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Systematic Literature Review of the Epidemiology of Nongenetic Forms of Hypogonadism in Adult Males  [PDF]
Victoria Zarotsky,Ming-Yi Huang,Wendy Carman,Abraham Morgentaler,Puneet K. Singhal,Donna Coffin,T. Hugh Jones
Journal of Hormones , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/190347
Abstract: This study summarizes the literature on the prevalence, incidence, and proportion of patients receiving treatment for male hypogonadism and a systematic literature search was performed for articles published in the last 20 years. Of the 97 studies identified, 96 examined the prevalence, 2 examined the incidence, and 4 examined the proportion of males with hypogonadism patients receiving treatment. Based on studies conducted in Europe and USA, the prevalence of hypogonadism in the general population ranged from 2.1% to 12.8% of middle-aged to older men, with an estimated incidence of 12 new cases per 1,000 person-years. Prevalence was higher among patients with comorbid conditions, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Approximately 10–12% of men with hypogonadism were receiving testosterone treatment. This literature review suggests that there is potentially a significant burden of hypogonadism in the general population. Burden seems to increase with age and in the presence of certain disease conditions. Data suggests that many hypogonadal men who may benefit from testosterone replacement are not receiving treatment. This may be the result of underdiagnosis of the disease, lack of awareness by patients or physicians, irregularities surrounding the diagnostic criteria, and deficiency of long-term safety studies. 1. Introduction Hypogonadism in men has been defined as a clinical syndrome resulting from failure of the testis to produce physiological levels of testosterone (androgen deficiency) and a normal number of spermatozoa, due to disruption of one or more levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis [1]. A diagnosis of hypogonadism is typically based on the signs and symptoms associated with low T, followed by biochemical confirmation of low testosterone (T) [1]. The most widely accepted parameter used to establish hypogonadism is the measurement of serum total testosterone (TT) [1]; however, cut-off values used to indicate hypogonadism have not been clearly defined and vary across studies. Recent clinical practice guidelines published by the Endocrine Society have reported that the average TT threshold, at which the likelihood of most symptoms associated with hypogonadism increases, corresponds to the lower limit of the normal range for young men, that is, approximately 300?ng/dL (10.4?nmol/liter) [1]. Correspondingly, a common threshold used in the literature to indicate hypogonadism is serum TT <300?ng/dL (<10.4?nmol/L); however, cut-off values of <200?ng/dL (6.94?nmol/L) to <350?ng/dL (<12?nmol/L) are not uncommon. These
Epidemiology of smoking among adult women population of Semnan province, Iran
Ali Rashidi pour,Mojtaba Malek,Rahimeh Eskandarian,Raheb Ghorbani
Koomesh , 2010,
Abstract: Introduction: Smoking is a known cause of systemic disorders such as bronchogenic carcinoma and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate prevalence of smoking (cigarette, water pipe and pipe) in women aged 30-70 years in Semnan province in Iran. Materials and Methods: This epidemiologic cross-sectional study was conducted among 2104 women who were 30-70 years old in province of Semnan, Iran between October 2005 and February 2006. Multistage cluster sampling was performed and subjects were selected from rural and urban populations. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test and p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The overall prevalence of smoking in women aged 30-70 was 2.0% (95% Confidence Interval: 1.4-2.6%). 2.5% of rural and 1.8% urban were smokers (P=0.270). Prevalence of smoking in under 40, 40-49, 50-59 and ≥ 60 years were 0.4, 2.4, 2.8 and 4.2, respectively (P= 0.001). 4.1% of illiterates,1.6% of primary,1.5% of intermediate,0.4% of high school were smokers (P=0.001). Prevalence of smoking in Semnan, Damghan, Garmsar and Shahrood were 1.3, 3.2, 0.7 and 2.4% (P=0.034), respectively. None of them were pipe smokers. 26.9% non-cigarette smokers were passive smokers. Overall, 28.9% of Semnan province adults, aged 30-70 years, were active smokers or passive cigarette smokers. Conclusion: The findings showed that prevalence of active or passive smoking in Semnan province in women adults aged 30-70 years is high. Given the strong positive relationship between smoking and various diseases, a comprehensive community-based health educational and interventional program is essential for reducing smoking and its detrimental consequences among woman population in Semnan province. Given the essential information about the harmful effects of passive and active smoking to woman with old ages and low educational levels, particularly who living in Daemghan, would be a valuable way for reducing destructive consequences of smoking.
