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A la sombra de la alameda
Blondet Serfaty, José Enrique
Revista de Indias , 2008,
Abstract: At the end of the XVIII century, in Caracas, a promenade related to Paseo del Prado, Madrid, was projected by the Governor Manuel González y Torres de Navarra. Small evidence of its construction has led some historians to assert that la alameda was never built. However, after examining historic documents, old maps and planes or the city, this article advances the alameda was indeed built to survive the 1812's earthquake, and the Independence war. In 1858, another promenade, el paseo de Caracas was projected on the same site were la alameda was once located. A finales del siglo XVIII, y promovida por el gobernador Manuel González y Torres de Navarra, se proyectó en la provincia de Caracas una alameda que estaría emparentada con el Paseo del Prado de Madrid. La escasa información sobre este proyecto ha contribuido a que muchos historiadores duden de su existencia. Sin embargo, la revisión de fuentes documentales y antiguos planos de la ciudad permiten deducir que la alameda no sólo se construyó, sino que sobrevivió a los embates del terremoto de 1812 y la Guerra de Independencia, sirviendo de base para la propuesta del Paseo de Caracas que, en 1858, se propuso en ese mismo lugar.
Naval Flanking in Ground Warfare
Gideon Raz
Military and Strategic Affairs , 2011,
Abstract: The Mediterranean Sea, Israel’s only open border, also borders Israel’s enemies to the north and the Gaza Strip to the south, thereby linking it to enemy states. Thus, Israel’s control of this naval arena would enable it to project military strength from the sea, and afford it the capability to embark on landing operations of various types. “The shores of the State of Israel, the naval interface with each of our enemies, require us to expand our naval strength to the point of being able to land forces from the sea. David Ben-Gurion even said that we are bound to view the sea as Israel’s extended western territory.” The naval arena is the Achilles’ heel of Israel’s enemies and therefore also an opportunity for the IDF.However, even if Israel enjoys superiority in the naval arena, it is clear that the battle cannot be decided at sea. In fact, the IDF has aerial and naval superiority, two essential components for the existence of a naval anking option. In constructing a larger amphibious force, the IDF would be able to translate its naval superiority into a signi cant contribution for attaining decisions in ground battles. The essay below examines the components of the landing process and offers some recommendations on construction of this type of force.
Composition and abundance of zooplankton community of an impacted estuarine lagoon in Northeast Brazil
Almeida, LR;Costa, IS;Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, EM;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842012000100002
Abstract: guaraíras lagoon is a shallow coastal lagoon subject to intense human impacts, including shrimp aquaculture, urban expansion and agricultural activities, and is therefore vulnerable to eutrophication. with the aim of detecting the effects of human-mediated disturbance and environmental change in the lagoon, a spatial-temporal study was conducted in order to assess the actual ecological status of the lagoon and the species composition and density of the mesozooplankton, highlighting copepod assemblages. algal biomass (chlorophyll-a) and total phosphorus concentration indicated that the lagoon is a meso-eutrophic coastal system in the inner part, and is oligotrophic in the areas influenced by the marine waters. high salinities were recorded in the lagoon, characterizing the lagoon as a coastal-marine ecosystem, rather than true estuarine. mesozooplankton abundance fluctuated widely and showed marked spatial heterogeneity. the copepod assemblage was characterized by a coastal/estuarine group dominated by oithona spp., acartia lilljeborgi and parvocalanus crassirostris in the inner areas of the lagoon, and a marine group characterized by the copepods paracalanus quasimodo, calanopia americana, corycaeus (c.) speciosus and monstrilloida in the area of marine influence. thus, the spatial variability in the distribution of mesozooplankton species can be ascribed to the presence of a horizontal gradient of salinity and trophic conditions. overall, the results showed that spatial variation in the water physicochemical characteristics of guarairas lagoon have significant effects on the structure and repartition of the mesozooplankton assemblages, which may potentially affect the functioning and biodiversity of this coastal ecosystem.
The Attempts to Reform the Ottoman Naval Organization
Levent Düzcü
Journal of Gazi Academic View , 2009,
Abstract: During the last half century of the Empire, the Ottoman Naval Organization was divided into many departments, commissions and branches upon the breakthroughs in both international navy and internal dynamics. The departments and commissions of admiralty of the Hamidian Era went through changes under the influence of English admirals in the Second Constitutional period. However, this new program could not be operated as a result of war periods and of its dislocating the position of the old systems. In 1916 the new program of the naval organization took its final shape. The purpose of this article is to explain the changes in the Ottoman Naval Organization in the last fifty years and to give the reasons of these changes.
