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Changes in 10-12 year old's fruit and vegetable intake in Norway from 2001 to 2008 in relation to gender and socioeconomic status - a comparison of two cross-sectional groups
Marit Hilsen, Maartje M van Stralen, Knut-Inge Klepp, Elling Bere
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-108
Abstract: The baseline survey of the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks project was conducted in 2001 at 38 randomly chosen schools in two Norwegian counties. A second survey was conducted at the same schools in 2008. A total of 27 schools participated in both surveys (2001 n = 1488, 2008 n = 1339). FV intake was measured by four food frequency questions (times/week) in a questionnaire which the pupils completed at school. SES was based on parents' reports of their own educational level in a separate questionnaire. The main analyses were multilevel linear regression analyses.A significant year*parental educational level interaction was observed (p = 0.01). FV intake decreased among pupils of parents with lower educational level (13.9 vs. 12.6 times/week in 2001 and 2008, respectively), but increased among pupils of parents with higher education (14.8 vs. 15.0 times/week, respectively). This increasing SES disparity in FV intake was partly mediated by an increasing SES disparity in accessibility and preferences over time, wherein children with higher educated parents had a steeper increase in accessibility and preferences over time than children with lower educated parents. The year*sex interaction was not significant (p = 0.54).This study shows an increase in SES disparities in 6th and 7th graders FV intake from 2001 to 2008, partly mediated by an increasing SES disparity in accessibility and preferences of FV.Research shows that a diet high in fruits and vegetables (FV) reduces the risk of developing several chronic diseases [1] and that food habits and preferences established during childhood and adolescents track well into adulthood [2,3]. Childhood is therefore a crucial time point to initiate lifelong healthy eating habits and thereby achieve a maximum preventive effect against diet related chronic diseases. However, data shows that less than 50% of Norwegian 8th graders consume the recommended intake of FV per day. Only 11% of the 8th graders consumed more than 500 gr
Association of markers of chronic viral hepatitis and blood mercury levels in US reproductive-age women from NHANES 2001–2008: a cross-sectional study
Mary C Sheehan, Thomas A Burke, Patrick N Breysse, Ana Navas-Acien, John McGready, Mary A Fox
Environmental Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-11-62
Abstract: Geometric mean (GM) TBHg levels from a representative sample of over 5,000 seafood-consuming, reproductive-age women from eight years (2001–2008) of the US NHANES survey were compared by viral hepatitis status (as determined by serological assay) using multiple linear regression. Adjustment was made for estimated MeHg intake from seafood consumption, social and demographic variables and other predictors.Women with chronic HBV had 1.52 (95% CI 1.13, 2.05, p?<?0.01) times the GM TBHg of women who had not come into contact with the virus. The positive association was strongest in those with most severe disease. A modest negative association was found with HCV markers.While study design prevents inferences on causality, the finding that MeHg biomarkers differ by hepatitis status in this population suggests viral hepatitis may alter the pace of MeHg elimination. Offspring of HBV-infected seafood-consuming women may be at higher risk of MeHg-induced developmental delays than offspring of those uninfected. Possible reasons for the unanticipated negative association with HCV are explored.Methylmercury (MeHg) is a neurotoxin widely present in the environment to which the developing fetus is acutely vulnerable [1]. The primary exposure source and pathway for this sensitive population is maternal seafood consumption [2]. Numerous countries have issued commercial seafood advisories for reproductive-age women [3] with the goal of minimizing MeHg intake and protecting offspring from the verbal, spatial and fine-motor skill delays associated with MeHg-induced developmental neurotoxicity [2].Individuals are known to differ in susceptibility to health risks from contaminants such as MeHg [4,5]. Variability has been observed in MeHg’s toxicokinetic processing as well as its neurotoxic effects in association with differences in maternal age [6], genetic polymorphisms in the glutathione (GSH) system [7], nutrient intake [8,9] and the social environment [10], among other factors. Furthe
Sensitivity and specificity of Norwegian optometrists’ evaluation of diabetic retinopathy in single-field retinal images – a cross-sectional experimental study  [cached]
Sundling Vibeke,Gulbrandsen P?l,Straand J?rund
BMC Health Services Research , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-13-17
Abstract: Background In the working age group, diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of visual impairment. Regular eye examinations and early treatment of retinopathy can prevent visual loss, so screening for diabetic retinopathy is cost-effective. Dilated retinal digital photography with the additional use of ophthalmoscopy is the most effective and robust method of diabetic retinopathy screening. The aim of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of diabetic retinopathy screening when performed by Norwegian optometrists. Methods This study employed a cross-sectional experimental design. Seventy-four optometrists working in private optometric practice were asked to screen 14 single-field retinal images for possible diabetic retinopathy. The screening was undertaken using a web-based visual identification and management of ophthalmological conditions (VIMOC) examination. The images used in the VIMOC examination were selected from a population survey and had been previously examined by two independent ophthalmologists. In order to establish a “gold standard”, images were only chosen for use in the VIMOC examination if they had elicited diagnostic agreement between the two independent ophthalmologists. To reduce the possibility of falsely high specificity occurring by chance, half the presented images were of retinas that were not affected by diabetic retinopathy. Sensitivity and specificity for diabetic retinopathy was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The mean (95%CI) sensitivity for identifying eyes with any diabetic retinopathy was 67% (62% to 72%). The mean (95%CI) specificity for identifying eyes without diabetic retinopathy was 84% (80% to 89%). The mean (95%CI) sensitivity for identifying eyes with mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy or moderate non-proliferative diabetes was 54% (47% to 61%) and 100%, respectively. Only four optometrists (5%) met the required standard of at least 80% sensitivity and 95% specificity that has been previously set for diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. Conclusions The evaluation of retinal images for diabetic retinopathy by Norwegian optometrists does not meet the required screening standard of at least 80% sensitivity and 95% specificity. The introduction of measures to improve this situation could have implications for both formal optometric training and continuing optometric professional education.