Prevalent and Incident HIV Diagnoses among Entamoeba histolytica-Infected Adult Males: A Changing Epidemiology Associated with Sexual Transmission — Taiwan, 2006–2013  [PDF]
Yi-Chun Lo ,Dar-Der Ji,Chien-Ching Hung
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003222
Abstract: Background Sexually transmitted Entamoeba histolytica infection (EHI) has been increasingly recognized among men who have sex with men (MSM). We used the National Disease Surveillance Systems (NDSS) to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among adults with EHI and to determine the associated factors. Methodology The NDSS collect demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of case patients through physician reports and public health interviews. EHI was confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction assays, histopathology, or serology with documented liver abscess. We linked NDSS databases to identify prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses among noninstitutionalized Taiwanese adults with confirmed EHI during 2006–2013. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was used to determine associated factors. Principal findings Of noninstitutionalized adults with EHI, we identified prevalent HIV diagnosis in 210 (40%) of 524 males and one (1.7%) of 59 females, and incident HIV diagnosis in 71 (23%) of 314 males. MSM accounted for 183 (87%) and 64 (90%) of prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses in males, respectively. From 2006–2009 to 2010–2013, the prevalence of HIV diagnosis increased from 32% to 45% (P = 0.001) while the incidence of HIV diagnosis increased from 5.4 to 11.3 per 100 person-years (P = 0.001) among males with EHI. Incident HIV diagnosis was independently associated with a younger age, residing in metropolitan areas, hospitalization, previous syphilis, and engagement in oral, anal, or oral–anal sex before illness onset. Conclusions/significance Prevalent and incident HIV diagnoses were increasingly identified among adult males in Taiwan, preferentially affecting younger urban MSM. Surveillance and risk-reduction interventions are recommended against the interplay of HIV epidemic and sexually transmitted EHI.
Epidemiology of smoking among Kuwaiti adults: prevalence, characteristics, and attitudes
Memon,Anjum; Moody,Philip M; Sugathan,Thattaruparambil N.; el-Gerges,Najwa; al-Bustan,Mahmoud; al-Shatti,Ahmed; al-Jazzaf,Hussain;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862000001100005
Abstract: introduction: in 1996 we conducted a cross-sectional survey to study the epidemiology of smoking among kuwaiti adults. methods: the 4000 participants were selected using a three-stage stratified cluster sampling design. altogether 3859 participants (1798 males, 2061 females) returned a completed self-administered questionnaire. results: the prevalence of smoking was 34.4% (95% confidence interval (ci) = 32.2-36.6) among men and 1.9% (95% ci = 1.3-2.5) among women. among men, the highest prevalence (56.5%; 95% ci = 36.2-76.8) was observed in the youngest age group (< 20 years). among women the highest prevalence was observed in one of the older age groups (46-50 years) (7.1%; 95% ci = 3.1-11.1). multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following factors were independently associated with smoking: lower levels of education (odds ratio (or) 3.5; 95% ci = 1.5-8.4), lower employment grade (or = 4.1; 2.5-6.7), and being a separated, divorced, or widowed woman (or = 4.9; 95% ci = 2.0-11.8). the majority of smokers (68%) began smoking when younger than 20 years; significantly more men (70%) than women (33%) began smoking at these ages (p <0.0001). on average, men began smoking at an earlier age (18 years vs 21 years; p <0.001) and therefore had smoked for a longer period (15 years vs 12 years; p <0.05); men also consumed a higher number of cigarettes each day (26 vs 17; p <0.05). a large proportion of smokers were ignorant about the health consequences of passive smoking: about 77% of those with children reported that they smoked in the presence of their children. almost half (47%) of all smokers stated that they wanted to stop smoking, and about 56% had attempted to quit. the biggest perceived barrier to quitting was uncertainty about ??how to quit??. a total of 338 respondents (8.8%; 95% ci = 5.8-11.9) were classified as former smokers. about half of the former smokers had quit between the ages of 20 and 29 years; the average age of quitting was 28 years. for
Prevalence of smoking and incidence of initiation in the Latin American adult population: the PLATINO study
Ana M Menezes, Maria V Lopez, Pedro C Hallal, Adriana Mui?o, Rogelio Perez-Padilla, José R Jardim, Gonzalo Valdivia, Julio Pertuzé, Maria M de Oca, Carlos Tálamo, Cesar G Victora, the PLATINO Team
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-151
