiponectin has an anti-inflammatory activity and protects against metabolic and cardiovascular diseases [5]. Leptin is another adipokine and the reduction in its activity leads to severe insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction [6]. Chemerin is a novel adipokine that
Omentin as a novel biomarker of metabolic risk factors
Rei Shibata, Noriyuki Ouchi, Ryotaro Takahashi, Yuya Terakura, Koji Ohashi, Nobuo Ikeda, Akiko Higuchi, Hiroko Terasaki, Shinji Kihara, Toyoaki Murohara
Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1758-5996-4-37
Abstract: The study population comprised 201 Japanese men who underwent annual health checkups. Plasma omentin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We divided the subjects into 4 groups according to omentin levels. A reduction of plasma omentin levels significantly correlated with an increase in the mean number of metabolic risk factors such as increased waist circumference, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure and glucose intolerance.Circulating omentin levels negatively correlated with the multiplicity of metabolic risk factors, suggesting that omentin acts as a biomarker of metabolic disorders.Obesity has become a major health problem in industrial countries with increasing prevalence in adults and children [1]. Obesity, in particular, excess of visceral adipose tissue, is causally linked with a cluster of metabolic disorders including glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, also known as metabolic syndrome [2-4].Accumulating evidence indicates that adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that produces various bioactive substances, also known as adipocytokines or adipokines [4,5]. Excess adipose mass observed in obese individuals is linked with increased production of many adipocytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, which potentially promotes metabolic dysfunction [5,6]. Fat tissues also produce a smaller number of adipocytokines including adiponectin and Sfrp5, which are beneficial in the setting of obesity-linked complications [5,7,8]. The imbalance of production of these adipocytokines may cause the development of obesity-related metabolic and vascular disorders.Omentin/intelectin-1 is an adipocytokine that exists in human blood stream [9-11]. While omentin is highly expressed in human visceral fat tissue, circulating omentin levels are reduced in obese subjects [12]. Omentin is also down-regulated in association with obesity-linked metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and typ
Analysis of cardiac autonomic modulation in obese and eutrophic children
Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques;Pastre, Carlos Marcelo;Freitas Júnior, Ismael Forte;Godoy, Moacir Fernandes de;
Clinics , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322010000800008
Abstract: introduction: obesity causes alterations in cardiac autonomic function. however, there are scarce and conflicting data on this function with regard to heart rate variability in obese children. objective: to compare the autonomic function of obese and eutrophic children by analyzing heart rate variability. methods: one hundred twenty-one children (57 male and 64 female) aged 8 to 12 years were distributed into two groups based on nutritional status [obese (n = 56) and eutrophic (ideal weight range; n = 65) according to the body mass index reference for gender and age]. for the analysis of heart rate variability, heart rates were recorded beat by beat as the children rested in the dorsal (prone) position for 20 minutes. heart rate variability analysis was carried out using linear approaches in the domains of frequency and time. either student's t-test or the mann-whitney u-test was applied to compare variables between groups. statistical significance was set at 5%. results: the sdnn, rmssd, pnn50, sd1, sd2, lf and hf indices in milliseconds squared were lower among the obese children when compared to the eutrophic group. there were no alterations in the sd1/sd2 ratio, lf/hf ratio, lf index or hf index in normalized units. there was a significant difference between groups in the rr interval (r-to-r ekg interval). conclusion: the obese children exhibited modifications in heart rate variability, characterized by a reduction in both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. these findings stress the need for the early holistic care of obese children to avoid future complications.
The Relation between Bronchial Asthma, Body Fat Distribution and Serum Adiponectin in Obese
Dina M Abaza*, Amany E. El Arab**, Ensaf K. Mohamed***And Hoda E. El Arab
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Childhood obesity is an emerging global public health challenge. That is because the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents has increased greatly in all parts of the world. A number of studies have reported an inverse relation between respiratory function and various indices of obesity or fat distribution (El-Baz et al., 2009). Adiponectin, an antiinflammatory adipocytokine, circulates at lower levels in the obese, which is thought to contribute to obesity-related inflammatory disease as bronchial asthma ( Medoff et al., 2009). Aim of the work The aim of this work was to assess the correlation between the bronchial asthma, obesity, fat distribution and serum adiponectin in obese Egyptian children. Subjects and Methods The present study included a group of obese fifty (50) children (25 boys & 25 girls) without the comorbidities of the metabolic syndrome; aged 7-18 years, mean age 14.2±3.9. Obesity without the comorbidities of the metabolic syndrome was defined as a BMI above the 85th percentiles according to BMI Charts of Egyptian Growth Charts for boys and girls from 2-21 years (2002). They were compared to thirty (30) lean sex and age matched controls mean age 14.1±4.8 (15 boys & 15 girls) with BMI between the 10th and 75th percentile. Anthropometric measurements (body weight, BMI, WC and fat mass% by DEXA) were done for all children together with pulmonary function test and assessment of serum adiponectin levels. Results Weight, Waist circumference (WC), Body mass index (BMI), fat mass% and adiponectin were significant higher in obese compared to non obese groups (p<0.001 for all). Parameters of pulmonary function was significant lower in obese compared to non obese groups as regard forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow maximum (PEF) and forced midexpiratory flow 25%(FEF25%) (p<0.01 for all). while no significant difference was found between both groups as regard FEV1FVC ratio and forced midexpiratory flow rate( FEF25-75% )(p>0.05 for both). A negative association of BMI with parameters of pulmonary function was found but only FEV1, FVC & FEF 25% were statistically significant(p<0.01 for all). As regard WC it was negatively correlated with FEV1, FVC and FEF 25 %( p<0.01 for all) but no correlation was found with other parameters of pulmonary functions (p>0.05). In the present study a negative correlation was found between fat mass % and parameters of pulmonary function but none of them was statistically significant (p>0.05 for all). A negative significant correlation was found be