Changes among male and female visitors to practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine in a large adult Norwegian population from 1997 to 2008 (The HUNT studies)
Aslak Steinsbekk, Marit B Rise, Roar Johnsen
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-61
Abstract: Two cross sectional adult total population health surveys from Central Norwegian (the Nord-Tr?ndelag Health Studies (HUNT)). In 1997 42,277 and in 2008 50,713 respondents were included. Variables included demographics (age, education, working status), lifestyle (daily smoker, did hard physical activities), health status (self-rated health status, recent complaints, chronic complaints, psychiatric complaints, a range of diseases) and health care use (visit general practitioner, chiropractor). A test of difference between the results of multivariable logistic regression models for each year, including all variables, was used to analyse changes from 1997 to 2008.In 1997 9.4% (95%CI 9.1-9.6) of the population had visited a CAM practitioner in the last 12 months and this increased to 12.6% (12.3-12.9) in 2008 (p < 0.001 for difference). Prevalence of CAM use in females was almost twice as high as that in males both years. For males, the significant changes from 1997 to 2008 (p < 0.05) were an increase in odds of visiting for those under 50 years, who had a recent complaint, were widower or did hard physical activities. There was a decrease for males who had a university degree, psychiatric complaint or hay fever. For females there was an increase in the odds for those under 50 years, who had a recent complaint or chronic complaint. It was a decrease for females with reported fair global health, psychiatric complaint, hay fever or if they had visited a chiropractor.The increase in visits was mainly among younger people of both genders with more limited complaints. A larger proportion of the more healthy part of the population is increasing their visits to CAM practitioners.Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) are treatment modalities outside the dominant health care system. Several studies have investigated the reasons why people use these practices [1]. Issues such as control and participation, perceptions of illness, holism and natural treatments, and general ph
Energy Return on Investment for Norwegian Oil and Gas from 1991 to 2008  [PDF]
Leena Grandell,Charles A.S. Hall,Mikael H??k
Sustainability , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/su3112050
Abstract: Norwegian oil and gas fields are relatively new and of high quality, which has led, during recent decades, to very high profitability both financially and in terms of energy production. One useful measure for profitability is Energy Return on Investment, EROI. Our analysis shows that EROI for Norwegian petroleum production ranged from 44:1 in the early 1990s to a maximum of 59:1 in 1996, to about 40:1 in the latter half of the last decade. To compare globally, only very few, if any, resources show such favorable EROI values as those found in the Norwegian oil and gas sector. However, the declining trend in recent years is most likely due to ageing of the fields whereas varying drilling intensity might have a smaller impact on the net energy gain of the fields. We expect the EROI of Norwegian oil and gas production to deteriorate further as the fields become older. More energy-intensive production techniques will gain in importance.
COMPARING 1994, 2001 AND 2008 CURRENCY CRISES IN TURKEY  [PDF]
Dimitrios DAPONTAS
Scientific Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi : Economic Sciences Series , 2011,
Abstract: This paper is comparing the currency crises in Turkey for 20 years (from 1990 till today) and to distinguish their causes divided in three periods (1990-1995), (1995-2002) and (2002-2009). My goal is to compare these incidents to find similarities and differences among them for the very first time for the country’s analysis. The forward spread is selected as a dependent variable along with a set of independent macroeconomic and social variables (balance of payments, crisis elsewhere, real effective exchange rate, foreign exchange reserves, gold price, lending rate, money, external debt and consumer price level) examining these variables for a twenty year period (January 1990- December 2009) the largest set availiable in refered literature I examined their relation to the forward spread, following the feasible least squares methodology. This innovative approach is used for the first time in the field and it has the major advantages of least squares methodology along with panel data analysis flexibility. The results show that the crisis of 1994 had to do with fundamentals (first generation theoretical framework), the 2001 crisis with economic condition and policy (modified first generation) and the 2008 crisis with contagion and the global credit crunch (third generation).None of these crises were linked as previous works mentioned and the 2008 turbulence can be rated as a crisis according to my criteria.
