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The Big Occulting Steerable Satellite (BOSS)  [PDF]
Craig J. Copi,Glenn D. Starkman
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/308525
Abstract: Natural (such as lunar) occultations have long been used to study sources on small angular scales, while coronographs have been used to study high contrast sources. We propose launching the Big Occulting Steerable Satellite (BOSS), a large steerable occulting satellite to combine both of these techniques. BOSS will have several advantages over standard occulting bodies. BOSS would block all but about 4e-5 of the light at 1 micron in the region of interest around the star for planet detections. Because the occultation occurs outside the telescope, scattering inside the telescope does not degrade this performance. BOSS could be combined with a space telescope at the Earth-Sun L2 point to yield very long integration times, in excess of 3000 seconds. If placed in Earth orbit, integration times of 160--1600 seconds can be achieved from most major telescope sites for objects in over 90% of the sky. Applications for BOSS include direct imaging of planets around nearby stars. Planets separated by as little as 0.1--0.25 arcseconds from the star they orbit could be seen down to a relative intensity as little as 1e-9 around a magnitude 8 (or brighter) star. Other applications include ultra-high resolution imaging of compound sources, such as microlensed stars and quasars, down to a resolution as little as 0.1 milliarcseconds.
The ELG target selection with the BOSS survey  [PDF]
S. Escoffier,J. Comparat,A. Ealet,J. -P. Kneib,J. Zoubian,F. Lamareille
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: The Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) feature in the power spectrum of galaxies can be used as a standard ruler to probe the accelerated expansion of the Universe. In this paper, we study several galaxy selection schemes aiming at building an emission-line galaxy (ELG) sample in the redshift range $0.6 < z < 1.7$, that would be suitable for future BAO studies using the Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) spectrograph on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) telescope. We explore two different color selections using both the SDSS and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) photometry in the $u, g, r, i$ bands and evaluate their performance for selecting bright ELG. This study confirms the feasibility of massive ELG surveys using the BOSS spectrographs on the SDSS telescope for a BAO detection at redshift $z\sim1$, in particular for the proposed eBOSS experiment.
NIH censured for Taxol deal
Peg Brickley
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20030611-02
Abstract: The report by the General Accounting Office (GAO) said NIH's pact with Bristol-Myers Squibb recovered only $35 million in royalty payments for Taxol after taxpayers spent $484 million to develop the best-selling cancer drug in history.Further, federal auditors said NIH failed to get adequate proof that BMS would sell Taxol at a reasonable price before handing over exclusive rights to make and market the drug developed by government-funded research. The company's sales revenue from Taxol was $9 billion between 1993 and 2002.In a response, NIH said the auditors failed to recognize all the public benefits derived from NIH funding of the basic science behind paclitaxel, the active compound in Taxol. The GAO failed, for example, to include in its computations the $400 million in royalties Florida State University collected for a method to manufacture Taxol, the NIH response said."Our company met or exceeded every responsibility under the agreement [with NIH]," BMS spokesman Robert Hutchison said, commenting on the GAO report. "We are proud of our history with Taxol."GAO's critique of the bargain NIH struck comes in the wake of settlements ending litigation that pitted all 50 states, five territories, and the District of Columbia, as well as hospitals and insurance companies, against BMS over the high price of Taxol. Those suits and an action by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) accused the company of abusing the legal process to prolong its profitable monopoly on Taxol sales in the United States.When NIH struck its deal with BMS in 1991, neither the federal agency nor anyone else knew the company planned to pursue patents on Taxol, said Meredyth Andrus, assistant attorney general in Maryland and one of the lead attorneys in the case against the drug maker."The negotiations with NIH were based on the fact that generics were going to come on the market once the 5-year period of exclusivity was over, so Bristol-Myers needed a price that would enable them to recover their m
Secure Scheme of BOSS in One Mobile Company

WANG Chun-hong,LIU Zi-yu,

计算机应用研究 , 2005,
Abstract: 通过对某省移动公司业务运营支撑系统(BOSS)的分析,提出了基于BOSS的安全方案,并对某省移动公司的BOSS安全技术体系的第一期部署进行了分析。
BOSS: context-enhanced search for biomedical objects
Choi Jaehoon,Kim Donghyeon,Kim Seongsoon,Lee Sunwon
BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6947-12-s1-s7
Abstract: Background There exist many academic search solutions and most of them can be put on either ends of spectrum: general-purpose search and domain-specific "deep" search systems. The general-purpose search systems, such as PubMed, offer flexible query interface, but churn out a list of matching documents that users have to go through the results in order to find the answers to their queries. On the other hand, the "deep" search systems, such as PPI Finder and iHOP, return the precompiled results in a structured way. Their results, however, are often found only within some predefined contexts. In order to alleviate these problems, we introduce a new search engine, BOSS, Biomedical Object Search System. Methods Unlike the conventional search systems, BOSS indexes segments, rather than documents. A segment refers to a Maximal Coherent Semantic Unit (MCSU) such as phrase, clause or sentence that is semantically coherent in the given context (e.g., biomedical objects or their relations). For a user query, BOSS finds all matching segments, identifies the objects appearing in those segments, and aggregates the segments for each object. Finally, it returns the ranked list of the objects along with their matching segments. Results The working prototype of BOSS is available at http://boss.korea.ac.kr. The current version of BOSS has indexed abstracts of more than 20 million articles published during last 16 years from 1996 to 2011 across all science disciplines. Conclusion BOSS fills the gap between either ends of the spectrum by allowing users to pose context-free queries and by returning a structured set of results. Furthermore, BOSS exhibits the characteristic of good scalability, just as with conventional document search engines, because it is designed to use a standard document-indexing model with minimal modifications. Considering the features, BOSS notches up the technological level of traditional solutions for search on biomedical information.