Adiponectin as a Biomarker of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women: Controversies  [PDF]
Anna Lubkowska,Aleksandra Dobek,Jan Mieszkowski,Wojciech Garczynski,Dariusz Chlubek
Disease Markers , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/975178
Abstract: The literature reports indicating a link between plasma levels of adiponectin and body fat, bone mineral density, sex hormones, and peri- and postmenopausal changes, draw attention to the possible use of adiponectin as an indicator of osteoporotic changes, suggesting that adiponectin may also modulate bone metabolism. In this study, we attempted to analyze the available in vitro and in vivo results which could verify this hypothesis. Although several studies have shown that adiponectin has an adverse effect on bone mass, mainly by intensifying resorption, this peptide has also been demonstrated to increase the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, inhibit the activity of osteoclasts, and reduce bone resorption. There are still many ambiguities; for example, it can be assumed that concentrations of adiponectin in plasma do not satisfactorily reflect its production by adipose tissue, as well as conflicting in vitro and in vivo results. It seems that the potential benefit in the treatment of patients with osteoporosis associated with the pharmacological regulation of adiponectin is controversial. 1. Introduction Although the main role of adipose tissue is energy storage (in the form of free or conducted fatty acids (FFAs)) and thermal protection of the human body, it has been revealed that adipose tissue has an independent endocrine and paracrine activity associated with the production of many bioactive molecules (adipokines) which influence metabolic processes, such as adiponectin (Figure 1) [1]. Figure 1: Examples of adipocyte-derived proteins with effect on bone structure. It has also been shown that metabolites secreted by white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) may play an essential role in maintaining normal body weight (regulation of body energy) and that they may participate in maintaining homeostasis, for example, through the prevention of insulin resistance [2, 3]. This may lead to the potential use of these substances as important markers in the prediction of many diseases. The potential role of adiponectin in diagnostics is associated with protection against atherogenesis, insulin resistance, and obesity and as a possible marker of risk for developing menopausal metabolic syndrome [4–11]. But only a few cross-sectional studies have been performed on the association between serum adiponectin concentrations and bone turnover and bone remodeling markers in humans in vitro as well as that clinical studies have shown that serum adiponectin levels are associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and as biochemical markers
Study of Serum Adiponectin level in Obese and Non-obese Asthmatic Patients  [PDF]
Magdy Mohammad Omar *, Ahmad Abdelsadek Mohammad *, Sahar M. Ali
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Background : Asthma is a worldwide problem, with an estimated 300 million affected individuals. Although central (visceral) adipocytes are the most important source of adiponectin (APN), there is a tendency for reduced serum adiponectin concentration among obese subjects suggesting that decreased APN levels may contribute to the increased inflammatory state as in asthma. Aim of the work: The aim of this work was to determine whether serum concentration of adiponectin changed in asthmatic patients during acute attack and in remission or not.Subjects and Methods: Fifty five subjects were included in this study from Chest department, Benha university hospital .40 patients with bronchial asthma(20 obese and 20 nonobese) and 15 age related healthy subject(7 obese and 8 nonobese) as a control. All asthmatic patients and control group were divided into non-obese and obese according to their body mass index(BMI) Those with BMI < 25& >18.5 were considered non-obese, Those with BMI> 30 were considered obese .Those with BMI . 25 and. 30 were considered overweight and were not included in this study (NIH/NHLBI, 1998). All subjects were submitted to the following, Full history taking ,Complete physical examination(General & Local),Plain x-ray chest P-A & left lateral views ,Complete blood count , Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Liver and kidney function tests, Fasting and post prandial blood sugar, Ventilatory function tests , Venous blood samples were taken for Adiponectin level measurement.Results : Serum adiponectin(μg/ml) in obese control subjects (3.25 ± 0.65 μg/ml) was highly significant lower than that in nonobese control subjects(10.51 ± 1.55μg/ml), (P-value < 0.001). Also serum adiponectin revealed highly significant decrease in obese asthmatics during attack (1.58 ± 0.724 μg /ml) than in obese asthmatics during remission (2.08 ± 0.74 μg /ml) and that in obese control subjects (3.25 ± 0.65 μg /ml), (P-value < 0.001).Serum adiponectin(μg/ml) was significantly higher in nonobese asthmatics during remission (9.49 ± 2.49 μg /ml) than in nonobese asthmatics during attack (7.89 ± 2.7 μg /ml) and both was lower than that in nonobese control subjects , (p-value < 0.05 ).Serum adiponectin (μg /ml) was highly significant lower in obese asthmatics during attack (1.58 ±0.72 μg/ml) than in obese asthmatics during remission(2.08 ± 0.74 μg /ml), (P-value < 0.001) and highly significant higher in nonobese asthmatics during attack (7.89 ± 2.7 ìg/ml) than in nonobese asthmatics during remission (9.49 ± 2.49 μg /ml), (P-value < 0.001).Conclusion: Serum adiponectin was signifi
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