The Exchange Processes in the Patos Lagoon Estuarine Channel, Brazil  [PDF]
Wilian Correa Marques, Igor Oliveira Monteiro, Osmar Olinto M?ller
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2011.23027
Abstract: Investigation of process controlling the estuarine-shelf interaction in the Patos Lagoon estuarine channel is accessed using a two-dimensional numerical model. Results obtained suggest this approximation provides good precision level to investigate the advective transport of oceanic waters near the estuarine mouth. The introduction of coastal waters in synoptic time scales is dominated by advection in sub-superficial layers. This process results from the competition between flood currents driven by remote wind effects and gravitational circulation controlled by the intensity of the freshwater discharge. The short term exchange processes follow one most energetic cycle of 8 days and intense flood events occur during periods of low continental discharge and higher intensity winds. Very stratified salinity profiles are found during periods of moderated freshwater discharge. The salt transport is inversely related to the freshwater discharge intensity. It presents a mean rate of the 105 kg.day-1 transported landward during flood events.
Richard Cornwell
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/5-4-874
Abstract: There are various themes which emerge in a consideration of South Africa's involvement in British naval policy. There is the expansion of the British empire itself, from its Atlantic beginnings into eastern seas and its century-long conflict with France. There is the theme of India, and the fluctuating fortunes of a trading company. There are the changes in marine technology and the world's balance of naval power. All of these broad themes must be considered if the South African contribution is to be seen in its proper context.
J.D. Bredenkamp
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/14-1-529
Abstract: Naval Headquarters moved from Simonstown to Pretoria in January 1977. The then SA Naval Headquarters Unit was there 'to support the Chief of the Navy and his five Chiefs of Naval Staff and their Staff Officers in matters pertaining to personnel, administration, operations, logistics, intelligence and finance as well as most naval matters related to the inland area'. During the period 1977 to 1979, members of the HQ Unit were accommodated in mainly the Air Force Officers and NCO Messes till the Union Hotel was purchased in 1979.
La Ense anza Naval  [cached]
Nieto Manso, Emilio J.
Arbor : Ciencia, Pensamiento y Cultura , 2002,
Abstract: Not available La situación mundial en los albores del siglo XXI presenta un escenario de drásticos y rápidos cambios que, naturalmente, afectan también a los ámbitos de Seguridad y Defensa. La Armada, consciente de que su centro de gravedad reside en la calidad humana y competencia profesional de los hombres y mujeres que la componen, se enfrenta al futuro con el decidido propósito de potenciar su ense anza y formación. El Director de Ense anza Naval, tras una breve descripción de los diferentes niveles de ense anza y centros docentes con que cuenta actualmente la Armada, centra su artículo en un acertado análisis de los factores determinantes que han conducido a un proceso de reestructuración para racionalizar los medios disponibles y mejorar la calidad de la ense anza, finalizando su presentación con una síntesis sobre las principales líneas de actuación a corto y medio plazo, y la implantación progresiva de un ambicioso Plan de Innovación Tecnológica de la Ense anza en la Armada.
Hydrodynamics of the Itapocu river and the Barra Velha lagoon estuarine system, SC, Brazil
Abreu, Cláudia Fran?a de;Siegle, Eduardo;Truccolo, Eliane C.;Schettini, Carlos Augusto Fran?a;
Revista Brasileira de Geofísica , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-261X2010000300001
Abstract: a hydrodynamic characterization of the itapocu river and barra velha lagoon estuarine system was carried out with the objective of evaluating how the current regime in this area is affected by astronomical and meteorological tides and the river discharge. meteorological, water level and current velocity and direction data were gathered hourly during a twenty-day period, from 22-july until 10-august, 2004. current meters were positioned at the inlet, at the entrance of the north and south lagoons and at the lower estuary of the river along with a tide gauge. the estuarine system showed distinct current behavior among the different sectors within the estuary, responding to the different forcings. the strongest currents were observed at the inlet while the weakest values were observed at the northern lagoon, a location that showed little dynamic. the general flow was ebb-dominated flux, in response to fluvial discharge, even during local wind water set-up event.
Temporal variability of the estuarine macrofauna of the Patos Lagoon, Brazil
Rosa,Leonardo C; Bemvenuti,Carlos E;
Revista de biología marina y oceanografía , 2006, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-19572006000100003
Abstract: temporal variability of the macrofauna density and its relationship with water and sediments characteristics were studied through monthly sampling at an estuarine embayment of the patos lagoon, brazil from january to december 2001. both, water and sediments characteristics showed distinct seasonal patterns. high salinity and water temperature values were registered in summer months. increase of fine fractions in the sediments occurred in cold months. a total of 38,827 individuals represented by 18 species were collected during the study period. the bivalve erodona mactroides, the tanaid kalliapseudes schübartii, the polychaetes heteromastus similis and nephtys fluviatilis, and the gastropod heleobia australis were the dominant organisms, accounting for more than 90% of total macrofauna. the macrofauna also showed a seasonal pattern, with the highest density found in summer (january = 62,205 ind. m-2) and the lowest one in winter (july = 9,410 ind. m-2). this pattern results from the species reproductive process, which was strongly correlated to the increase of water temperature at the end of spring. the low macrofauna densities in winter are related to a high predation during summer along with the absence of effective recruitment in cold months. furthermore, sedimentary proprieties changes due to natural climatic disturbances could also be important factors controlling the estuarine macrofauna of the patos lagoon by increasing mortality rates
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