Abstract: PLATINO is a multicenter study comprising five cross-sectional population-based surveys of approximately 1,000 individuals per site in Sao Paulo (Brazil), Santiago (Chile), Mexico City (Mexico), Montevideo (Uruguay) and Caracas (Venezuela). The outcome variable was smoking status (never, former or current). Current smokers were those who reported to smoke within the previous 30 days. Former smokers were those who reported to quit smoking more than 30 days before the survey. Using information on year of birth and age of smoking onset and quitting, a retrospective cohort analysis was carried out. Smoking prevalence at each period was defined as the number of subjects who started to smoke during the period plus those who were already smokers at the beginning of the period, divided by the total number of subjects. Incidence of smoking initiation was calculated as the number of subjects who started to smoke during the period divided by the number of non-smokers at its beginning. The independent variables included were sex, age and schooling.Non-response rates ranged from 11.1% to 26.8%. The prevalence of smoking ranged from 23.9% (95%CI 21.3; 26.6) in Sao Paulo to 38.5% (95%CI 35.7; 41.2) in Santiago. Males and middle-aged adults were more likely to smoke in all sites. After adjustment for age, schooling was not associated with smoking. Using retrospective cohort analysis, it was possible to detect that the highest prevalence of smoking is found between 20–29 years, while the highest incidence is found between 10–19 years. Age of smoking onset tended to decline over time among females.The prevalence of smoking varied considerably across sites, but was lower among countries with national anti-smoking campaigns.The Global Burden of Disease study forecasted that tobacco-attributable mortality would increase from 4.8 million deaths in 2000 to 8.4 million in 2020[1,2]. Declining trends in the prevalence of smoking among adult males are being offset by ascending trends for fem
Movie Smoking and Youth Initiation: Parsing Smoking Imagery and Other Adult Content  [PDF]
Matthew C. Farrelly, Kian Kamyab, James Nonnemaker, Erik Crankshaw, Jane A. Allen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051935
Abstract: Objectives To isolate the independent influence of exposure to smoking and other adult content in the movies on youth smoking uptake. Methods We used discrete time survival analysis to quantify the influence of exposure to smoking and other adult content in the movies on transitioning from (1) closed to open to smoking; (2) never to ever trying smoking; and (3) never to ever hitting, slapping, or shoving someone on two or more occasions in the past 30 days. The latter is a comparative outcome, hypothesized to have no correlation with exposure to smoking in the movies. Results Assessed separately, both exposure to smoking imagery and exposure to adult content were associated with increased likelihood of youth becoming open to smoking (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04–1.15 and OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04–1.17) and having tried smoking (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00–1.12 and OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.00–1.13). Both measures were also separately associated with aggressive behavior (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04–1.14 and OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04–1.15). A very high correlation between the two measures (0.995, p<0.000) prevented an assessment of their independent effects on smoking initiation. Conclusion Although exposure to smoking in the movies is correlated with smoking susceptibility and initiation, the high correlation between exposure to smoking in the movies and other adult content suggests that more research is needed to disentangle their independent influence on smoking.
Epidemiology of obesity in adult population of Vojvodina  [PDF]
Gruji? Vera,Martinov-Cvejin Mirjana,A?-Nikoli? Er?ebet,Ni?iforovi?-?urkovi? Olja
Medicinski Pregled , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0506292g
Abstract: Introduction. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing world-wide at an alarming rate and is due to changes in nutritional patterns and physical activity that adversely affect the health status. Obesity is a complex disorder with multiple interactive causes. It is associated with many chronic, debilitating diseases with important health care cost and it is basically the consequence of sedantery life style and excessive energy intake. Our objective was to measure the prevalence of obesity in adult population of Vojvodina and to describe its characteristics. Material and methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in representative sample of 2467 adults from Vojvodina (in adult population of Vojvodina aged 20 years and over). The sample size was determined based on estimated frequency, exposition to risk factors, relative risks and level of statistical significance. All those who completed household interviews attended physical examination. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI>25 kg/m2) in both sexes was 58.5%. Among them, 35.5% were overweight while 23% were obese (BMI>30kg/m2). The frequency of obesity was higher among females (26%) than among males (19.6%) (p<0.01). It showed a steady increase to the age of 65, after which the number of obese decreased. The obesity rate was higher in rural (26.7%) than urban areas (19%) (p<0.01), and among people with lower level of education and socioeconomic status. Conclusion. Considering the existing situation concerning the high prevalence of obesity, urgent public action is necessary. It is essential to develop preventive strategies which would affect the whole society. Healthy lifestyle, balanced diet and increased physical activity must be promoted. However, it is not the responsibility of individuals. Health services, the community, food industry, mass media etc, have a crucial role in modifying body weight. Strategies for prevention and management of obesity should be in accordance with the existing public health policy and programs for prevention of noncommunicable diseases. .