Patterns of screen-based sedentary behavior and physical activity and associations with overweight among Norwegian adolescents: a latent profile approach  [cached]
Ole Melkevik,Torbj?rn Torsheim,Mette Rasmussen
Norsk Epidemiologi , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Physical activity and screen based sedentary behaviors are both related to energy balance and to risk for becoming overweight. The aim of this study is to find out if these behaviors cluster together in order to find out whether groups of adolescents have particularly unfortunate levels of both physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviors. Methods: Data are from the Norwegian 2005/2006 sample of the international "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study; A WHO cross-National Survey". Data were collected through questionnaires from 13-, 15- and 16-year-olds. The final sample included 4848 adolescents. Gender-stratified latent profile analysis was used to identify the different profiles. Results: Six profiles were identified for both boys and girls. Less than 30% of adolescents were found to have behavioral patterns which were associated with higher risk for overweight relative to the most healthy behavioral profile. Physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviors cluster together in different ways suggesting independence between the behaviors. Low levels of physical activity was the most important predictor for overweight among boys. Screen-based sedentary behaviors were more important predictors of overweight among girls. Conclusions: Physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviors are independent behaviors and may cluster together in manners which lead to low energy expenditure and subsequent increased risk for overweight among adolescents.
Hazardous drinkers in Norwegian hospitals – a cross-sectional study of prevalence and drinking patterns among somatic patients  [cached]
Kristian Oppedal,Sverre Nesv?g,Bolette Pedersen,Jan Tore Daltveit
Norsk Epidemiologi , 2011,
Abstract: Background: High alcohol intake has been associated with increased risk of hospital admission, increased complication rates, and prolonged hospital stay. Thus, hospital admission may present a relevant opportunity for alcohol intervention. To understand the potential of alcohol interventions we need knowledge about patients’ drinking patterns. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the drinking patterns in a Norwegian hospital population. Methods: A multicentre cross-sectional survey was carried out at three university hospitals. Patients were asked about alcohol intake one month prior to admission/outpatient treatment. The questionnaire included weekly alcohol intake calculated by frequency X quantity as well as episodes of binge drinking (drinking more than 5 AU during a single day). AUDIT-C was used to determine the frequency of patients having a hazardous drinking pattern during the 12 months prior to hospital treatment. Results: In total we assessed 2,932 patients for eligibility. A total of 2,350 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. We included 1,522 patients (65%) in the analyses. Six percent of the women and 11% of the men reported drinking more than the weekly limits of nine alcohol units (AU) for women and 14 AU for men. Fourteen percent of the women and 29% of the men reported binge drinking during the last month. The frequency of women scoring more or equal to 4 points on AUDIT-C was 20%. The frequency of men scoring more or equal to 5 points was 25%. Conclusion: Hazardous drinking among Norwegian hospital patients may be more prevalent than what has been reported for the Norwegian population in general. Binge drinking is the dominant drinking pattern.
Active play and screen time in US children aged 4 to 11 years in relation to sociodemographic and weight status characteristics: a nationally representative cross-sectional analysis
Sarah E Anderson, Christina D Economos, Aviva Must
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-366
Abstract: We analyzed data collected during the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2001–2004, a US nationally representative cross-sectional study. We studied 2964 children aged 4.00 to 11.99 years. Our main outcomes were reported weekly times that the child played or exercised hard enough to sweat or breathe hard (active play), daily hours the child watched television/videos, used computers, or played computer games (screen time), and the combination of low active play and high screen time. Low active play was defined as active play 6 times or less per week. High screen time was defined as more than 2 hours per day. We accounted for the complex survey design in analyses and report proportions and 95% confidence intervals. We used Wald Chi-square to test for differences between proportions. To identify factors associated with low active play and high screen time, we used multivariate logistic regression.Of US children aged 4 to 11 years, 37.3% (95% confidence interval, 34.1% to 40.4%) had low levels of active play, 65.0% (95% CI, 61.4% to 68.5%) had high screen time, and 26.3% (95% CI, 23.8% to 28.9%) had both these behaviors. Characteristics associated with a higher probability of simultaneously having low active play and high screen time were older age, female gender, non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, and having a BMI-for-age ≥95th percentile of the CDC growth reference.Many young children in the US are reported to have physical activity and screen time behaviors that are inconsistent with recommendations for healthy pediatric development. Children who are overweight, approaching adolescence, girls, and non-Hispanic blacks may benefit most from public health policies and programs aimed at these behaviors.The prevention of childhood obesity is a public health priority in the United States [1]. Recommendations for the prevention of childhood obesity call for children to be active daily and to spend less time in sedentary pursuits, such as watching television a
Breast cancer: bibliographic brazilian scientific production from 2001 to 2008
Carla Daniele Mota Rêgo Viana, Maria Lúcia Duarte Pereira, Thereza Maria Magalh?es Moreira, Solange Gurgel Alexandre
Revista de Enfermagem UFPE On Line , 2009,
Abstract: Objective: to quantify the Brazilian scientific production from 2001 to 2008. Methods: We used as sources the articles published in the database of Scielo between 2001 and 2008. The data were treated statistically, placed in a database in Microsoft Excel, then. Categorized and thus divided into tables which show the number of journal articles and in accordance with its themes. Results: From the analysis of the data, found a shortfall in the scientific production on this topic in the field of nursing and the need for more research. Conclusion: You can point out, indeed, the need for Brazilian on the subject, conducted by professional nursing since it seems that he has not been significantly explored in this area.
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