NIH to launch ethics review
Ted Agres
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20031210-01
Abstract: NIH Director Elias A. Zerhouni will announce the creation of a 'blue ribbon panel' of advisory committee members and outside experts "to review how NIH addresses outside consulting activity in order to identify systemic solutions for improvement," NIH spokesman John Burklow told us.Zerhouni will also order an "immediate review" of every outside consulting relationship that NIH employees have established during the past 5 years "to confirm that all rules and regulations are being followed and that the activities are in the best interest of the public," Burklow said."It is clear that we will need to consider changes after a thoughtful analysis of the issues," Burklow said. "We are vigorously investigating the allegations because openness and review are our best allies."The Los Angeles Times on Sunday (December 7) reported that several high-level NIH scientists and officials had received more than $2.5 million in fees and stock options from drug companies for consulting outside of their government work over the past 10 years.Stephen I. Katz, director of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), collected between $476,369 and $616,365 during the past decade in fees from drugmaker Schering AG and six other companies, the Times reported. During this time, NIAMS conducted clinical trials involving one of the company's drugs and pledged $1.7 million in small business research grants to another. Five other present and former senior NIH officials reportedly received up to $2.2 million in company fees and stock options during the time period.Janet Austin, Katz's spokeswoman, did not respond to a request for comment yesterday. But Katz and other officials told the Los Angeles Times that NIH officials had approved their consulting agreements in advance and that they had recused themselves from any decision making involving the companies.Arthur L. Caplan, director of the University of Pennsylvania's Center for Bioethics, said he was surpri
NIH revises conflict rules  [cached]
Ted Agres
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20040113-01
Abstract: House and Senate subcommittees, meanwhile, are planning hearings to review allegations, first reported in the Los Angeles Times on December 7, 2003, that senior NIH officials secretly received millions of dollars in consulting contracts from pharmaceutical and biomedical companies that had dealings with the agency.Zerhouni has been generally contrite in discussing allegations that a handful of senior NIH officials secretly pocketed lucrative consulting fees and stock options from drug manufacturers over the past decade. On December 10, Zerhouni announced the creation of a 'blue ribbon panel' to review how NIH addresses outside consulting activity "in order to identify systemic solutions for improvement.""I believe that the public's interest is best served by complete transparency, full disclosure, independent review, and proactive management and monitoring of all outside relationships," Zerhouni wrote in a December 23 letter to Tauzin.But in a 'Town Hall' meeting with NIH staff a week earlier, Zerhouni ardently defended the agency. "I do believe that many of the reports have been exaggerated, and that NIH has been harmed by innuendo and the juxtaposition of facts," Zerhouni said, according to an official version of the speech. "Don't believe everything you read in the newspapers is all I can say, but there is always room for improvement, and we'll carefully look into that and implement any necessary change as soon as possible."The new conflict of interest rules published in the Federal Register on January 5, 2004, apply to outside experts participating in scientific review groups, a generic term that includes regular study sections and special emphasis panels. The revisions were needed because nongovernment peer reviewers are not normally considered federal employees and not subject to federal conflict of interest rules. The final regulations, more than 3 years in the making, are not related to the NIH consulting controversy. They go into effect on February 4, 2004.
NIH research to be open access
Paula Park
Genome Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20040802-01
Abstract: Zerhouni stopped short of setting deadlines for depositing full-text materials in the searchable PubMed database, as recommended in a House Appropriations Committee report released earlier this month. Instead, he asked the publishing executives to inform him how best to manage material so that the public can freely use it."The public needs to have access to what they've paid for," Zerhouni told commercial and nonprofit publishing executives at a meeting he called on the NIH campus. Congress, he said, also demanded evidence of the agency's productivity. "I need to manage the portfolio," he said. "The status quo just can't stand."The executive conference was the first of several planned meetings that will lead to the creation of an approach public access, which NIH will publish in the Federal Register for comment before it becomes official policy, Zerhouni said. He would not say when the policy-making would begin, but the Appropriations Committee report requested that NIH produce some language by December 1.That report recommended that papers resulting from NIH-funded research be deposited in PubMed 6 months after their publication in a journal. Papers for which NIH pays publishing costs would be deposited immediately upon publication. Last year, a member of Congress introduced a bill that would have banned copyright on all publications based on federally funded research; that bill has been in committee since last fall.Several meeting participants expressed exasperation with the House report, which they termed a "government mandate." Paul W. Kincade, president of the Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology, told us that he resented the "coercion." Others grumbled that the government couldn't tell publishers what to do."They were a little startled by the language," Pat Schroeder, president and executive director of the Association of American Publishers, explained diplomatically in the meeting. She likened the report's recommendations to the "federal g
Lectotypification of seven names in Amaranthus
Bayón,Néstor D.; Freire,Susana E.;
Bolet?-n de la Sociedad Argentina de Bot??nica , 2011,
Abstract: typification is provided for seven names of american and african species of amaranthus as a nomenclatural contribution to a forthcoming taxonomic revision of this genus.
Place Names and Identities  [cached]
Botolv Helleland
Oslo Studies in Language , 2012,
Abstract: This paper discusses various approaches to the topic "place names and identities", addressing the meaning of place names, their role as links to the past as well as their identity-building capacity. The author argues that there is an intimate relationship between place and place name, and he discusses how place names may reflect or give rise to feelings of individual and collective identity attached to the places in question. Three particular personal experiences of the identity role of place names are given, two at the beginning of the paper and one in the conclusion.
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