Smoking among pregnant women - epidemiology and health consequences  [cached]
Kjell Haug
Norsk Epidemiologi , 2009,
Abstract: ABSTRACT Smoking during pregnancy is an important, preventable risk factor for late fetal death and even SIDS. There is a strong dose-response relationship between cigarette smoking and spontaneous abortion, reduction in birth weight, abruptio placentae, placenta previa and bleeding during pregnancy. Ten years ago, the prevalence of smoking among Norwegian pregnant women was between 35 and 40%. During the last 8 years there has been a dramatic change and in 1995 the prevalence seems to be around 20%.
COPD, smoking behaviour, and the importance of teachers as role-models for adolescents
Sara Maio, Sandra Baldacci, Giovanni Viegi
Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/2049-6958-6-2-79
Abstract: Recently, the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) Initiative measured the prevalence of COPD and its risk factors in 12 cities all over the world. Prevalence rates of GOLD-defined COPD stage II or higher (i.e. forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) < 0.70 and FEV1 < 80% predicted) were 10.1% overall, 11.8% for men and 8.5% for women with age > 40 years [6].Within the Northern Ireland Cost and Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (NICE-COPD) study on a general population sample in the Greater Belfast area, the prevalence of COPD varied from 4.9% (40-49 years) to 12.3% (60-69 years) in men and from 1.4% (40-49 years) to 4.5% (60-69 years) in women [7]. Data collected in a general population sample living in North Italy showed a progressive increase of the prevalence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema with age in both males and females, reaching values of 16% for chronic bronchitis and 7% for emphysema in males aged > 64 years [8]. Moreover, in the general adult population sample living in North Italy, airway obstruction (computed using the GOLD criterion) was present in 18.3%, varying from 9.9% (25-45 years) to 28.7% (> 45 years) [9].The growing burden of COPD is mainly due to the aging of the world's population and to the continued use of tobacco [10]. Since the majority of smokers start smoking at adolescent age, the influence of society is important at this period, and in particular the school setting (above all teacher behaviour) could be crucial for adolescents' future lifestyle. Unfortunately, the smoking rate of teachers is high and it is thought that also the COPD prevalence could be high in this category. For these reasons, Bar?? et al. performed a study, reported in the current issue of Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine (pag. 92-96), to evaluate smoking habit and COPD prevalence of teachers working in the schools of Kocaeli City (Turkey). The study was conducted in 660 teachers, with a mean age
Transcriptomic epidemiology of smoking: the effect of smoking on gene expression in lymphocytes
Jac C Charlesworth, Joanne E Curran, Matthew P Johnson, Harald HH G?ring, Thomas D Dyer, Vincent P Diego, Jack W Kent, Michael C Mahaney, Laura Almasy, Jean W MacCluer, Eric K Moses, John Blangero
BMC Medical Genomics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1755-8794-3-29
Abstract: We obtained genome-wide quantitative transcriptional profiles from 1,240 individuals from the San Antonio Family Heart Study, including 297 current smokers. Using lymphocyte samples, we identified 20,413 transcripts with significantly detectable expression levels, including both known and predicted genes. Correlation between smoking and gene expression levels was determined using a regression model that allows for residual genetic effects.With a conservative false-discovery rate of 5% we identified 323 unique genes (342 transcripts) whose expression levels were significantly correlated with smoking behavior. These genes showed significant over-representation within a range of functional categories that correspond well with known smoking-related pathologies, including immune response, cell death, cancer, natural killer cell signaling and xenobiotic metabolism.Our results indicate that not only individual genes but entire networks of gene interaction are influenced by cigarette smoking. This is the largest in vivo transcriptomic epidemiological study of smoking to date and reveals the significant and comprehensive influence of cigarette smoke, as an environmental variable, on the expression of genes. The central importance of this manuscript is to provide a summary of the relationships between gene expression and smoking in this exceptionally large cross-sectional data set.Tobacco use is responsible for more than 5 million deaths per year [1] and is the leading preventable cause of premature death worldwide. Smoking is known to have a major impact on human health, adversely affecting almost every organ. Exposure to cigarette smoke increases the risk of many diseases, including a wide range of cancers (from lung to pancreatic cancer), cardiovascular diseases (including atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease), a range of respiratory diseases (including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia), as well as various other adverse health effects such as incre
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